Water Management Plan

United States Environmental Protection Agency
Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division
Center Hill Research Laboratory
5995 Center Hill Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio 45224

16 February 2009

Point of Contact:

John Kappa

Director, Facilities Management and Services Division



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1.0 EPA's Statement of Principles on Efficient Water Use	1

2.0 Facility Description	1

3.0 Facility Water Management Goals	1

4.0 Utility Information	3

5.0 Facility Information	3

6.0 Best Management Practice Summary and Status	4

7.0 Drought Contingency Plan	7

8.0 Comprehensive Planning	8

9.0 Opportunities for Further Water Conservation	9





1 Major Water Using Processes, Center Hill Facility	4


1.0 EPA's Statement of Principles on Efficient Water Use

In order to meet the needs of existing and future populations and ensure that habitats and
ecosystems are protected, the nation's water must be sustainable and renewable. Sound water
resource management, which emphasizes careful, efficient use of water, is essential to achieve
these objectives.

Efficient water use can have major environmental, public health, and economic benefits by
helping to improve water quality, maintain aquatic ecosystems, and protect drinking water
resources. As we face increasing risks to ecosystems and their biological integrity, the
inextricable link between water quality and water quantity becomes more important. Water
efficiency is one way of addressing water quality and quantity goals. The efficient use of water
can also prevent pollution by reducing wastewater flows, recycling process water, reclaiming
wastewater, and using less energy.

EPA recognizes that regional, state, and local differences exist regarding water quality, quantity,
and use. Differences in climate, geography, and local requirements influence the water efficiency
programs applicable to specific facilities. Therefore, EPA is establishing facility specific Water
Management Plans to promote the efficient use of water and meet the water conservation
requirements under Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and
Transportation Management.

This Water Management Plan has been established to document and promote the efficient use of
water at the Center Hill Research Laboratory located in Cincinnati, Ohio. The plan is organized
according to the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Facility Water Management
Planning Guidelines under Executive Order 13423.

2.0 Facility Description

The Center Hill Research Laboratory was originally constructed in the late 1960s. EPA initiated
operations at the laboratory in the mid 1970s, building up the level of activity at the laboratory
throughout the 1980s. Laboratory scientists conduct research related to treatment,
immobilization, and containment of contaminants in soil and sediment, and related
environmental exposures. The main laboratory building includes a research wing comprised of a
high bay area with a row of laboratory spaces adjacent to the high bay, and an office wing with a
reception area, staff offices, rest rooms and employee break room. A separate trailer building
constructed in the mid 1990s is located behind the main laboratory, housing contractor staff
offices. EPA owns the research buildings with a total estimated area of 23,659 gross square feet.
The buildings are located on 18.5 acres of land leased from the University of Cincinnati. The
current 20 year land lease runs through 2019. The University of Cincinnati operates additional
research facilities on the adjacent property.

3.0 Facility Water Management Goals

The water management goals of the Center Hill Laboratory are achieved through the
implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS). The EMS has been
established and is being implemented consistent with EPA's Office of Administration and
Resources Management environmental management policy for EPA-Cincinnati. The


environmental policy statement and EMS aspects and targets related to water management are
included in the following sections.

Environmental Policy Statement

The Mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and
environment. The Agency accomplishes this mission by developing and enforcing regulations,
implementing environmental laws enacted by Congress, providing assistance to others charged
with reducing and preventing pollution, and by conducting environmental research.

In support of this mission, EPA Cincinnati is committed to Environmental Stewardship. To
accomplish this we must properly manage the environmental impacts of our own operations and

EPA Cincinnati is one of the Agency's largest research operations. Accordingly, we recognize
our obligation and opportunity to provide leadership in protecting the environment, addressing
emerging environmental issues, advancing science and technology of risk assessment and risk
management, and promoting environmental education.

EPA Cincinnati is committed to reducing the environmental impacts of our operations and
limiting our natural resource consumption. Our Environmental Management System (EMS) will
address the following goals:

•	Maintain a collaborative EMS that covers the EPA organizations in Cincinnati;

•	Ensure compliance by meeting or exceeding all relevant environmental requirements to
which we subscribe;

•	Seek to continually reduce the environmental footprint of EPA Cincinnati;

•	Consider environmental impacts in planning, constructing and operating facilities;

•	Incorporate source reduction and pollution prevention into research activities;

•	Establish, track and review environmental performance goals; and

•	Share information about our EMS with interested parties.

EMS Water Management Objectives and Targets

In view of this environmental policy, EPA-Cincinnati has identified water consumption as a
significant environmental aspect and has established the reduction of potable water consumption
as an objective under the EMS. As a specific target, EPA-Cincinnati will reduce potable water
consumption by an average of 2% per year over eight years (Fiscal Years 2008 to 2015) for a
total of 16%, using Fiscal Year 2007 as a baseline.


4.0 Utility Information

Contact Information

Potable water is provided by:

City of Cincinnati
Greater Cincinnati Water Works
4747 Spring Grove Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio 45232

Phone: 513-591-7700

Sewage service is provided by:

Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati
1600 Gest Street
Cincinnati, OH 45204

Phone: 513-352-4900

Rate Schedule

Water and sewer charges are based on a prorated portion of the total metered water flow to the
facilities located along the main drive way to the University of Cincinnati property where the
EPA laboratory is located. The drive way supports both the EPA laboratory and facilities owned
and operated by the University of Cincinnati.

EPA is billed by the University of Cincinnati for its portion of the combined water and sewer
charges, determined by a meter installed on the supply line where it enters the EPA building.
EPA is charged $5.67 per hundred cubic feet (CCF) of water ($7.58 per 1,000 gallons), as of
September 2007.

Payment Office

Chris Hutcherson

USEPA - Facilities

26 West Martin Luther King Drive

Mail Code 265

Cincinnati, OH 45268

Phone: 513-569-7262

5.0 Facility Information

The primary feature of the Center Hill Research Laboratory is the high bay area and associated
laboratory spaces. Water is used for sanitary needs, glassware washing, steam distillation, steam
autoclave, general laboratory use, and non-contact cooling of analytical instrumentation.


Major Water Using Processes

Estimates of water consumption by major use area are provided in Table 1. These data reflect
average water use during FY 2007.

Table 1. Major Water Using Processes, Center Hill Facility

Major Process


IV i veil (
III' l olill

Com im-iils




Engineering estimate

Deionized water



Metered total

Steam sterilizer tempering



Engineering estimate

Single pass cooling water
(XRD cooler)



Engineering estimate

Other lab activities
(primarily single pass
cooling on Mossbauer
analytical unit helium



Calculated by difference




Metered Total

Additional detail on assumptions and calculations supporting these water use estimates are
provided in Appendix A.

Measurement Devices

City water supplied to the Center Hill facility is metered by EPA and recorded monthly.

Flow totalizing meters are installed on the two deionized water supply systems supplying
laboratory needs. Data from these meters are recorded weekly.

Shut-off Valves

City water supply line shutoffs are located in the high bay area.

Occupancy and Operating Schedules

Approximately 35 employees work at the Center Hill facility. The facility operates on a flex time
schedule and is typically occupied between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., Monday through Friday.

6.0 Best Management Practice Summary and Status

The President has established Water Reduction Goals under Executive Order 13423,
Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. Under the
Executive Order, Agencies must establish a FY 2007 water use baseline, and then reduce water
use intensity by 2 percent annually through the end of FY 2015, for a total reduction of 16


percent. Facilities should implement Best Management Practices (BMPs) related to water use,
considering life-cycle cost effectiveness, to achieve these water reduction goals. The Federal
Energy Management Program (FEMP) has identified BMPs in 14 possible areas to help facilities
identify and target water use reductions. The Center Hill facility has adopted BMPs in six of the
areas, as checked below:


Water Management Planning


Information and Education Programs


Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection and Repair


Water Efficient Landscaping


Water Efficient Irrigation


Toilets and Urinals


Faucets and Showerheads


Boiler/Steam Systems


Single-Pass Cooling Equipment


Cooling Tower Management


Commercial Kitchen Equipment


Laboratory/Medical Equipment


Other Water Use


Alternate Water Sources

Additional information related to each BMP area is provided in the following sections.

Water Management Planning

This plan addresses the recommended elements of a water management plan and satisfies best
management practice related to water management planning.

Information and Education Programs

The Center Hill facility promotes water conservation and awareness through the implementation
of the EMS for EPA-Cincinnati. Best management practice status has been achieved in this area.

Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection and Repair

A screening level system audit was conducted in December 2007. Known water uses accounted
for over 90 percent of metered facility water consumption.

Facility staff are trained to report leaks and malfunctioning water using equipment to a facility
maintenance trouble desk. Reported problems are assigned a work order, which is completed by
the facility operation and maintenance (O&M) contractor.

Under this plan, trends in monthly water use will be monitored by the facilities manager and
changes that are not understood or expected will be investigated and resolved.

Best management practices have been implemented in this area.


Water Efficient Landscape

The laboratory is located on an 18.5 acre site with tree cover in undeveloped portions and grass
and small shrubs surrounding the buildings and parking areas. The landscape is satisfied with
natural precipitation. No irrigation is applied; turf areas are allowed to brown out during dry
periods and are naturally restored when precipitation occurs. Best management practice status is
achieved in this area.

Water Efficient Irrigation

Not applicable, no irrigation water is utilized.

Toilets and Urinals

Toilets and urinals have all been replaced or installed within the past ten years. One urinal in the
primary men's restroom was converted to a non-water urinal in 2007. The six toilets and one
other urinal meet water efficiency standards of 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) and 1.0 gpf,

Janitorial staff and employees are trained to report leaks or other maintenance problems, which
are immediately corrected by the O&M contractor. Best management practice status is achieved
in this area.

Faucets and Showerheads

Faucets and showerheads have all been replaced or installed within the past ten years. The
primary men's restroom was renovated in 2007 and equipped with two 0.5 gpm lavatory faucets
and one 1.6 gpm showerhead. The three other lavatory sinks at the Center Hill laboratory are
equipped with 2.2 gpm faucets. The one other showerhead is rated at 2.5 gpm.

System pressure is maintained between 20 to 80 pounds per square inch, within the range
recommended for optimum system performance. Janitorial staff and employees are trained to
report leaks or other maintenance problems, which are immediately corrected by the O&M

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers has established a standard for lavatory faucets in
public use (essentially all applications but domestic residences) with a maximum flow rate of 0.5
gpm (ASME A112.18.1). This flow rate is sufficient for hand washing and is considered a best
practice for lavatory sinks in public settings. No BMP credit is claimed in this area, pending
replacement or retrofit of 2.2 gpm faucets with faucets or faucet flow controllers that have a
maximum flow of 0.5 gpm.

Boiler/Steam Systems

Heat is supplied by gas fired duct furnaces, no steam is utilized. A small steam generator
supplies a dishwasher, sterilizer, and steam distillation unit. Condensate from these units is not
recovered. No BMP credit is claimed in this area.


Single Pass Equipment Cooling

Single pass water is used to cool a chiller that services an x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument, to
cool a helium compressor on the Mossbauer analytical instrument, and to cool an atomic
adsorption spectrophotometer. Considering the ongoing use of single pass cooling water, no
BMP credit is claimed in this area.

Cooling Tower Management

The Center Hill facility is not equipped with a cooling tower. This criteria is not currently
applicable; therefore, no BMP credit is claimed.

Commercial Kitchen Equipment

The Center Hill facility is not equipped with a commercial kitchen. This criteria is not currently
applicable; therefore, no BMP credit is claimed.

Laboratory/Medical Equipment

Center Hill operates two steam sterilizers: one AMSCO 3021 and one manufactured by
Consolidated Stills and Sterilizers. Approximately 0.3 gpm of tempering water flows to the drain
connection of the AMSCO unit at all times, even when the sterilizer is not operating. BMP status
has not been achieved in this area, pending modification of the AMSCO unit, or instituting
operational controls to significantly reduce the cooling water flow.

Other Water Use

No other significant uses of water have been identified. BMP status is not claimed in this area.
Alternate Water Sources

No alternate water sources have been identified. BMP status is not claimed in this area.
7.0 Drought Contingency Plan

The City of Cincinnati does not have a water management plan specifically for droughts.
However, as conditions warrant, the Center Hill facility is prepared to follow the water use
recommendations and restrictions outlined under the State of Ohio Drought Response Plan. Key
recommendations of this plan are summarized below. Ohio has defined four levels of drought
response: normal phase, alert phase, conservation phase, and emergency phase.

Normal Phase

In this phase, water supplies are adequate and climatological conditions are normal.
Recommended action is to develop water conservation measures and a water recycling program.
Appropriate conservation and recycling measures at the Center Hill facility are being addressed
under this plan.


Alert Phase

Climatological data indicates above normal temperatures and below normal precipitation for an
extended period. Streamflow, reservoir levels, and/or groundwater levels are below normal over
an extended period of time. Recommended action is to activate conservation measures and
reduce water for nonessential uses, such as fountains, landscape watering, and washing of motor

Conservation Phase

Climatological conditions worsen and water levels continue to decline. Water conservation
measures are increased and all nonessential uses are eliminated.

The Center Hill facility strives to operate at a level consistent with the conservation phase as part
of its routine operating practice. Water is not used for nonessential purposes such as landscape
irrigation, decorative fountains, and motor vehicle washing.

Emergency Phase

Climatological conditions continue to worsen and water levels continue to diminish.
Conservation measures have to be more stringent to ensure adequate water supply for health and
sanitary purposes. Recommended action is to reduce operational levels so that a water use
reduction goal of 30 percent can be achieved.

If a conservation phase drought is declared in the greater Cincinnati water management district,
the Director of the Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division will consult with the
Director of the Facilities Management and Services Division and together they will identify
modifications to facility operations that could be implemented to achieve emergency phase
reductions. Operational changes will be implemented as necessary to meet declared emergency
phase water use restrictions.

Additional information on the Ohio Drought Response Plan can be found at:


8.0 Comprehensive Planning

The Directors of the Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division and the Facilities
Management and Services Division will ensure that water supply, wastewater generation, and
water efficiency BMPs are taken into account during the initial stages of planning and design for
any facility renovations or new construction. These factors will also be considered prior to the
purchase and installation of any equipment that would measurably change facility water


9.0 Opportunities for Further Water Conservation

The Center Hill facility is pursuing the following projects to achieve additional reductions in

water use:

1.	Eliminate use of single pass cooling water. Single pass cooling water for the XRD and
Mossbauer analytical instruments constitute a significant quantity of Center Hill's water
use. Center Hill will evaluate the option of eliminating this cooling water by using point
of use, air cooled chillers. Alternatively, a small package chiller might be able to supply
cooling water to both analytical instruments. Potential water and associated cost savings
are 450,000 gallons and $3,400 per year.

2.	Install Tempering Water Control Valve on the AMSCO steam sterilizer. A

tempering water control valve could be installed on the steam sterilizer, to restrict
tempering water flow to only those periods when condensate above 140 °F is being
discharged. At an installed cost of approximately $2,500, the unit is estimated to save
approximately 140,000 gallons per year, for annual savings of $1,000 at current water
rates. Simple payback would occur in less than three years. As an alternative, operational
controls could be implemented to have the operator manually turn off the water supply to
the sterilizer when it is not in use. Savings are anticipated to be similar, although the
saving may decrease over time unless the operational control is implemented consistently
on a long term basis.

3.	Retrofit remaining lavatory faucets with 0.5 gpm flow controllers. High efficiency
faucet flow controllers can be retrofit on existing 2.2 gpm faucets for approximately $10
each, for a total cost of less than $50. Projected savings are estimated to be 7,000 gallons
and $50 per year, offering a 1 year simple payback.


Appendix A


Center Hill Facility, Cincinnati, Ohio

Major Process


Supporting Calculations



Engineering estimate. Based on 15 gallons per person per day.
Assume 35 people and 250 operating days. (35 people x 15
gal/person-day x 250 days/year) = 131,250 gallons

Deionized water


Based on measured total flow on Kirby unit of 505 gallons, 2
October 2006 to 1 October 2007, plus measured flow on Main unit
of 25,890 gallons from 2 October 2006 to 1 October 2007. Total of
26,395 gallons

Steam sterilizer tempering


Estimated to flow continuously at 0.3 gpm. 0.3 gallons/minute x 60
minutes/hr x 24 hr/day x 365 days/yr = 157,680 gallons

Single pass cooling water
(XRD cooler)


Instantaneous flow measured at 4 liters/min, assume runs 6 months
per year. 4 liters/min x l gallon/3.785 liters x 60 min/hr x 24 hr/day
x 180 days/yr =273,923

Other lab activities
(primarily single pass
cooling on Mossbauer
analytical unit helium


Calculated by difference: 812,980 - 130,000 - 26,395 - 160,000 -
270,000 = 226,585



Metered Total


EPA Center Hill FY 2007 Water Use





J 80,000




40,000 — —	r~i — — —

20,000 	 		|—|	|—|	j=j	_ 	 	 	 	

0 -I — — —	—	— —	—	— — — — —

Oct- Nov- Dec-	Jan-	Feb-	Mar-	Apr-	May- Jun- Jul-07 Aug- Sep-

06 06 06	07	07 07	07	07 07	07 07

EPA Center Hill Water Use - FY 2007


Meter Reading
(Cubic Feet)

Cubic Feet Used

Gallons Used