Standard Operating Procedures for
Residential Pesticide Exposure Assessment

February 2012

Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, DC


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Preamble

The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) expanded EPA risk assessment requirements
under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food,
Drugs, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) by emphasizing protection of infants and children including
combining exposures from all potential pathways. Its directive for pesticide assessments to
provide "reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide
chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which
there is reliable information" resulted in the Agency routinely conducting both aggregate and
cumulative risk assessments. Aggregate risk assessments include all exposure pathways (i.e.,
food, drinking water, and residential non-dietary) and routes (i.e., oral, dermal, inhalation) to a
single chemical. Cumulative risk assessments include all exposure pathways (i.e., food, drinking
water, and residential) and routes (i.e., oral, dermal, inhalation) to multiple chemicals with a
common mechanism of toxicity. In response, the Agency developed a series of science policies1
which included the initial version of its Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential
Exposure Assessments (i.e., "SOPs" or "Residential SOPs") which addressed non-dietary
exposure pathways.

The SOPs were generally based on the Agency's Exposure Assessment Guidelines. The
document outlined a wide array of exposure scenarios that were intended to address all major
possible means by which individuals in the general public could be exposed to pesticides in a
residential environment (e.g., home, schools, parks, athletic fields or other publicly accessible
locations). Some notable scenarios include children playing on treated lawns or homeowners
spraying their gardens. Specifically tailored for each scenario, methods for estimating dermal,
inhalation, and non-dietary oral exposure were presented including descriptions and sources for
factors included in exposure algorithms. Due to some novel aspects and the overall
groundbreaking nature of the SOPs, they were first presented to the FIFRA Scientific Advisory
Panel (SAP) in 1997 with a follow-up review of some modifications in 1999.3

Since 1997, the SOPs have been used to assess exposure in residential settings for pesticide
regulatory decisions within the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) as required under FQPA.

This document represents the Agency's revised set of Residential SOPs and was presented to the
FIFRA SAP in 20094. In most cases, the exposure scenarios and basic algorithms remain the
same with changes made only to the algorithm inputs using more recent data sources. However,
some new scenarios have been added to this set of SOPs reflecting new products and uses and
some existing scenarios have modified exposure algorithms. In addition, appendices for each
SOP section provide extensive details on the underlying data that are recommended for the
algorithm inputs. This information can provide the basis for future probabilistic exposure
assessments.

1	http://www.epa.gov/oppfeadl/trac/science/

2	http://cfbub.epa. gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplav.cfm?deid= 15263

3	http://www.epa.gov/scipolY/sap/meetings/1997/090997 mtg.htm#materials and
http://www.epa.gov/scipolv/sap/meetings/1999/092199 mtg.htm

4	http://www.epa.gov/scipolv/sap/meetings/2009/10Q609meeting.html

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The concept of using a "scenario-based" approach to complete exposure assessments is
longstanding and outlined in many Agency guidance documents and is consistent with federal
government risk assessment guidance (NRC, 2009). In this document, the Agency developed
scenarios which can be used to calculate all manner of possible pesticide exposures that can
occur in the general population. Quantifying human behaviors is critical for development of
pertinent exposure assessment methods and can be complex. For example, three separate
methods and sets of factors for children playing football, baseball, and soccer on fields treated
with pesticides could be used as the basis for an assessment. Instead, one broad category for
children playing on lawns is considered applicable to all potential exposure scenarios on treated
grass because the exposure metric on which it is based monitored individuals involved in a
routine that comprehensively reflected typical outdoor behaviors based on reported time-activity
data. This approach was broadly applied in the development of previous versions of the
Residential SOPs and throughout the development of this document because it reduces needed
resources and reasonably reflects typical behavior patterns. Given this premise, exposure
assessors should not view this document as a prescriptive checklist, but as a guide to performing
residential exposure assessments in conjunction with other relevant information pertinent to the
pesticide under examination.

The Residential SOPs are based on a number of intentional exposure human studies, which are
subject to ethics review pursuant to 40 CFR 26. Each of those studies has been reviewed for
ethics and is compliant with applicable ethics requirements. Additionally, as this document is
used to assess, and potentially support, proposed pesticide registrations, and much of the data
underlying the exposure factors is subject to the data protection provisions of FIFRA and the
Agency's implementing regulations, compensation may be required for reliance on certain
datasets.

To facilitate version control and tracking, the following documents the progression of the
Residential SOPs, including a detailed accounting of edits/revisions/corrections.

Dale

Docunu'iilsilion of Revisions (;is of l-'chrusirv 23. 2012)

Dec 1997

Original version

Feb 2001

• Supplemental document (ExpoSAC Policy 12), establishing revisions to:
o Transfer coefficients
o Transfer efficiency
o Area treated

o Revised breathing rates for inhalation exposure assessment

Jan 2012

• Comprehensive overhaul of 1997 and 2001 supplemental versions

Feb 2012

•	Rounded body weights to 2 significant figures (e.g., 80 kg, 69 kg, etc.)
throughout entire document

•	Added language regarding data requirement for surface residue (Sections 4.2.2,
8.2.2)

•	Corrected page numbering in Section 7 and Appendix C

•	Corrected illegible formulas throughout

•	Page 8-13, corrected "E" in equation 8.7 to "DE"

2 2

•	Page 7-24, corrected Box 3a from 10 |ig/cm to 15 |ig/cm

•	Table 9-1: thickness of PVC tiling changed to 0.3 cm, and correspondingly

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Dale

Dociimcnlnlion of Revisions (;is of l-'chriisirv 23. 2012)



corrected weight-to-surface area from 40 to 390 mg/cm2.

•	Table 9-2: corrected 40 mg/cm2 to 390 mg/cm2 based on edit to PVC tiling
thickness.

•	Table 10-2: corrected airless sprayer amount handled to "3 five gallon cans"

•	Table 10-3: corrected paint can amount handled to "3 five gallon cans" for
airless sprayer

•	Equation 10.2: corrected units mg/kg-day to mg/day

•	Added new equation 6.2 describing calculation of application rate (lb ai/day)

rd

•	Table 6-2: removed gray fill from 3 row

•	Added "Documentation of Revisions" to preamble

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Table of Contents

Section 1 Introduction	1-1

1.1	General Principles of Exposure Assessment	1-2

1.2	Guidance on Residential Pesticide Usage	1-3

1.3	Residential Exposure Assessment Guidance	1-5

1.3.1	Potentially Exposed and Index Lifestages	1-6

1.3.2	Durations of Exposure	1-7

1.3.3	Handler Exposure	1-9

1.3.4	Post-application Exposure	1-11

1.3.5	Combining Exposure Scenarios	1-12

1.3.6	Exposure Uncertainty and Characterization	1-13

1.3.7	Ethical Considerations of Human Exposure Data	1-14

1.3.8	Deterministic Exposure Assessment Methodology	1-14

Section 2 Universal Exposure Factors	2-1

2.1	Body Weight	2-1

2.2	Inhalation Rates	2-2

2.3	Body Surface Area	2-2

2.4	Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed (FM)	2-4

2.5	Surface Area of Object Mouthed (SAM0)	2-5

2.6	Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)	2-5

2.7	Life Expectancy Averaging Time	2-5

Section 3 Lawns/Turf	3-1

3.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	3-2

3.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	3-7

3.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	3-7

3.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Physical Activities on Turf	3-7

3.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-Mouth	3-14

3.2.4	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-to-Mouth.... 3-18

3.2.5	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Incidental Soil

Ingestion	3-22

3.2.6	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Episodic Granular

Ingestion	3-24

3.2.7	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Mowing	3-26

3.2.8	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Golfing	3-30

3.2.9	Combining Post-application Scenarios	3-35

Section 4 Gardens and Trees	4-1

4.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	4-2

4.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	4-7

4.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	4-8

4.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment	4-8

4.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment	4-18

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4.2.4 Combining Post-application Scenarios	4-18

Section 5 Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems	5-1

5.1	Outdoor Aerosol Space Sprays (OASS)	5-1

5.1.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	5-1

5.1.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	5-5

5.1.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	5-5

5.1.2.2	Post-application Dermal and Non-dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment	5-11

5.1.2.3	Combining Post-application Scenarios	5-13

5.2	Candles, Coils, Torches & Mats (CCTM)	5-14

5.2.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	5-14

5.2.2	Post-Application Exposure Assessment	5-14

5.2.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	5-15

5.2.2.2	Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment	5-20

5.2.2.3	Combining Post-application Scenarios	5-21

5.3	Outdoor Residential Misting Systems (ORMS)	5-21

5.3.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	5-21

5.3.2	Post-Application Exposure Assessment	5-25

5.3.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	5-25

5.3.2.2	Post-application Dermal and Non-dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment	5-33

5.3.2.3	Combining Post-application Scenarios	5-36

5.4	Animal Barn Misting Systems	5-36

5.4.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	5-37

5.4.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	5-40

5.4.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	5-41

5.4.2.2	Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment	5-46

5.4.2.3	Combining Post-application Scenarios	5-49

Section 6 Insect Repellents	6-1

6.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	6-1

6.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	6-4

6.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	6-5

6.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment	6-5

6.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-Mouth	6-10

6.2.4	Combining Post-application Scenarios	6-14

Section 7 Indoor Environments	7-1

7.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	7-3

7.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	7-7

7.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	7-8

7.2.1.1	Indoor Foggers	7-9

7.2.1.2	Indoor Spray Applications	7-10

7.2.1.3	Termiticide Applications (Foundation and Soil Injection)	7-15

7.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment	7-22

7.2.2.1	Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm (hard surfaces and carpets)	7-22

7.2.2.2	Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm (mattresses)	7-35

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7.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-Mouth	7-39

7.2.4	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-to-Mouth... 7-43

7.2.5	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Dust Ingestion	7-48

7.2.6	Combining Post-application Scenarios	7-49

Section 8 Treated Pets	8-1

8.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	8-2

8.2	Post-application Exposure Assessment	8-5

8.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	8-5

8.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment	8-5

8.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-Mouth	8-12

8.2.4	Combining Post-application Scenarios	8-16

Section 9 Impregnated Materials	9-1

9.1	Handler Exposure Assessment	9-2

9.2	Post-Application Exposure Assessment	9-2

9.2.1	Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	9-2

9.2.2	Post-Application Surface Residue Concentration	9-2

9.2.3	Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment	9-4

9.2.4	Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-to-Mouth

(Textiles Only)	9-9

9.2.5	Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure: Hand-to-Mouth (Carpets,

Flooring, and Hard Surfaces Only)	9-12

9.2.6	Combining Post-application Scenarios	9-16

Section 10 Treated Paints & Preservatives	10-1

10.1	Residential Handler Exposure Assessment	10-1

10.2	Post-Application Exposure Assessment	10-5

10.2.1	Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment	10-6

10.2.2	Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-Mouth.... 10-8

10.2.3	Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Assessment	10-12

Section 11 References	11-1

Appendix A Health Effects Division Residential Standard Operating Procedures
"Index Lifestage" White Paper	A-l

Appendix B Supporting Data Analysis and Documentation for Universal

Exposure Factors for Residential Exposure Assessment	B-l

B. 1 Generic Estimates of Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed	B-l

B.2 Generic Estimates of Object Surface Area Mouthed	B-8

B.3 Generic Estimates of Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva	B-9

Appendix C Supporting Data Analysis and Documentation for Residential

Handler Exposure Assessment	C-l

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C. 1 Summary of Exposure Data Used to Generate Residential Unit Exposures	C-l

C.2	Exposure Factors Used to Calculate Amount of Active Ingredient Handled	C-l 51

C.2.1 Gardens and Trees	C-151

C.2.1.1 Garden Size	C-151

C.2.1.2	Hose-end Sprayer Application Volumes	C-152

Appendix D Supporting Data Analysis and Documentation for Residential Post-

Application Exposure Assessment	D-l

D.l	Indoor Fogger Settling Time	D-l

D.2 Background on Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model (MCCEM)	D-2

D.3 Background on Well-Mixed Box Model	D-6

D.3.1	Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems - Aerosol Spray Area Foggers	D-6

D.3.2	Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems - Candles, Coils, Torches, and Mats (CCTM)	D-9

D.3.3	Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems - Outdoor Residential Misting Systems (ORMS)D-12

D.3.4	Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems - Animal Barn Misting Systems	D-l7

D.3.5	Indoor Environments - Instantaneous Release/Aerosol Applications	D-23

D.3.6	Indoor Environments - Vapor Emission for Surface Sprays	D-24

D.3.7	Vapor Emission for Surface-directed Sprays - Using the Saturation Concentration D-27

D.4 Selection of Air Velocity	D-30

D.5 Estimates of Deposited Residue (DepR)	D-31

D.5.1 Deposited Residue Based on Chemical-specific Data	D-31

D.5.2 Deposited Residue Based on Application Rate	D-32

D.5.3 Default residue values based on type of application	D-41

D.6 Generic Estimates of Transferable Residue	D-46

D.6.1 Turf	D-47

D.6.2 Gardens, Trees, and "Pick-your-own" Farms	D-52

D. 6.3 Indoor Surface s	D -5 8

D.6.4 Treated Pets	D-75

D.7 Generic Estimates of Residential Transfer Coefficients	D-88

D.7.1 Turf	D-88

D.7.2 Gardens, Trees, and "Pick-your-own" Farms	D-96

D.7.3 Indoor Areas	D-104

D.7.4 Treated Pets	D-109

D. 8 Estimates for Residential Activity Duration	D-115

D.8.1 Gardens, Trees, and "Pick-your-own" Farms	D-l 15

D.8.2 Treated Pets	D-121

D.9 Estimates of Hand-to-Mouth Events per Hour	D-122

D.9.1 Outdoors - Turf	D-122

D.9.2 Indoor	D-l 24

D.9.3 Pets	D-l 29

D. 10 Estimates of Object-to-Mouth Events per Hour	D-130

D.10.1 Outdoors - Turf	D-130

D.l0.2 Indoors	D-l31

D.l 1 Insect Repellent Application Rates	D-136

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Introduction

Section 1 Introduction

The Standard Operating Procedures for Residential Pesticide Exposure Assessment (hereafter
referred to as "the SOPs" or "Residential SOPs") provide methods for assessment of pesticide
exposures unrelated to employment or dietary intake of food or water. These types of exposures
include two major scenarios: residential handler and post-application exposures. The term
"handler" refers to an individual who mixes, loads, and/or applies a pesticide. The term "post-
application" refers to exposure as a result of contact with pesticide residues in previously treated
areas.

The exposure assessment methods in this document are scenario-based and reflect homeowners
who purchase pesticides and complete their own applications as well as post-application
exposures resulting from both homeowner and professional or commercial applications in areas
that can be frequented by the general population. Prior to outlining exposure assessment
methodologies for specific scenarios (Sections 3.0 - 10.0), this document provides general
information, including:

•	Section 1.1

•	Section 1.2

•	Section 1.3

•	Section 2.0

General Principles of Exposure Assessment;
Guidance on Residential Pesticide Usage;
Residential Exposure Assessment Guidance; and
Universal Exposure Factors.

Exposure assessment methodologies are then outlined for the following major residential
scenarios:

Secti
Secti
Secti
Secti
Secti
Secti
Secti

on 3.0
on 4.0
on 5.0
on 6.0
on 7.0
on 8.0
on 9.0

Lawns and Turf;

Gardens and Trees;

Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems;

Insect Repellents;

Indoor Environments;

Treated Pets;

Impregnated Materials; and

Section 10.0: Treated Paints and Preservatives.

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Introduction

1.1 General Principles of Exposure Assessment

Exposure assessment is the process by which: (1) potentially exposed populations are identified;
(2) potential pathways of exposure are identified; and (3) potential doses are quantified. As
indicated above, the populations considered in these SOPs are those individuals who are
potentially exposed to pesticides in non-occupational or residential settings (e.g., homes, parks,
schools, athletic fields or any other area frequented by the general public). Exposures to
pesticides may occur from applying pesticides or from being in areas previously treated with
pesticides and contacting residues through oral, inhalation, or dermal routes.

Planning, Scoping, and Problem Formulation

It is important to adequately prepare prior to the initiation of a risk assessment and to clearly
define the limitations of an assessment as recently described by the National Academy of
Science (NRC, 2009). In Science and Decisions, much more detailed information is available
that describes these processes in detail. For assessments completed using these SOPs planning
and scoping are important because it ensures that assessors clearly identify the information that
will be used as the basis for an assessment, what specific types of exposure patterns will be
considered, what durations of exposure will be considered, and what potentially impacted
populations will be evaluated. A problem formulation exercise is important for assessors using
these SOPs because it will clearly assist them in defining which methods will be used to evaluate
particular exposure patterns and how data, if available, should be incorporated into the process.
It will also help in the ultimate characterization of the resulting risk estimates because the
process will aid in developing a more thorough understanding of the issues that should be
considered with the interpretation of the data, methods, and results of a particular assessment.

Calculation of Exposure

Exposure is commonly defined as contact of visible external physical boundaries (i.e., mouth,
nostrils, and skin) with a chemical agent (U.S. EPA, 1992). As described in the Guidelines for
Exposure Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1992), exposure is dependent upon the intensity, frequency,
and duration of contact. The intensity of contact is typically expressed in terms of the
concentration of contaminant per unit mass or volume (i.e., jug/g, |ig/L, mg/m3, ppm, etc.) in the
medium to which humans are exposed (U.S. EPA, 1992). Exposure can be calculated as follows:

E = C * CR	(11)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

2	3

C	= contaminant concentration in the media (mg/cm ; mg/m , mg/g); and

CR = contact rate with that media (cm2/day; m /day; gm/day).

Calculation of Absorbed Dose

Dose refers to the amount of chemical to which individuals are exposed that crosses the external
boundary. Dose is dependent upon contaminant concentration and the rate of intake (i.e.,
inhalation or ingestion) or uptake (i.e., dermal absorption) and may be normalized to body

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Introduction

weight as a function of time (i.e., mg/kg-day). Daily dose is the amount of chemical that could
be ingested, inhaled, or deposited upon the skin per day (U.S. EPA, 1992) and can be calculated
as follows:

d_e*af

BW	(12)

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Exposure/Dose Amortization

An accurate estimate of exposure over the course of weeks, years or a lifetime is difficult to
predict as exposure likely differs from one day to the next due to product-specific application
regimens, residue dissipation, human behavior and activity patterns, and the extent to which an
individual's exposure varies due to behavior changes. Approaches for amortizing dose over
various exposure durations are explained in more detail in Section 1.3; however an example
would be amortization of an individual's daily dose over their lifetime necessary for calculating
exposures for cancer risk assessments. This amortized dose is known as the lifetime average
daily dose (LADD) and it can be calculated as follows:

r\ *T7p

LADD =	

AT*CF	(1.3)

where:

LADD	= lifetime average daily dose (mg/kg-day);

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

EF	= exposure frequency (i.e., frequency of product use) (days/year);

ET	= exposure time (years);

AT	= averaging time (i.e., life expectancy) (years); and

CF	= conversion factor (365 days/year).

1.2 Guidance on Residential Pesticide Usage

Prior to conducting a residential exposure assessment, all end-use product labels for the active
ingredient under consideration should be researched to capture the information discussed below
in order to define the overall scope of the assessment as well as specific exposure scenarios to
consider. Additional information such as sales information or pest control extension agents can
be considered as well.

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Introduction

Potential Use in Residential Settings

Assessors should assume that a product may be used at residential sites or used by homeowners
unless specific labeling statements indicate otherwise. Each SOP section provides examples of
such labeling language. Additionally, restricted-use product (RUP) classification indicates that
the product cannot be bought or applied by homeowners (i.e., no residential handler
exposure/risk assessment required), but it may be applied by commercial applicators to
residential sites; therefore, a post-application risk assessment may be required.

Formulation Type

The label will list the type of formulation as part of, or associated with, the brand name.
Formulation type is important in an exposure assessment because different formulations can lead
to higher or lower exposures for handlers as well as having different levels of surface residue
transfer in post-application exposure scenarios. Examples of common residential formulations
are as follows:

•	Liquid formulations (liquid formulations typically have a statement listing the number of
pounds active ingredient contained in a gallon of the liquid formulated product)

o Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
o Soluble concentrates (SC)
o Liquids (L)
o Microencapsulated (ME)

•	Solid Formulations

o Dusts
o Granules (G)

o Water dispersible granules/dry flowable (WDG/DF)
o Wettable Powder (WP)

•	Other

o Bait stations
o Water soluble bags (WSB)
o Aerosol cans
o Trigger-pump sprayers

Use directions such as mixing/loading instructions, application equipment and application rate
terminology may also indicate the formulation if it is not explicitly stated on the label. For
example, solid products are typically measured in dry volume (e.g., ounces) and liquid products
are typically measured in wet volume (e.g., pints, quarts, gallons, etc.).

Possible Methods of Application

Use directions often specify the methods of application for a product either by prohibiting
specific application techniques (e.g., "do not apply in any type of irrigation equipment" or "spot
treatment only") or by listing the application equipment to be used. Handler assessments should
be performed for all equipment types applicable to the product and its application sites unless a
specific piece of equipment is prohibited on the labeling or is obviously incompatible with the
formulation, use directions, or the intended setting where the pesticide is to be used.

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Introduction

Maximum Application Rates

Determine the maximum label-permitted application rate for each use site by comparing the
directions for each use listed on the label. This is important because exposure assessments must
consider the legal maximum application rates in order to account for those individuals who use
pesticides at the highest rates allowable under the law. Label-specified lower rates or pest-
specific rates should be noted as well if used in the assessment, and can provide valuable
information for risk managers to consider during the regulatory decision-making process. Often
there are multiple instructions with widely varying use rates because there are many uses
associated with one label (e.g., indoor/outdoor use, types of pests, application timing, etc.) -
these broad ranges of use should be addressed. Maximum rates also may vary by formulation, so
the maximum rate for each formulation must be determined.

Use Frequency

Determine the number of applications per year or season and the re-treatment interval, typically
estimated based on label directions for frequency of product application. Typical statements
include "apply at 7-day intervals while pests are present," "apply in early spring before first
mowing," or "apply a second spray in 3 to 5 days." Depending on the specific product, this can
inform the expected duration of exposure as well as yearly exposure frequency for estimating
lifetime exposure for cancer risk assessments. Often times, extension guidance or other
information related to pest lifecycles can inform this process.

1.3 Residential Exposure Assessment Guidance

Prior to conducting a residential pesticide exposure assessment, the following should be
considered:

(1)	various products containing the pesticide,

(2)	products' use patterns,

(3)	application methods and equipment,

(4)	expected exposed populations (e.g., adults for handler activities and adults and
children for post-application activities),

(5)	expected routes of exposure (e.g., dermal, inhalation, oral), and

(6)	expected durations of exposure for the pesticide being assessed.

This section builds on the general exposure assessment concepts and basic use information
presented in Section 1.1 and 1.2 above. The intent is to provide more specific guidance on the
issues that should be addressed in the development of a residential pesticide exposure
assessment. Section 1.3.1: Potentially Exposed and Index Lifestages describes the various
populations potentially exposed to pesticides in residential settings and how to select index
lifestages used in exposure assessment to encompass exposure and risks for all potentially
exposed populations. Section 1.3.2: Durations of Exposure addresses issues related to how
exposure patterns associated with the use of a pesticide, which can range from a single exposure
event through a lifetime, should be reconciled with its toxicological characteristics. Section
1.3.3: Handler Exposure and Section 1.3.4: Post-application Exposure describe special
considerations for homeowners that apply pesticides and for those exposed while engaging in

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Introduction

activities in areas previously treated with pesticides. Section 1.3.5: Combining Exposure
Scenarios discusses the issues associated with the development of exposure patterns which
account for combinations of behaviors which contribute to overall exposure to a pesticide.
Section 1.3.6: Exposure Uncertainty and Characterization introduces the concept of
uncertainty and how to interpret its effect on residential exposure estimates. Section 1.3.7:
Considerations for Use of Exposure Data describes issues surrounding Agency regulations
with respect to research with human subjects. Section 1.3.8: Deterministic Exposure
Assessment Methodology describes the Agency's approach of using point estimate inputs in
exposure algorithms as well as inclusion of distributional data analysis for use in more complex
probabilistic methods should they be warranted.

1.3.1 Potentially Exposed and Index Lifestages

In the beginning phase of an exposure and risk assessment, exposure assessors must first identify
the relevant lifestages for each exposure scenario (i.e., adults, children 1 < 2 years old, children 3
< 6 years old, etc.). A lifestage can be thought of as a distinct period during development of a
child, for example, where they have certain physical characteristics and also display discrete
behaviors and cognitive abilities. In most cases, individuals in multiple lifestages could be
potentially exposed within a particular exposure scenario. To simplify the exposure and risk
assessment process, an exposure assessor generally focuses the exposure assessment towards the
lifestage (or lifestages) of highest concern due to unique behavioral characteristics that may lead
to higher levels of exposure. This "index lifestage" approach utilizes quantitative assessments of
the index lifestage to protect for the exposures and risks for all potentially exposed lifestages.
This approach simplifies and streamlines the assessment process and allows risk managers to
focus on the area(s) of highest concern.

The Agency has analyzed the index lifestage issue using both quantitative (e.g., exposure
assessments) and qualitative (e.g., exposure and activity data) considerations. The analysis
focuses on four specific child lifestages as defined in the Agency's Guidance on Selecting Age
Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures for Environmental Contaminants5:
children 6 < 12 months old, children 1 < 2 years old, children 2 < 3 years old, and children 3 < 6
years old. While children younger than 6 months may potentially have exposure in the
residential setting, it is believed that exposure for children older than 6 months will be
equivalent, if not greater, due to behavioral and anatomical/physiological development;
therefore, the focus of the quantitative assessment was on children older than 6 months. This
analysis is presented in full in Appendix A.

Based on the combined quantitative and qualitative analysis of the index lifestage issue, the
Agency has determined that the children 1 < 2 years old lifestage represents the most appropriate
index lifestage for children for most of the individual SOPs. There are some exceptions to this
selection within this document. For example, in some of the individual SOPs, selecting some of
the younger lifestages (e.g., the 1 < 2 year old lifestage in animal barns) is inappropriate because
children in that age range are not expected to engage in the activities represented in the scenario.

5 http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/guidance-on-selecting-age-groups.htm

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Any exceptions with regards to the index lifestage will be clearly presented and explained in the
individual SOP.

In addition to the children 1 < 2 years old lifestage, the adult lifestage should also be consistently
assessed for all SOPs and exposure routes with the exception of non-dietary ingestion exposure.
Adults typically do not have the highest calculated body burden, but the adult lifestage does
represent a major proportion of the exposed population and some exposure patterns, like
pesticide applications, are uniquely associated with adult behaviors.

1.3.2 Durations of Exposure

Depending on the type of pesticide (i.e., insecticide, fungicide, etc.) and its use profile (i.e.,
application regimen) as well as behavioral/activity patterns and exposure pathways, the potential
exists for individuals to experience exposure over a variety of exposure durations. Exposure can
be on the order of one day, intermittently over multiple days, months, years or a lifetime, or
continually over multiple days, months, years or a lifetime. The following should be considered
in conjunction with the duration of exposure for a particular pesticide:

•	Use Pattern: The application frequency, pests of concern, and regional differences
impact use patterns. For example, more routine (i.e., repeated) treatments might occur in
consistently warmer, southern areas of the country where there is more constant pest
pressure over the course of a year.

•	Environmental Persistence: The extent to which pesticide residues persist in the
environment can determine the frequency and extent of exposure. For example, if a lawn
is treated and the pesticide dissipates rapidly there is less chance of a sustained exposure
for children playing on that lawn compared to a pesticide where residues slowly dissipate.

•	Biological Persistence: The route of exposure, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
of a pesticide should also be considered in conjunction with the available toxicological
database. For example, if exposure is frequent but the pesticide is rapidly excreted and
exposed individuals recover quickly from the toxicological effect continual exposure
durations may not be germaine to risk assessment. Conversely, if applications are
infrequent but the pesticide is slowly eliminated from the body then continual exposure
would likely need further or more detailed consideration.

•	Toxicity Endpoint Reconciliation: Toxicology studies are conducted using protocols
which are designed to mimic various exposure patterns that can range from a one-time
exposure event to a lifetime of expected exposures. It is important that the selection of a
toxic endpoint be closely matched with an expected pesticide exposure pattern to yield
more accurate estimates of risk. In cases where this is not possible, assessors should
acknowledge the issue and describe how this can impact the interpretation of calculated
risk estimates.

Due to standard pesticide use patterns and toxicity information typically available, exposure
durations are summarized as short-term (i.e., up to 30 days), intermediate-term (i.e., 1-6 months),
long-term (i.e., greater than 6 months), and lifetime (for assessing cancer risk). For the purposes
of residential pesticide exposure assessment, the following is a general description of each
category.

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Short-term Exposure (up to 30 days)

Exposure up to one month can range from continual pesticide exposure or a series of intermittent
exposures over the course of one month. Though most residential handlers are not expected to
re-treat the same sites repeatedly day after day, a short-term average exposure should be
estimated in a residential handler assessment. Post-application exposure can be reasonably
characterized as short-term as well. For example, it is not unreasonable to assume a child would
play on a treated home lawn for a number of consecutive days and thus could be continually
exposed to residues resulting from a previous pesticide treatment. Short-term post-application
exposures can be refined by accounting for residue dissipation and re-treatment intervals. For
instance, if a product can be applied to residential lawns twice a year at 14 day intervals, this
could be accounted for in the calculation of transferable residues for short-term post-application
assessments. If residential handler or post-application exposure fits this pattern, exposure over
this time period should be compared with toxicity studies of comparable duration to assess risk.

Intermediate-term Exposure (1-6 months)

Exposure over the course of 1-6 months can range from continual pesticide exposure or a series
of intermittent exposures over the course of 1-6 months. Intermediate-term residential handler
assessments are generally not required because individuals are not expected to re-treat the same
sites repeatedly day after day for this duration, nor are a large number of pesticide applications
resulting in intermittent exposures expected over this duration. Residential post-application
exposure could, however, be characterized as intermediate-term. Additionally, as in short-term
assessments, residue dissipation and re-treatment intervals should be considered in a refined
assessment. If residential handler or post-application exposure fits this pattern, exposure over
this time period should be compared with toxicity studies of comparable duration to assess risk.

Long-term Exposure (greater than 6 months)

Exposure for more than 6 months can range from continual pesticide exposure or a series of
intermittent exposures for more than 6 months. Long-term residential handler assessments are
not required because individuals are not expected to re-treat the same sites repeatedly day after
day for this duration, nor are a large number of pesticide applications resulting in intermittent
exposures expected over this duration. For a limited number of situations, however, post-
application exposure could be characterized as long-term (e.g., post-application indoor inhalation
following structural termiticide applications). Additionally, as in short- and intermediate-term
assessments, residue dissipation and re-treatment intervals should be considered in a refined
assessment. If residential handler or post-application exposure fits this pattern, an average
exposure estimate over this time period should be compared with toxicity studies of comparable
duration to assess risk.

Lifetime Exposure

Calculation of pesticide exposure over an individual's lifetime is applicable only when the active
ingredient under consideration is a carcinogen and is calculated by considering multiple days of
exposure over many years. Cancer risk depends on the extent to which a person might be
exposed (i.e., over a certain duration and to a certain quantity of the pesticide) over the course of
their lifetime. Lifetime exposure is calculated using the lifetime average daily dose equation

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Introduction

shown in Equation 1.3 of Section 1.1 and includes two factors that are generic (i.e., non-chemical
specific) to cancer assessments: (1) the averaging time or lifetime and (2) the exposure time.

Residential handler cancer assessments should include typical application rates, if available (if
not, available maximum rates should be used) and amounts handled. Additionally, absent
reliable information, an assumption must be made as to the yearly exposure frequency (i.e., the
number of times that an individual applies the pesticide per year. The exposure frequency will
typically differ depending on the type of pesticide (e.g., fungicide, herbicide, insecticide) and
could potentially differ across formulations.

In the past, cancer risk assessments have assumed that children are no more sensitive than adults
to carcinogens (i.e., no adjustment was made to children's exposure estimates in calculating a
cumulative lifetime exposure). More recently, the Agency's "Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk
Assessment" (U.S. EPA, 2005) and "Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from
Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens" (U.S. EPA, 2005) proposed age-dependent adjustment
factors to be applied to children's exposure. A lOx factor (exposure multiplier) is applied to
exposure incurred from birth to 2 years and a 3x factor is applied to exposure incurred from 2
years to 16 years. No factor is applied to children age 16 years and beyond. These age-
dependent factors are applied only to carcinogens shown to have a mutagenic mode of action. In
general, most carcinogenic pesticides have not been shown to act through a mutagenic mode of
action and thus this SOP document does not include further discussion of these adjustment
factors. Any pesticide found to be a carcinogen acting through a mutagenic mode of action will
be evaluated on a case by case basis and such an assessment should follow the Agency's 2005
guidance.

1.3.3 Handler Exposure

Handler exposure refers to an exposure scenario in which an adult is exposed during mixing,
loading, and applying a pesticide. Residential handler exposure assessments estimate dermal and
inhalation exposures for individuals using pesticides in and around their homes. Some key
assumptions for residential handler assessments include:

•	Residential handlers are assumed to be wearing shorts and short-sleeve shirts, shoes, and
socks. This assumption differs from occupational handler assessments which assume
handlers are wearing at least long pants, long-sleeved shirts, shoes, and socks.

•	Personal protective equipment (PPE) is not considered a mitigation option for residential
handlers because users are not trained and compliance would not be expected.

•	Pesticides are assumed to be applied only by adults. The assessment methods account for
children 16 years and older who may also perform applications, thus for the purposes of
this document 16 year olds may be grouped with adults.

•	All applicable application methods should be assessed unless prohibited by the product
label.

Handler exposure can be estimated in the absence of chemical-specific exposure monitoring data
with the following information:

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Introduction

•	Application site (e.g., lawns, gardens, kitchen baseboards, etc.);

•	Formulation type (e.g., liquid, granule, etc.);

•	Application equipment (e.g., aerosol can, sprinkler can, hose-end sprayer, etc.); and

•	Application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft, lb ai/gal).

Given the information described above - application equipment, formulation, etc. - dermal and
inhalation handler exposure can be predicted using a factor known as the unit exposure. Unit
exposure is the ratio, for a given formulation and application equipment, of an individual's
exposure to the amount of active ingredient handled (AaiH), expressed as mass active ingredient
exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg/lb ai). More specifically, this means that
an individual's exposure will increase by a given (and constant) amount for every "unit" increase
in the amount of active ingredient handled. It follows that the use of unit exposures assumes
proportionality between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled, such that if one
doubles the amount handled, the resulting exposure would be doubled as well.

Exposure monitoring data for individuals mixing, loading, and applying pesticides enables
derivation of unit exposure distributions for various pesticide formulations used in various
application scenarios (e.g., granule formulations applied using a rotary spreader or liquid
formulations applied via a handheld pump sprayer). These unit exposures can then be applied
generically for use in estimating dermal or inhalation exposure for any active ingredient by
estimating how much active ingredient an individual will handle using a particular piece of
application equipment.6 Appendix C references and summarizes all available handler exposure
studies from which unit exposures are derived for use in residential exposure assessment.

Each SOP section provides information for two inputs that are necessary for calculating
residential handler exposure: (1) unit exposures for each possible formulation/application
equipment combination and (2) factors for deriving the amount of active ingredient handled such
as area treated or volume used for each formulation/application equipment combination. Dermal
and/or inhalation handler exposure calculations follow the general form shown below.

E = UE * AR * A

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE = unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

AR = application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft2, lb ai/gal); and
A = area treated or amount handled (e.g., ft /day, gal/day).

Dermal and/or inhalation absorbed doses are calculated as:

E* AF

(1.4)

D = -

BW	(1.5)

6 This topic was discussed during a 2007 FIFRA SAP. See:
http://www.epa.gov/scipolv/sap/meetings/2007/010907 mtg.htm

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Introduction

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

As described in Section 1.3.2 residential handlers are expected to generally experience only
short-term exposures. Intermediate- and long-term exposures are not typically expected but
should be considered with respect to regional differences and product label use directions.
Additionally, selection of exposure factor inputs is dependent on various considerations related
to the exposure duration. For residential handler exposure assessment, these considerations
include product application regimens and the extent to which an individual's exposure varies
from day-to-day.

1.3.4 Post-application Exposure

Post-application exposure refers to an exposure scenario in which an individual is exposed
through dermal, inhalation, and/or incidental oral (non-dietary ingestion) routes as a result of
being in an environment that has been previously treated with a pesticide. Post-application
dermal exposure pathways can be evaluated using estimates for surface residue (e.g., carpets,
foliage, turf, etc.), surface-to-skin residue transfer for individuals contacting treated surfaces
during certain activities, and exposure time. The measure of surface-to-skin residue transfer for
a given treated area and activity is known as the transfer coefficient (TC). Transfer coefficients
are derived from concurrent measurements of exposure and surface residue, and is the ratio of
exposure rate, measured in mass of chemical per time (e.g., |ig/hr), to residue, measured in mass
of chemical per foliar surface area (e.g., |ig/cm ). In other words, transfer coefficients are
exposure rates (e.g., mg/hr) normalized to residue (e.g., mg/cm2), with resulting units of cm2/hr.
It follows that exposure rate for a given treated area and activity can then be predicted from a
given residue using the transfer coefficient. Additionally, transfer coefficients are typically
applied genetically - that is, for any given chemical, treated area-activity transfer coefficients
(e.g., apple harvesting, playing on lawns or carpets) can be used.

Post-application inhalation exposure depends on concentrations in the air after treatment and
inhalation rates. Post-application oral exposures are based on the ingestion of residues that can
result from transfer of residues from hand-to-mouth or object-to-mouth or via direct ingestion of
residues through soil ingestion, dust ingestion, or ingestion of pesticide granules or baits.

Post-application dermal and inhalation assessments are typically conducted for a number of
lifestages (ranging from children 1 < 2 years old through adulthood) while non-dietary oral post-
application exposure assessments are typically only conducted for younger lifestages. Non-
dietary oral exposure generally consists of two "incidental" exposure pathways - exposure
resulting from children contacting treated surfaces and putting their hands in their mouth (i.e.,
"hand-to-mouth" exposure) and exposure resulting from children putting objects or other toys in
their mouth that had been in contact with treated surfaces (i.e., "object-to-mouth" exposure).
Exposure via these pathways are dependent upon the surface loading of the pesticide, transfer of
the pesticide to children's hands or objects from the treated surface, and the number of times a

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Introduction

child places their hands or an object in their mouth. While the basic input variables remain
unchanged, the overall methodology/algorithm to assess this exposure has been revised since
previous versions of the Residential SOPs. Working collaboratively with the Agency's Office of
Research and Development (ORD), the Residential SOPs incorporate a modified version of the
algorithm utilized in the Stochastic Human Exposure Dose Simulation (SHEDS) - Multimedia
model. Previous SOP versions assumed complete removal of hand/object residue per mouthing
contact and complete residue replenishment of the hand/object per contact with the treated
surface. The revised algorithm follows a more realistic removal/replenishment mechanism
between hand/object mouthing events, establishing a maximum amount of residue which can be
on the hand, or a maximum dermal hand loading, based on the post-application dermal exposure
estimate.7

Like residential handler assessments, residential post-application assessments differ from
occupational post-application assessments in that they assume individuals are wearing typical
clothing such as shorts and short-sleeved shirts, shoes, and socks. Additionally, when managing
occupational post-application risks the Agency typically uses an administrative control known as
a Restricted Entry Interval (REI) which precludes worker activities in a treated area until
residues dissipate to certain levels. This is not feasible in residential settings because excluding
individuals from contact with their treated lawns or pets is not practical. Therefore, residential
post-application exposure assessments need to address the potential for exposure on the day of
application (i.e., "day 0") because there is not a viable means of mitigating that type of scenario.

If applicable, each SOP section provides separate algorithms for assessing dermal, inhalation,
and oral non-dietary post-application exposures. Because both residues and their transfer to the
body are likely dependent on both the chemical and scenario (e.g., indoors vs. outdoors; smooth
surfaces vs. textured surfaces; etc.), chemical- and scenario-specific data are most reliable when
performing post-application exposure assessments. However, in the absence of such data,
generic exposure factors outlined in the scenario-specific SOPs are provided and should be used
to estimate exposure.

As described in Section 1.3.2, individuals can experience post-application exposures for all
possible exposure durations and selection of exposure factor inputs is dependent on various
considerations related to the exposure duration. For post-application exposure assessment, these
considerations include product application regimens, residue dissipation, longitudinal activity
patterns, and the extent to which exposure is expected to vary from day-to-day.

1.3.5 Combining Exposure Scenarios

Each SOP provides methods for estimating daily exposures for a number of potential scenarios
with the focus on assessment of single routes of exposure (i.e., dermal, inhalation, and non-
dietary oral exposure). However, in reality, exposures to pesticides do not impact individuals
through only dermal or oral contact and do not occur as single, isolated events, but rather as a
series of sequential or concurrent events that may overlap or be linked in time and space. Based

7 The revised incidental oral exposure algorithm was first utilized in the Agency's N-Methvl Carbamate cumulative
risk assessment.

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Introduction

on this, risk estimates resulting from different exposure routes are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across
different routes of exposure are the same.

There are several methods of measuring and aggregating risk. Two aggregation methods used
include the Total MOE and the Aggregate Risk Index (ARI). Arithmetically, the two approaches
are the same when the uncertainty factors (UF) are the same for all routes of exposure. When the
UF's differ by route, however, the ARI is required. Further discussion of these two approaches
and the corresponding algorithms can be found in the Agency's General Principles for
Performing Aggregate Exposure and Risk Assessments8.

To the extent that information is available, it is important for the assessor to characterize the
potential for co-occurrence as well as to characterize the assessment inputs when combining
risks from multiple scenarios. For example, it is likely that a child could experience dermal and
hand-to-mouth exposures intermittently over a particular period of time while playing on
previously treated turf. If each of those exposure scenarios is assessed using health-protective
inputs, one must consider the likelihood when combining them that those individual health-
protective exposures could reasonably co-occur at those same levels. Each scenario-specific
SOP contains a more specific discussion and explanation of what routes of exposure should be
combined.

1.3.6 Exposure Uncertainty and Characterization

A number of different types of uncertainty are present in these SOPs. Uncertainty may occur as
a result of the techniques used to estimate environmental concentrations (i.e., analytical
uncertainty), the underlying models and relationships assumed for certain types of data (e.g.,
exponential decay for surface residues), and the application of surrogate information or data for
exposure scenarios and exposure factors lacking specific information. Expected but
unquantifiable variation in daily and longitudinal exposure also introduces uncertainty. Each
scenario-specific SOP includes an exposure characterization and data quality section which
describes the uncertainties associated with that particular scenario. While these uncertainties
exist they should be addressed in the exposure assessment process to ensure that resulting risk
assessments are developed in a manner that can be considered health protective for the particular
situations being evaluated (U.S. EPA, 2002). The following discussion outlines general or
universal uncertainties that should be considered in the interpretation of all the SOPs presented in
this document.

Surrogate Exposure Data

For many scenarios, specific information is lacking and available information for another
exposure scenario is considered appropriate to use. Examples include using exposure data for
individuals applying powder formulations to assess exposure for individuals applying liquid
products or using post-application occupational field worker exposure data for home gardening
activities. Though reasonable when exposure information is unavailable, the assessment should
characterize the uncertainty and identify the data gap.

8 http://www.epa.gov/oppQ0001/trac/science/aggregate.pdf

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Introduction

Exposure Data Analysis

The exposure data utilized across residential exposure assessments (e.g., handler exposure data,
post-application exposure data, etc.) are considered reasonable for the purposes of establishing
distributions and estimating exposure. The data are from actual applications using standardized
exposure sampling methodologies and laboratory analyses.

Additionally, the use of exposure data in certain ways requires assumptions with regard to
correlations or relationships between variables. For example, the underlying assumption of the
use of exposure data as unit exposures - proportionality between the amount of active ingredient
handled and exposure - is uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction
mechanism, it is considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment
in a regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method and
enables risk mitigation via formulation comparisons or decreased application rates. Where
assumptions such as this are implicit, the assessment should characterize the associated
uncertainty.

Longitudinal Exposure Variation

Information detailing the extent to which various residential pesticide exposure factors vary from
day-to-day or application-to-application is largely unavailable. Therefore, if day-to-day or
application-to-application variation is not assumed to occur for short-, intermediate-, long-term
or lifetime assessments, the likelihood of this pattern should be characterized.

1.3.7	Ethical Considerations of Human Exposure Data

As described in the preamble of this document, the Residential SOPs are based on a number of
monitoring studies that involved the intentional exposure of humans to pesticides (e.g., scripted
activities by human volunteers). These studies can only be used for regulatory purposes by the
Agency if they are compliant with the requirements of 40 CFR 26. Each of the studies used in
the development of this document has been found to be compliant with these requirements.

In some cases, however, research considered throughout the process of revising the SOPs,
though germane to a particular scenario under consideration, had to be excluded from
consideration because they are not compliant with 40 CFR 26. For example, for the Lawns/Turf
SOP, there is a section (Section 3.2.8) that describes how the exposure of golfers is estimated
based on monitoring data for workers at a golf course. In this case, one of the available golfer
exposure studies (Putnam et al., 2008) did not meet 40 CFR 26 requirements and, therefore, the
data from that study were not included in the final analysis. As the Agency considers the
Residential SOPs a "living" document, if additional applicable research is identified that should
be considered, it would also be subject to review under the criteria stipulated in 40 CFR 26.

1.3.8	Deterministic Exposure Assessment Methodology

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Deterministic methods are most commonly used for residential exposure assessments. In a
deterministic exposure assessment, each algorithm input is represented by a single numeric value
called a point estimate. The output of a deterministic exposure assessment, therefore, is also a
single point estimate. Exposure estimates are easily calculated using deterministic methods and
can be relatively straightforward to communicate to risk managers. As described in Section
1.3.2, due to both expected exposure patterns and available toxicity information, routine
residential exposure assessments include short-term exposures, and sometimes intermediate- and
long-term exposures. For these assessments, the Agency typically utilizes arithmetic mean
inputs coupled with chemical-specific inputs such as maximum application rates or minimum
retreatment intervals in order to yield reasonably health-protective estimates of exposure.

Even though deterministic methods are straightforward and provide a health protective estimate
of exposure, they do not provide information on the variability and uncertainty inherent in the
algorithm inputs. As a result, deterministic assessment may not provide sufficient detail on the
range of possible exposures or the level of confidence in the estimate of exposure used in risk
assessment. Probabilistic assessment is a more complex methodology that accounts for the
variability of each algorithm input. Additionally, probabilistic methods can be incorporated into
more robust sensitivity analyses, based on each algorithm input's probability distribution. These
sensitivity analyses can be useful at identifying the inputs that are the main contributors of
exposure and can be used to prioritize additional research efforts (U.S. EPA, 2001).

As the main focus for the Residential SOPs is to provide a simple, yet health protective,
approach for assessing residential exposures in the form of a deterministic method using
appropriate default point estimates, each section presents summary tables and algorithms which
correspond to this goal. The appendices for each section, however, analyze and characterize the
data for each algorithm input in the form of probability distributions, so that users can conduct a
probabilistic exposure assessment, if necessary. Other than presenting datasets in a format useful
for probabilistic methods, this document does not provide any other guidance, nor should it be
viewed as recommending probabilistic assessment as a routine approach. As described above,
for routine use by the Agency, deterministic assessments yield understandable and health-
protective exposure estimates.

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Universal Exposure Factors

Section 2 Universal Exposure Factors

Many of the algorithm inputs discussed in this document are specific to a particular scenario.
However, some factors are common across the SOPs. These factors include: body weight,
inhalation rate, body surface area, hand surface area mouthed, object surface area mouthed, and
saliva extraction factor. Where applicable, each SOP refers to this section for discussion of these
universal exposure factors.

Where appropriate and when data are available, the recommended distributions are presented for
lifestages that are potentially exposed during residential pesticide use. These are represented by
the following lifestages: adults 16 < 80 years (male and female combined), children 11 < 16
years old (male and female combined), children 6 < 11 years old (male and female combined),
children 3 < 6 years old (male and female combined), children 2 < 3 years old (male and female
combined), and children 1 < 2 years old (male and female combined) respectively. The selection
of these lifestages is based, in part, on discussions presented in Guidance on Selecting Age
Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants
(U.S. EPA, 2005). Distributions for different lifestages can be used if there is a need to assess a
more specific lifestage. The following sections provide summary descriptions and recommended
exposure assessment inputs for each factor.

2.1 Body Weight

In order to estimate risk, toxicological points of departure (POD) are compared with exposure
estimates. These PODs are typically dose values calculated by normalizing by body weight (e.g.,
mg/kg). Therefore, to make an appropriate comparison to estimate risk, exposure estimates must
be expressed in a similar fashion. Table 2-1 below provides body weights for use in residential
pesticide exposure assessment taken from the EPA Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition
(U.S. EPA, 2011; Tables 8-3 through 8-5). Adult body weights are provided for various
lifestages in the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition and have been averaged across
lifestages for both the percentiles and mean body weight values in the table below.

l iihk* 2-1: Kccuiiiim'iuk'ri I'.sliniiilos lor l}od\ Weight (kป)

l.ik'sliiiic

IVrcenliles

5

10

15

25

50

75

X5

ซ>0

95

Mcsin

C ombined \dulls

16 < 80 years old

53

57

tปu

t>t>

77

90

99

llu

12u

80

Male Adults
16 < 80 years old

61

65

69

73

83

96

100

110

120

86

Female Adults
13 < 49 years old3

46

50

52

56

63

78

87

95

110

69

Children
11 < 16 years old

34

37

41

45

54

65

73

79

89

57

Children
6 < 11 years old

20

21

22

24

29

37

42

46

53

32

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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Universal Exposure Factors

l iihlo 2-1: Recommended llsliniiilos lor l}od\ Weight (kป)

l.ilcsliigc

Percent ill's

5

10

15

25

50

75

X5

ซ)0

95

Mc.in

Children
3 < 6 years old

14

14

15

16

18

20

22

24

26

19

Children
2 < 3 years old

11

12

12

12

14

15

16

16

17

14

Children
1 < 2 years old

8.9

9.3

9.7

10

11

12

13

13

14

11

Children
6 < 12 months old

7.1

7.5

7.9

8.3

9.1

10

11

11

11

9.2

a. Female body weight is meant to represent average body weight of women of child-bearing age, assumed to be ages 13 through 49. Data
provided in the EFH for ages 11 through <50 were averaged to represent this lifestage.

2.2 Inhalation Rates

Inhalation rates are utilized in a number of the SOPs in this document. The inhalation rates
presented in this section are based on recommendations from the Exposure Factors Handbook
2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 6-1). The values provided in the Exposure Factors
Handbook 2011 Edition are derived from multiple studies and represent average daily inhalation
rates in units of m3/day. For the purposes of this SOP, the rates were converted to m /hr and the
adult rates were averaged across the lifestages provided in the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011
Edition. Table 2-2 provides inhalation rates on a per hour basis for adults and children.

Tsihlc 2-2: Recommended l.s(im;i(os for

Diiilt liih;il;ilioii R;iles(m7hr)

l.i lest ;i lie

Mean

Children

0.23

6 < 12 months old

Children

0.33

1 < 2 years old

Children

0.37

2 < 3 years old

Children

0.42

3 < 6 years old

Children

0.50

6 < 11 years old

Children

0.63

11 < 16 years old

Adults

0.64

16 < 81 years old

2.3 Body Surface Area
Body Surface Area

Body surface area is utilized in a number of the SOPs. Table 2-3 below provides total body
surface areas taken from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Tables
7-9 through 7-11). Adult surface areas are provided for various lifestages in the Exposure
Factors Handbook 2011 Edition and have been averaged across lifestages for both the percentiles
and mean surface area values in the table below.

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Universal Exposure Factors

l iihlo 2-3: Ki-comim-iidcd I'.sliniiilos lor l}od\ SiiiT;iit Aiv;i Mir)

l.ik'Ndiiic

IVrmililes

5

10

15

25

50

75

X5

90

95

Mi'iin

C ombined Males I'emales

16 < 80 years old

1.54

Lb

l.t>t>

1.75

1.93

2.12

2.23

2.3

2.42

1.95

Males
16 < 80 years old

1.71

1.78

1.83

1.9

2.05

2.21

2.31

2.38

2.49

2.07

Female Adults
13 < 49 years old3

1.42

1.48

1.53

1.59

1.74

1.90

2.04

2.12

2.22

1.77

Children
11 < 16 years old

1.19

1.25

1.31

1.40

1.57

1.75

1.86

1.94

2.06

1.59

Children
6 < 11 years old

0.81

0.85

0.88

0.93

1.05

1.21

1.31

1.36

1.48

1.08

Children

3 < 6 years old

0.61

0.64

0.66

0.68

0.74

0.81

0.85

0.89

0.95

0.76

Children
2 < 3 years old

0.52

0.54

0.55

0.57

0.61

0.64

0.67

0.68

0.70

0.61

Children
1 < 2 years old

0.45

0.46

0.47

0.49

0.53

0.56

0.58

0.59

0.61

0.53

Children
6 < 12 months old

0.39

0.4

0.41

0.43

0.46

0.48

0.49

0.5

0.51

0.45

a. Female body weight is meant to represent average body weight of women of child-bearing age, assumed to be ages 13 through 49. Data
provided in the EFH for ages 11 through <50 were averaged to represent this lifestage.

Adjustments to Transfer Coefficients for Children

One of the factors used in dermal post-application assessments, the transfer coefficient, is
typically derived from studies which utilize adult volunteers. In order to translate these transfer
coefficients to children, an adjustment factor is needed based on body surface area. Children
have a lower body surface area than adults and consequently they have lower absolute exposures
than adults, all other factors being equal. This translation is performed using a number of simple
surface area ratios depending on the lifestage under consideration.

For the adult component of this ratio, the combined (males and females) mean surface area is
used (i.e., 1.95 m , average of the mean surface areas for ages 16 < 80 years) (U.S. EPA, 2011;
Table 7-9). Then the corresponding combined male and female mean for the lifestage under
consideration is used to derive the adjustment factor. A summary of adjustment factors for
relevant lifestages, representing the respective ratios of mean body surface area to mean adult
body surface area is provided in Table 2-4 below.

l iihlc 2-4: 1 i*;iiisl'er (oelTieienl Siii'I'skt Aivsi Adjustment l";ic(or

l.ifcsliifie

Surface Area f m" >

I Mean: Combined Mules and l-cmalcs'l

Adjustment Factor

6 < 12 months

0.45

0.23

1 < 2 years

0.53

0.27

2 < 3 years

0.61

0.31

3 < 6 years

0.76

0.39

6 < 11 years

1.08

0.55

11 < 16 years

1.59

0.82

'U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 7-9

2 Derived as ratio of the combined male and female mean surface area for specified lifestage to adult surface area

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Universal Exposure Factors

Tnhle

2-4: Transler (uclTicicnl Surface Area Adjust nun ( l-aclnr

l.il'eslajic

Surface Area f m" >

|Mcan: Combined Mules and l-'ciiialcs'|

Adjustment l-aclnr

(J l>5 in , a\emge of male and female means; (e g , ' <> seal's old (> "<> in 1 l>5 in (> ^>)

2.4 Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed (FM)

An important factor used in hand-to-mouth post-application assessments is the fraction of a
hand's surface area that is mouthed by a child. This value is used in a number of the SOPs. The
fraction hand surface area mouthed values are from the Zartarian et al. (2005) analysis of data
originally presented in Leckie et al. (2000). The Leckie et al. (2000) study consisted of a data set
of 20 suburban children videotaped outdoors. Part of the videotape analysis performed by
Leckie was to determine the amount of the hand that was mouthed by each child every time a
mouthing event occurred. This was broken up into five categories, including:

•	Outside mouth contact - defined as finger(s)/hand touching lips but no immersion in
mouth

•	Partial finger - defined as less than half the finger(s) are inside mouth

•	Full finger - defined as more than half the finger(s) are inside mouth

•	Partial palm with fingers - defined as fingers in mouth as well as part of the palm area

•	Partial palm without fingers - defined as fingers in mouth as well as part of the palm area

The analysis in Zartarian et al. (2005) consisted of assigning numerical values to each of the five
scenarios discussed above. It was assumed that each finger is 10% of the hand, and that the
surface area of palm that can be mouthed is 25% of the hand. For 1 "partial finger" inserted into
the mouth a value of 5% of the hand was selected, 2 partial fingers 10%, el cetera. Based on an
analysis of the data, it was determined that a beta distribution (a=3.7, J3=25) best fits the
observed data. Table 2-5 provides distributions and point estimates of fraction hand surface area
mouthed for use in residential pesticide exposure assessment. The data used to derive fraction of
hand surface area mouthed is provided in Section B.l of Appendix B.

Table 2-5: l-'racliou Hand Surface Area Mouthed

Statistic

l-'raclion

50th percentile

0.118

75th percentile

0.164

95th percentile

0.243

AM(SD)

0.127 (0.0614)

GM (GSD)

0.114(1.58)

Range

0.05-0.4

N

220

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

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Universal Exposure Factors

2.5	Surface Area of Object Mouthed (SAM0)

One of the factors used in object-to-mouth post-application assessments is the surface area
(expressed in cm ) of the object that is mouthed by a child, and is used in a number of the SOPs.
Based on the area of hand mouthed by 2-5 years old as reported by Leckie et al., (2000), and the
assumption that children mouth a smaller area of an object than their hand, an exponential
distribution with a minimum of 1 cm2, a mean of 10 cm2, and a maximum of 50 cm2 was chosen.
The maximum is comparable to the surface area of a ping-pong ball. Additional details and
analyses are provided in Section B.2 of Appendix B.

2.6	Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

One of the factors used in hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth post-application assessments is
the fraction of pesticide extracted from the hand/object via saliva. The values for fraction of
pesticide extracted by saliva are based on analysis of data collected in a study by Camann et al.
(1996). This study focused specifically on fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva from hands,
not objects. However, there are currently no data available to address the removal of residues
from objects by saliva during mouthing events so this study is being used for both hands and
objects. The estimates of saliva extraction were derived using a beta distribution (a = 7.0, p =
7.6). Table 2-6 provides estimates of pesticide extracted by saliva for use in residential pesticide
exposure assessment. Additional details and analyses are provided in Section B.3 of Appendix B.

Tiihk' 2-6: l r;ic(ion nl' Pesticide l.\lr;ick'd In S;ili\;i

Siiiiisiic

l-'i'iiclion of Pesticide l.\(r;iclcd In S;ili\;i

50th percentile

0.50

75 th percentile

0.57

90th percentile

0.64

95th percentile

0.68

99th percentile

0.80

AM(SD)

0.48 (0.13)

GM (GSD)

0.46 (1.35)

Range

0.22-0.71

N

27

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

2.7 Life Expectancy Averaging Time

An important factor to consider when evaluating cancer risk is life expectancy because it is used
to derive the lifetime average daily dose estimate. Life expectancy values are presented in the
Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition Table 18-1 (U.S. EPA, 2011). The table shows that
the overall life expectancy is 78 years based on life expectancy data from 2007. In 2007, the
average life expectancy for males was 75 years and 80 years for females. Based on the
available data, the recommended value for use in cancer risk assessments is 78 years.

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Lawns/Turf

Section 3 Lawns/Turf

The residential lawns/turf SOP provides algorithms and inputs to assess a number of handler and
post-application turf exposure scenarios. The populations considered in this SOP are those
individuals who are potentially exposed to pesticides from either treating turf with a product
available for sale to the general public or after contact with treated turf in many settings,
including residential lawns, playgrounds, parks, recreation areas, schools, and golf courses.
Another potential source of exposure addressed by this section, where professional applications
could potentially lead to exposure by the general population, if applicable to the pesticide and its
label under consideration, is treated sod purchased at retail locations.

Before the development of an exposure assessment for a turf scenario, the assessor should review
the pesticide label to determine whether the scenario is appropriate based on the usage of the
product. Specific labeling statements that indicate an assessment for residential lawns is needed
are as follows:

•	Registered for Use on Turfgrass: Determine whether the labeling contains directions
for use on "turfgrass," "lawns," or "ornamental turf," or on specific species of turfgrasses,
such as "bluegrass," "zoysia," "bentgrass," etc.

•	Limitation and Descriptive Statements: Assume that a product registered for use on
turfgrass is used on home lawns or by homeowners, unless a specific statement on the
label indicates the product is only used in non-residential settings. Examples include:

o	For golf course use only;

o	For commercial sod farm use only;

o	For professional athletic field use only; and

o	For industrial/commercial turf use only.

Additionally, "Restricted Use Pesticide" classification indicates that the product cannot
be bought or applied by homeowners (i.e., no residential handler exposure/risk
assessment required), but it may be applied by commercial applicators to residential sites;
therefore, a post-application risk assessment may be required.

•	Post-application assessments do not need to be performed if label directions indicate the
turf use is an edging use (e.g., along fence rows), a foundation perimeter treatment (e.g.,
3 foot band around the perimeter of a house), or a specific spot treatment (e.g., ant
mounds). These types of uses can result in residues on turf but residential exposure is
expected to be low. Post-application assessments should be conducted for all other turf
application scenarios.

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Lawns/Turf

If a turf use is possible, the assessment should then characterize and estimate the potential for
exposure by route (e.g., dermal, non-dietary ingestion, inhalation) following the methodology
outlined in this SOP. The assessor should also consider the durations of exposure for each route.

Much of the data contained within this SOP is the result of the Outdoor Residential Data-Call-in
(OREDCI) that was issued to pesticide registrants in 1995 (U.S. EPA, 1995) under the authority
of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This DCI required
additional data, which would allow for more refined turf handler and post-application exposure
assessments. It impacted all pesticide registrants who produced products that could lead to
handler and post-application exposure on turf. In anticipation of the need to provide these data
to the Agency, the industry-based Occupational and Residential Exposure Task Force (ORETF)
was formed prior to the time that the DCI was issued.

3.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

This residential turf handler SOP provides a standard method for estimating potential dermal and
inhalation doses resulting from applying pesticides to residential turf. Such exposure is assumed
to occur only to adults (i.e., individuals 16 years old or older).

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers, for a given formulation-application method combination, is estimated by
multiplying the formulation-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the
amount of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE * AR * A

(3.1)

where:

E

UE
AR
A

exposure (mg/day);

unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft2, lb ai/gal); and

area treated or amount handled (e.g., ft /day, gal/day).

Dermal and/or inhalation absorbed doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

(3.2)

BW

where:

D

E

AF

BW

dose (mg/kg-day);
exposure (mg/day);

absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
body weight (kg).

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Lawns/Turf

Handler exposure for applications to lawns and turf is generally considered short-term in
duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.3 such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 3-1 and Table 3-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

T:ihk*3-I: I iii I - Recommended I nil llxnosuiv tmg/lh ;ii) Point llsliniiilos

I'ormuhilion

r.(|iiii>im-iii/
Application Method

l)crm;il

Inhiiliilion

Appendix P;i!ic
Rd'civiicc

Point l.stiuiiito

Point l.sliniiik'

Granules

Push-type spreaders

0.81

0.0026

C-4

Belly grinders

360

0.039

C-ll

Spoon

6.2

0.087

C-20

Cup

0.11

0.013

C-24

Hand dispersal

160

0.38

B-39

Shaker can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for granule applications using a cup
recommended as surrogate data.

Liquid concentrates

Manually-pressurized
handwand

63

0.018

C-56

Hose-end sprayer

13.4

0.022

C-79

Backpack

130

0.14

C-91

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Hose-end sprayer

6.26

0.034

C-107

Trigger-pump sprayers

85.1

0.061

C-113

Aerosol can

370

3.0

C-134

Wettable Powder

Manually-pressurized
handwand

69

1.1

C-141

Hose-end sprayer

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Backpack

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for manually-pressurized handwand
applications of wettable powders recommended as surrogate

data.

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Wettable Powder in
Water-soluble
Packaging

Manually-pressurized
handwand

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for manually-pressurized handwand applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

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Lawns/Turf

T:ihk*3-I: I iii I - Recommended I nil llxnosuiv ling/lh ;ii) Point llsliniiilos

I'ormuhilion

r.(|iiii>im-iii/
Application Method

l)crm;d

Inhiiliilion

Appendix Psiซe
Hcld'cncc

Point I.N(iin;ik'

Poinl l.sliniiik'

Hose-end sprayer

No exposure dala a\ ailable lor iliib seeiiario. Exposure dala
for RTU hose-end sprayers recommended as surrogate data.

Backpack

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for manually-pressurized handwand applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for RTU hose-end sprayers recommended as surrogate data.

Dry Flowable /
Water-dispersible
Granule

Manually-pressurized
handwand
Hose-end sprayer
Backpack
Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Application
method-specific exposure data for wettable powders
recommended as surrogate data.

Micro-encapsulates

Manually-pressurized
handwand
Hose-end sprayer
Backpack
Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Application
method-specific exposure data for liquid concentrates
recommended as surrogate data.

l iihk'3-2: Turf- Recommended Ihindlcr I xposuiT l-'iiclor Poinl l.s(ini;i(cs

exposure l-iicloi-
(unils)

Poinl I.NliniiiUMs)

Application Rate
(mass ai per unit area)

Maximum labeled rate

Area Treated/Amount Handled

Push-type spreader
(acres)

0.5

Belly grinder
(ft2)

1,000

Cup, Spoon, Hand
(ft2)

100

Manually-pressurized handwand
(gallons)

5

Backpack sprayer
(gallons)

5

Hose-end sprayer
(acres)

0.5

Sprinkler can
(ft2)

1,000

Trigger-sprayer
(# bottles)

1

Aerosol Can
(# cans)

1

Any equipment, fire ant mounds
(# mounds)

5

Body Weight

Adult (kg)

80

Unit Exposures

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio, for a given formulation/application
method combination, between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled, with units

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Lawns/Turf

mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled). The
recommended point estimates for individual handler scenarios are shown in Table 3-1.

Data summaries can be found in Appendix C.

Amount of Active Ingredient Handled

The algorithm for estimating handler exposure requires some estimate of the amount of active
ingredient handled per day. This factor varies based on the type of equipment or application
method used and is estimated based on the application rate specified on the product label. First,
the assessor should assemble application rate information in terms of active ingredient per area
treated (e.g., lb ai/acre, lb ai/1000 ft2) and active ingredient per volume of spray (e.g., lb ai/gallon
solution). For example, instructions for a granule formulation might direct application of 2 lbs of
product per 100 square feet or a spray application might say to apply 2 gallons of solution per
100 square feet.

Data on the amount of active ingredient handled are limited and difficult to collect. The amounts
of active ingredient handled presented in this SOP are reasonable high-end assumptions for
typical residential turf application equipment. These values and the supporting data (where
applicable) are discussed below.

•	Push-type spreader: V2 an acre for broadcast applications. This value is supported by data
from the Outdoor Residential Pesticide Use and Usage Survey and National Gardening
Association Survey (Johnson, et al., 1999), which showed that 73% of the people
surveyed had lawns smaller than V2 acre.

•	Belly grinder: 1,000 ft for spot treatments. Belly grinders are not practical for broadcast
lawn treatments.

•	Cup, Spoon, or Hand: 100 ft for spot treatments. Applications of granule pesticides with
a cup, spoon, or by hand are not practical for broadcast lawn treatments, but are more
appropriate for treating ant mounds, yellow jacket nests or dandelions (check label for
pest directions).

•	Manually-pressurized handwand sprayer: 5 gallons for spot treatments, which assumes
mixing/loading/applying two 2.5-gallon sprayers. Manually-pressurized hand sprayers
are not practical for broadcast lawn treatments due to the numbers of gallons generally
required for broadcast sprays (e.g., 15 gallons/1000 sq ft).

•	Backpack sprayer: 5 gallons for spot treatments, which assumes mixing/loading/applying
two 2.5-gallon sprayers. Backpack sprayers are not practical for broadcast lawn
treatments due to the numbers of gallons generally required for broadcast sprays (e.g., 15
gallons/1000 sq ft).

•	Hose-end sprayer: V2 an acre for broadcast applications. This value is further supported
by data from the Outdoor Residential Pesticide Use and Usage Survey and National
Gardening Association Survey (Johnson, et al., 1999), which showed that 73% of the
people surveyed had lawns smaller than V2 acre.

•	Sprinkler can: 1,000 ft for spot treatments. Sprinkler cans are not practical for broadcast
lawn treatments due to the numbers of gallons generally required for broadcast sprays
(e.g., 15 gallons/1000 sq ft).

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•	Trigger sprayer: 1 bottle. Trigger sprayers are not practical for broadcast lawn
treatments but are more appropriate for treating ant mounts, yellow jacket nests or
dandelions (check label for pest directions).

•	Aerosol can: 1 can. Aerosol cans are not practical for broadcast lawn treatments but are
more appropriate for treating ant mounts, yellow jacket nests or dandelions (check label
for pest directions).

•	Fire ant mound treatments (any equipment): 5 individual mounds. Note: some labels
have directions for broadcast applications to prevent invasion of fire ants of areas widely
infested.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine handler exposure assessments for pesticide

applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
turf with pesticides;

o Amount of product or formulation used or area treated per application; and,
o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used.

•	Handler exposure data:

o Specific for turf applications as well as for those formulations and/or application

methods currently unavailable as shown in Table 3-1;
o Describing the extent to which an individual's exposure for a given formulation
and application method varies from application-to-application.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	The exposure data underlying unit exposures are considered reasonable for the purposes
of estimating exposure. The data are from actual applications using standardized
exposure sampling methodologies and laboratory analyses.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

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Lawns/Turf

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amounts of active ingredient handled for typical residential turf
application equipment is largely unavailable. The estimates used however, are believed
to result in health protective exposure estimates.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

3.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from a number of activities following pesticide applications
on turf. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults, children 11 < 16 years old,
children 6 < 11 years old, and children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestages for
lawns and turf depending on the exposure scenario.

The Agency has derived standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for eight scenarios
resulting from contact with turf that has previously been treated with pesticides:

•	Section 3.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposure resulting from activities
on turf;

•	Section 3.2.2 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposure resulting from activities on
turf;

•	Section 3.2.3 - children

•	Section 3.2.4 - children
activity;

•	Section 3.2.5 - children

•	Section 3.2.6 - children
ingestion;

•	Section 3.2.7 - adult/children 11 < 16 years old dermal exposure resulting from mowing;
and

•	Section 3.2.8 - adult/children 11 < 16 years old/children 6 < 11 years old dermal
exposure resulting from golfing.

3.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

Post-application inhalation exposure while engaged in activities on or around previously treated
turf is generally not assessed and should be handled on a case-by-case basis. The combination of
low vapor pressure for chemicals typically used as active ingredients in outdoor residential
pesticide products and dilution in outdoor air is likely to result in minimal inhalation exposure.

3.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Physical Activities on Turf

1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth activity;
1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via object-to-mouth

1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via soil ingestion;
1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via episodic granular

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The residential turf post-application SOP provides a standard method for estimating potential
dermal doses among adults and/or children 1 < 2 years old from dermal contact with turf that has
previously been treated with pesticides. This scenario assumes that pesticide residues are
transferred to the skin of adults/children who enter treated lawns for play, recreation, yardwork,
or other homeowner activities. Considering the strengths and limitations of available data and
behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see Appendix A for more details);
post-application dermal exposure is only calculated for adults and children 1 < 2 years old.

It is assumed that individuals contact previously treated turf on the same day a pesticide is
applied. However, the assessment can be refined to more accurately reflect exposure over a
longer period of time (e.g., a week or month) if toxicological or activity information indicate the
need for such estimates.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm - Physical Activities on Turf

Exposure resulting from contacting previously treated turf while performing physical activities is
calculated as shown below. As discussed in Section 1.3.4 residential post-application exposure
assessment must include calculation of exposure on the day of application. Therefore, though an
assessment can present exposures for any day "t" following the application, it must include "day
0" exposure.

E = TTRt * CF1 * TC * ET

(3.3)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

TTRt	= turf transferable residue on day t (|ig/cm2);

CF1	= weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);

TC	= transfer coefficient (cm /hr); and

ET	= exposure time (hr/day).

If chemical-specific TTR data are available, then surface residues from the day of application
should be used (assume that individuals could be exposed to residues immediately after
application). However, if data are not available, then TTRt can be calculated using the following
formula:

TTRt = AR * F * (I -FDf * CF2 * CF3

(3.4)

where:

TTRt	= turf transferable residue on day t (|ig/cm );

AR	= application rate (lbs ai/ft or lb ai/acre);

F	= fraction of ai as transferable residue following application (unitless);

Fd	= fraction of residue that dissipates daily (unitless);

t	= post-application day on which exposure is being assessed;

o

CF2	= weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 10 jug/lb); and

CF3	= area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/ cm2 or 2.47 x 10"8 acre/cm2).

Dermal absorbed doses are calculated as:

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F* AF

D=	(3.5)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application dermal exposure following applications to lawns and turf is generally
considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate
short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment
intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or
lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions -
Physical Activities on Turf

Recommended values for post-application dermal (physical activities on turf) exposure
assessments are provided in Table 3-3. Following this table, each scenario-specific input
parameter is described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key
assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of
limitations that should be addressed when characterizing exposure.

Tiil>lc3-3: Turf (Pin sic;il Aiii\ ilics) - Recommended Point r.s(im;i(os for Posi-Appliciilion Doriiuil

l.xnosurc l-'siiiors

Algorithm Nnliilion

llxposiiiv l-iicloi-
( ii nils)

Poinl l'.siiniiile(s)

AR

Application rate
(mass active ingredient per unit area)

Maximum labeled
application rate

F

Fraction of AR as TTR
following application (if
chemical-specific data is
unavailable)

L/WP/WDG

0.01

Granules

0.002

Fd

Daily residue dissipation
(if chemical-specific data
is unavailable)
(fraction)

L/WP/WDG

0.1

Granules

0.1

TC

Transfer
Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

L/WP/WDG

Adults

180,000

Children 1 < 2 years old

49,000

Granules

Adults

200,000

Children 1 < 2 years old

54,000

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Adults

1.5

Children 1 < 2 years old

1.5

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Adults

80

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

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Tiil>lc3-3: Turf (Pin sic;il Aiii\ ilics) - Recommended Point r.s(im;i(os for Posi-Appliciilion Doriiuil



I'.xposiiiv l-.iclnrs



Algorithm Nnliilion

llxposmv l";ic(or
(units)

Poinl l'.siiniiile(s)

L/WPAVDG = Liquids/Wettable Powders/Water-dispersible Granules

Turf Transferable Residue (TTR)

Following an application, some pesticide residue remains on turf for an individual to contact and
remove. This is referred to as turf transferable residue (TTR) and is assumed to be the most
significant source for dermal exposure in this scenario. The industry-based ORETF tested five
TTR collection techniques in 1996: the California roller method, the shoe method, the
polyurethane foam (PUF) roller method, the drag sled method, and the foliar wash method. A
follow-up study was conducted on a turf farm in 1997 using three modified techniques: the
modified California roller method, the modified shoe method, and the ORETF roller method.
The data from both of these studies are summarized and analyzed in a 1999 ORETF report
(Cowell, J. and Johnson, D., 1999; EPA MRID 44972203). Ultimately - based on the
information provided by ORETF and working in conjunction with the California Department of
Pesticide Regulation (DPR) and Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) - a
TTR collection method (the Modified California Roller Method) was agreed upon for all future
TTR studies. The Modified California Roller was selected because it produced the most
consistent results across individuals, active ingredients, formulation types, and time than the
other techniques. It also was sensitive enough to detect low levels of residues and was one of the
easier techniques to use.

TTR studies using the Modified California Roller Method were required for all pesticide active
ingredients that had turf uses as part of the 1995 OREDCI (U.S. EPA, 1995), which was
amended in 1998. Subsequently, in October of 2007, the Agency revised the data requirements
that pertain to conventional pesticides. As part of these revisions, TTR studies were classified as
required for all occupational (e.g., sod farms, golf courses, parks, and recreational areas) or
residential turf uses under 40 CFR 158, subpart K (158.1070; post-application exposure data
requirements table).

If no chemical-specific TTR data are available, an initial screening level assessment can be
performed using the maximum labeled turf application rate.

Chemical-specific data

When chemical-specific data are available, the TTR is the surface residue on Day 0,
which assumes an individual could be exposed to residues immediately after application.

Calculating from Application Rate

When the application rate is in terms of mass active ingredient per area (e.g., lbs ai/ft2 or
lb ai/acre), the total deposited residue is assumed to be equivalent to the application rate.

Fraction of Application Rate Available For Transfer (F)

If chemical-specific TTR measurements are not available, a screening value for the fraction of
application rate available for transfer should be used to perform the assessment. For the purpose

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of this SOP, 59 studies that collected turf transferable residues using the Modified California
Roller Method (36 studies using liquids, 11 studies using wettable powders/water dispersible
granules, and 12 studies using granules) were analyzed. Only TTR data collected with the
Modified California Roller Method were used in this analysis because this was the turf residue
collection method agreed upon by the Agency in the 1995 OREDCI (U.S. EPA, 1995). During
the analysis of these studies, it was determined that there was no statistical difference between
residues resulting from liquid, wettable powder (applied as a spray), or water dispersible granular
(applied as a spray) applications; as a result, these data were combined for analysis. Granular
data were analyzed separately. These analyses are presented in Section D. 6 of Appendix D.

For liquid applications (including wettable powders/water dispersible granules applied as
sprays), the recommended screening level point estimate for use in post-application dermal
exposure assessment is 0.01 (equivalent to 1%). For granular applications, the
recommended screening level point estimate for use in post-application dermal exposure
assessment is 0.002 (equivalent to 0.2%).

Daily Residue Dissipation (FD)

Post-application exposures must be assessed on the same day the pesticide is applied because it
is assumed that individuals could be exposed to turfgrass immediately after application.
Therefore, post-application exposures are based on residues found on the day of application (i.e.,
referred to as day 0). For subsequent days after application it is also important to estimate
exposure based on pesticide dissipation rates because of possible concerns over longer term
exposures (i.e., using an amortized dose) and possible re-treatment intervals. If no chemical-
specific TTR data are available, then a 10 percent dissipation rate per day should be assumed.

Transfer Coefficient (TC)

The transfer coefficients used for turf dermal scenarios were derived from data gathered while
adult human volunteers performed an approximate 2-hour composite routine consisting of 12
sequential activities which children and adults routinely engage on residential turf (D. Klonne
and D. Johnson, MRID 47292001). These activities represent behaviors that are reported in the
National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for children aged 1 to 12 years (Klepeis, et.
al., 2001). The two-hour duration of the routine was chosen because NHAPS indicated that a
high-bound estimate of time children spend playing on turf is two hours per day. Two turf sites
were treated during the study; one with a liquid formulation and the other with a granular
formulation. A total of 40 participants performed the composite routine during the study; 10
participants each during two separate sessions at the two treated turf sites. The potential dermal
exposure to each study participant was measured by using whole-body dosimetry (inner and
outer dosimeters), foot washes, hand washes, and face/neck wipes. TTR was collected at both
sites using the Modified California Roller Method. All of these measurements were then used in
the transfer coefficient calculations.

An analysis was performed to assess the statistical differences between the TCs calculated using
the liquid data vs. the granular data. It was determined that these two distributions should not be
combined because the upper percentile values are higher for the granular TCs vs. the liquid TCs
even though the central tendency values of the two distributions are similar (See Section D. 7.1
of Appendix D). For children 1 < 2 years old, the transfer coefficient is adjusted for body surface

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area by a factor of 0.27 (i.e., a 73% reduction in the TC) as outlined in Section 2.3. Table 3-4
provides some summary statistical information about the turf dermal transfer coefficient
distribution.

For liquid applications to lawns/turf, the recommended point estimates for use in post-
application adult and children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposure assessments are 180,000
and 49,000 cm2/hr, respectively.

For granular applications, the recommended point estimates for use in post-application
adult and children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposure assessment are 200,000 and 54,000
cm2/hr, respectively.

Tiihle 3-4: l)erm;il l.xposure Triinsfer Coefficients (1 -shirl ;iihI Shorts) I'm' lndi\ iduiils Performing

NIIAPS Aeli\ ilies

Sliiiislie

l.i(|iiid I riinsler Coefficient (cnr/lir)

(>r;iniil;ir Tr;insfcr Coefficient (cnf/lir)

Children 1 < 2
\c;irsold 1

Atlull

Children 1 < 2
jesirs old 1

Ariull

50th percentile

48,000

180,000

52,000

190,000

75th percentile

56,000

210,000

61,000

230,000

95th percentile

71,000

260,000

77,000

290,000

99th percentile

83,000

310,000

91,000

340,000

AM(SD)

49,000 (NA)

180,000 (41,000)

54,000 (NA)

200,000 (45,000)

GM (GSD)

48,000 (NA)

180,000 (1.26)

52,000 (NA)

190,000 (1.26)

Range

NA

110,000-260,000

NA

110,000-300,000

N

NA

20

NA

20

1 A 73% reduction in the adult transfer coefficient is recommended because of the differences of body

surface areas between adults and children 1 < 2 years old.

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure from treated turf is the
duration of time spent on turf. Empirical distributions were selected for adults and children
(expressed as cumulative distributions) from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S.
EPA, 2011; Table 16-20). These distributions represent the amount of time spent at home in the
yard or other areas outside the house rather than just on lawns (see Table 3-5) as the available
data for time spent on lawns is not of sufficient quality for use in this SOP. The children's
exposure time distribution reflects children ages 1 to 4 years old as lifestage-specific data are not
currently available. Both the adult and children distributions taken from Exposure Factors
Handbook 2011 Edition Table 16-20 were bounded at the 90th percentile as use of the upper
percentiles of these distributions would likely overestimate time spent on lawns. Based on these
data, the recommended point estimate for use in post-application dermal exposure
assessment for adults and children is 1.5 hrs/day.

I "si hie 3-5: lime Spenl on Turf Tor Adults ;iihI Children

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Lawns/Turf

Siiiiisiic

Hours per l);i\

Adults

Children 1 < 2 \c;irs old 1

5 th percentile

0.08

0.42

25th percentile

0.5

1.0

50th percentile

1.5

1.5

75th percentile

3.0

3.0

90th percentile

5.5

5.1

100th percentile

5.5

5.1

1 Data represents 1 to 4 years old.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application dermal exposure assessments for
pesticide applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
turf with pesticides;

o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Lifestage-specific daily activity patterns for turf.

•	Post-application exposure data:

o Describing the extent to which an individual's exposure for a given activity
varies.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Turf Transferable Residue

•	The Modified California Roller Method was used in the selected turf dermal transfer
coefficient study to collect TTR. This TTR collection method was agreed upon by the
ORETF, CDPR, PMRA, and the Agency. For all assessments, transfer coefficients from
this study should only be used with TTR studies that utilize the Modified California
Roller Method. If chemical-specific TTR data collected via the Modified California
Roller Method are not available, then the screening level TTR value (i.e., based on
application rate) should be used.

•	Absent chemical-specific data, estimates of turf transferable residue factors such as the
amount available following application and dissipation are used genetically based on
existing data for a wide variety of chemicals. Use of the data genetically, including using
high-end estimates, may overestimate exposure for some chemicals.

•	Assessors should recognize that factors such as rainfall/irrigation, grass growth, and grass
mowing can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides on turf when conducting turf
post-application exposure assessments.

Exposure Time

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• The extent to which the amount of time spent conducting certain activities varies over an
extended period of time is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no variation
when assessing longer-term exposure times is considered conservative.

3.2.3 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-to-

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the dose from incidental ingestion of
pesticide residues from previously treated turf. Considering the strengths and limitations of
available data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see Appendix A for
more details), exposure for children 1 < 2 years old is calculated in this scenario. It assumed that
pesticide residues are transferred to the skin of children playing on treated turf and are
subsequently ingested as a result of hand-to-mouth transfer. It does not include residues ingested
as a result of mouthing an object or via soil ingestion (See Sections 3.2.4 and 3.2.5).

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on the algorithm utilized in
the SHEDS-Multimedia model):

Mouth

E= HR*(Fm * SAh)*(ET * N _Replen)*\l-(l- SE)

(3.6)

where:

N_Replen

SE

FreqHtM

E

HR

Fm

SAh

ET

exposure (mg/day);

hand residue loading (mg/cm2);

fraction hand surface area mouthed / event (fraction/event);
typical surface area of one hand (cm2);
exposure time (hr/day);

number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and
number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

and

J7aj * T^)J?

1 Ml t.

hands

(3.7)

HR =

SAh *2

where:

DE

SAh

HR

F aihands

2

hand residue loading (mg/cm );

fraction ai on hands compared to total surface residue from dermal

transfer coefficient study (unitless);

dermal exposure (mg); and

typical surface area of one hand (cm2).

Dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

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D =		(3.8)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application hand-to-mouth exposure following applications to lawns and turf is generally
considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate
short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 7.3.2and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment
intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or
lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 3-6. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

Tsihie 3-(ป: Turf- Keeommenrieri Point l-lsliniiiles lor Posl-Annliciilion II;iihI-|o-Moii|Ii 1'.\i)oniiiy l-':ielors

Algorithm
Noliilion

l'l\|)OMire l-':ielor
(unils)

Point llsliiiiiilels)

Fai|l(|M,is

Fraction of ai on hands
from dermal transfer
coefficient study
(unitless)

Liquid formulations

0.06

Granular formulations

0.027

DE

Dermal exposure (mg)

As calculated from Section 3.2.2

SAh

Typical surface area of one hand (cm2), children 1 <
2 years old

150

AR

Application rate
(mass active ingredient per unit area)

Maximum labeled application rate

HR

Residue available on the hands (mg/cm2)

Calculated via (DE * Faiw^ySAH

Fm

Fraction hand surface area mouthed
(fraction/event)

0.127

NReplen

Replenishment intervals per hour
(intervals/hr)

4

ET

Exposure time
(hrs/day)

1.5

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(unitless)

0.48

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events per hour
(events/hr)

13.9

BW

Body Weight

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

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Tiil>lc3-(>: I iiiI - Ki'CommciHlcri Point l.s(iin;i(os for PoM-Anpliciilion Ihinri-lo-Moulh I xnosuiv I iicKms

Algorithm
Noliilion

r.xpoMiiv l-':uior
(unils)

Point I.N(im;ikMN)



(kg)





Hand Residue Loading (HR)

Hand residue is linked to dermal exposure and it is assumed that the fraction of residue on the
hands is equal to the fraction of the residue on the hands from the turf dermal transfer coefficient
study.

Fraction Active Ingredient on the Hands (Faihands)

The fraction of active ingredient available on the hands was based on the turf dermal transfer
coefficient study (D. Klonne and D. Johnson, MRID 47292001). These values were determined
for liquids and granules by taking the average fraction of active ingredient on the hands from all
monitoring units and comparing that value to the average fraction of active ingredient on the
entire body from all monitoring units assuming an individual is wearing a t-shirt and shorts. This
analysis resulted in values of 0.06 for liquids and 0.027 for granules.

Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed (F^)

See Section 2.4 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of hand surface area mouthed
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application hand-to-mouth
exposure assessment is 0.127 per event.

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old of 150 cm , for one hand, was based on
values from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011).

Exposure Time (ET)

See discussion of exposure time in Section 3.2.2 above. The recommended point estimate for
use in post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessment is 1.5 hrs/day.

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the Consolidated Human
Activity Database (CHAD) diaries.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application hand-to-mouth
exposure assessment is 0.48.

Hand-to-Mouth Events per Hour (Freq HtM)

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Frequency of hand-to-mouth events is an important variable for hand-to-mouth post-application
exposure assessments. The estimates for frequency of hand-to-mouth events in outdoor
environments are based on the Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis. The turf SOP utilizes hand-to-
mouth frequency data for the 1 < 2 year old lifestage. The estimates of hand mouthing frequency
(events/hour) for 1 < 2 years old were derived from 4 studies representing 32 participants. Based
on an analysis of the data by Xue et al., it was determined that a Weibull distribution (scale=
13.8, shape= 0.98) best fits the observed data. Table 3-7 provides distributions and point
estimates of hand-to-mouth events for use in residential pesticide exposure assessment and
AppendixD.9.1 provides additional analysis. The recommended point estimate for use in
post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessment is 13.9 events/hr.

TiihlcJ-'7: I-'iv(|iiciio nllhmd-lo-MoiMh I.miKs (c\ en Is/hour)

Sliiiislic

Childron 1 < 2 jcsirs old

5
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Lawns/Turf

•	The extent to which the amount of time spent conducting certain activities varies over an
extended period of time is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no variation
when assessing longer-term exposure times is considered conservative.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva

•	Though based on limited data, the determination of the fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva from the hand is considered reasonable.

3.2.4 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-to-

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the dose from incidental ingestion of
pesticide residues from previously treated turf. Considering the strengths and limitations of
available data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see Appendix A for
more details), exposure for children 1 < 2 years old is calculated in this scenario. It assumes that
pesticide residues are transferred to a child's toy and are subsequently ingested as a result of
object-to-mouth transfer. It does not include residues ingested as a result of soil ingestion (see
Section 3.2.5).

Post-application Object-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from object-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on the algorithm utilized
in SHEDS-Multimedia):

Mouth

E = OR * CF\ * SAM0 * (ET * N _ Replen) * 1 - (l - SE) N _Replen

Freq _ OtM

(3.9)

where:

SAM0
ET

N_Replen

SE

FreqOtM

E

OR

CF1

exposure (mg/day);

chemical residue loading on the object on day "t" (ug/cm2);
weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);
area of the object surface that is mouthed (cm2/event);
exposure time (hr/day);

number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and
number of object-to-mouth contact events per hour (events/hour).

and

OR = AR * F0 * CF2 * CF3

(3.10)

where:

OR
AR

Fo
CF2

2

chemical residue loading on the object ((J,g/cm );
application rate (lbs ai/ft2or lb ai/acre);
fraction of residue available on the object (unitless);
weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 108 jug/lb); and

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CF3	= area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/cm2 or 2.47 x 10"'

acre/cm2).

and

Dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

D = —	(3.11)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application object-to-mouth exposure following applications to lawns and turf is generally
considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate
short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment
intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or
lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Object-to-Mouth Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application object-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 3-8. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

Tsihle 3-X: Turf- Kccoiiiinoiidod Poinl r.s(im;i(os for Post-Xnpliciilion Ohjcii-lu-.Moiilh Mxposuiv l';ic(nrs

Algorithm
Noliiliun

l'l\|)OMIIV 1-ilClOI-

(unils)

Point l'.sliniiilo(s)

AR

Application rate (to turf)

(mass active ingredient per unit area)

Maximum labeled application rate

F0

Fraction of AR as OR following application1

0.01

SAM0

Surface area of object mouthed
(cm2/event)

10

N Replen

Replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour)

4

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(fraction)

0.48

ET

Exposure time
(hours per day)

1.5

Freq_OtM

Object-to-mouth events per hour (events/hr)

8.8

BW

Body Weight (kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

1 This SOP assumes that all of the residue on the turf could be transferred to the object (e.g., object residue is
equal to turf transferable residue).

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Fraction of Residue Available on the Object (Fq)

Following an application, some pesticide residue remains on turf. Some of this residue may be
transferred to a child's toy and subsequently ingested via object-to-mouth activities. For this
SOP, it is assumed that the residue that could be transferred to the object is the same as what is
available for dermal transfer. As a result, the fraction of total deposited residue available for
transfer using the turf transferable residue data (see discussion above in Section 3.2.2 for more
detail) should be used as a conservative estimate for the fraction of residue available on the
object. Based on the available liquid TTR data, the recommended point estimate for use in
post-application object-to-mouth exposure assessment is 0.01.

Surface Area of Object Mouthed (SAMo)

See Section 2.5 of this SOP for discussion of surface area of object mouthed. The
recommended point estimate for use in post-application object-to-mouth exposure
assessment is 10 cm2.

Exposure Time (ET)

See discussion of exposure time in Section 3.2.2 above. The recommended point estimate for
use in post-application object-to-mouth exposure assessment is 1.5 hrs/day.

Replenishment Intervals per Flour (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application object-to-mouth
exposure assessment is 0.48.

Object-to-Mouth Events per Flour (Freq OtM)

Frequency of object-to-mouth events is an important variable for object-to-mouth post-
application exposure assessments. The estimates for frequency of object-to-mouth events in
outdoor environments are based on the Xue et al. (2010) meta-analysis. The turf SOP utilizes
object-to-mouth frequency data for the 1 < 2 year old lifestage. The estimates of object
mouthing frequency (events/hour) for 1 < 2 years old were derived from 2 studies representing
21 participants. Based on an analysis of the data by Xue et al. (2010), it was determined that a
Weibull distribution (scale=8.58, shape= 0.93) best fits the observed data. Table 3-9 provides
distributions and point estimates of hand to mouth events for use in residential pesticide exposure
assessment and Appendix D. 10.1 provides further detailed analysis. Based on this analysis, the
recommended point estimate for use in post-application object-to-mouth exposure
assessment is 8.8 events/hr.

liil)lo3-V: I iy(|ik'iio of Ohjccl-lo-Moiiih l'\onls (oxcnls/hour)

Sliiiislic

Children 1 < 2 jcsirs old

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T.ihle 3-'.): l-'iv(|iicno of Ohjecl-lo-Moiiih l'\onls (oxcnls/hour)

Sliiiislic

( hildivn 1 < 2 jcsirs old

50th percentile

6.0

75 th percentile

10.8

95th percentile

21.3

AM(SD)

8.8 (8.8)

N

21

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application object-to-mouth exposure
assessments for pesticide applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
turf with pesticides;

o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Daily activity patterns specific to object-to-mouth activities on turf (e.g., typical
surface area of object that is mouthed).

•	Data on the amount of residue transferred from treated turf to both hard and soft
children's toys.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Turf Transferable Residue

•	The assumption that the entire available turf transferable residue is transferred to the
object is considered conservative.

•	Absent chemical-specific data, estimates of turf transferable residue factors such as the
amount available following application and dissipation are used genetically based on
existing data for a wide variety of chemicals. Use of the data genetically, including using
high-end estimates, may overestimate exposure for some chemicals.

•	Assessors should recognize that factors such as rainfall/irrigation, grass growth, and grass
mowing can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides.

Exposure Time

•	The extent to which the amount of time spent conducting certain activities varies over an
extended period of time is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no variation
when assessing longer-term exposure times is considered conservative.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva

•	There are no data with which to determine the fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
from an object. Use of the saliva extraction data for hands is considered a reasonable
surrogate.

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3.2.5 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Incidental
Soil Ingestion

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating dose from incidental ingestion of soil
containing pesticide residues. Considering the strengths and limitations of available data and
behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see Appendix A for more details),
exposure for children 1 < 2 years old is calculated in this scenario. It assumes that pesticide
residues in soil are ingested by children who play on treated areas (e.g., lawns, gardens,
playgrounds) as a result of normal mouthing activities (i.e., these estimates do not represent
exposure among children who exhibit pica, an abnormal ingestion behavior).

Post-application Incidental Soil Ingestion Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from incidental soil ingestion is calculated as follows:

E = SRt * SIgR * CF1	(3.12)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

SRt = soil residue on day "t" (jug/g);

SIgR = ingestion rate of soil (mg/day); and

CF1 = weight unit conversion factor (1 x 10"6 g/jug).

and

where:

SRt = AR*FS * (1-Fdf * CF2 * CF3 * CF4	(3.13)

SRt	= soil residue on day "t" (jug/g);

AR	= application rate (lbs ai/ft or lb ai/acre);

FS	= fraction of ai available in uppermost cm of soil (fraction/cm);

Fd	= fraction of residue that dissipates daily (unitless);

t	= post-application day on which exposure is being assessed;

o

CF2 = weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 10 jug/lb);

CF3 = area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/cm2 or 2.47 x 10"8 acre/cm2); and

"3

CF4 = soil volume to weight unit conversion factor (0.67 cm /g soil).

Dose, normalized to body weight, are calculated as:

D =		(3.14)

BW

where:

D = dose (mg/kg-day);
E = exposure (mg/day); and

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BW = body weight (kg).

Post-application soil ingestion exposure following applications to lawns and turf is generally
considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate
short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment
intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or
lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Incidental Soil Ingestion Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application incidental soil ingestion exposure assessments are
provided in Table 3-10. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described
in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data sources used
to derive recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

1 "sihie 3-10: Turf- Keeommenrieri Point 1-1 Minifies lor Post-\pplie
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Lawns/Turf

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application exposure assessments for pesticide
applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Data could be produced to examine the potential for a range of pesticides to stay in the
uppermost 1 cm of soil over a period of time.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Soil Residue

•	The uncertainties associated with this assessment stem from the use of an assumed
amount of pesticide available in the uppermost 1 cm of soil, and assumptions regarding
dissipation of chemical residues in the soil and soil ingestion. However, the defaults used
produce health protective exposure estimates.

3.2.6 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Episodic
Granular Ingestion

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating post-application doses from incidental
ingestion of pesticide pellets and granules that have been applied to lawns and gardens when
adequate site-or chemical-specific field data are unavailable. Considering the strengths and
limitations of available data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see
Appendix A for more details), exposure for children 1 < 2 years old is calculated in this scenario.
This scenario assumes that dry pesticide materials are ingested by children who play in treated
areas (e.g., lawns, playgrounds).

Post-application Episodic Granular Ingestion Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from incidental ingestion of pesticide pellets or granules is calculated as follows:

E = GIgR* FD * CF1

(3.15)

where:

E

GIgR

FD

CF1

exposure (mg/day);

ingestion rate of dry pesticide formulation (g/day);
fraction of ai in dry formulation (unitless); and
weight unit conversion factor (1,000 mg/g).

Dose, normalized to body weight, are calculated as:

D =	

BW

(3.16)

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where:

D	=	dose (mg/kg-day);

E	=	exposure (mg/day); and

BW	=	body weight (kg).

Post-application granular pesticide exposure following applications to lawns and turf would not
occur as a result of routine behavior and is considered an episodic event related to poisoning.
Thus, longer-term assessments are not conducted.

Post-application Episodic Granular Ingestion Algorithm Inputs and
Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application episodic granular ingestion exposure assessments are
provided in Table 3-11. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described
in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used
to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Tiil>k'3-11: T111T- Kccoiiiinoiidod Point r.s(im;i(os for Posl-Applii'iilion l-'.pisoriic (ir;inul;ir Ingestion

I aininimy l-'ilClOI'S

Algorithm
Noliilion

Ilxposiiiv l-iicloi-
(unils)

Point r.siiniiiic(s)

Fd

Fraction of active ingredient in dry formulation

Product specific

AR

Application rate (lbs/A or lbs/1,000 ft2)

Product specific

GIgR

Granule ingestion rate per day
(g/day)1

0.3

BW

Body Weight (kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

1 See discussion below on how this value may be adjusted if product specific information is available.

Fraction of Active Ingredient in the Dry Formulation (FD)

The fraction of active ingredient in the dry formulation should be determined by consulting the
product label(s). In all cases, the formulation with the highest amount of active ingredient
should be used to assess episodic granular ingestion.

Granular Product Application Rate (AR)

The amount of granule product applied per area of lawn should be indicated by the product label.
The combination of this factor with the fraction of active ingredient in the product yields the
application rate in terms of active ingredient per area.

Granular Ingestion Rate (GIgR)

The assumed ingestion rate for dry pesticide formulations (e.g., pellets and granules) is 0.3
gram/day for children 1 < 2 years old. It is assumed that if 150 pounds of product were to be
applied to a V2 acre lawn, the amount of product per square foot would be approximately 3 g/ft
and a child would consume one-tenth of the product available in a square foot.

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If product-specific information is available, the granular ingestion rate may be adjusted to reflect
the amount of product applied on a per area basis if it is less or more than 150 pounds to a V2 acre
lawn. For instance, if 50 pounds of product is meant to treat a V2 acre lawn, then the ingestion
rate should be reduced by a third to 0.1 grams/day.

Future Research/Data Needs

There are currently no data needs for the episodic granular ingestion scenario.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Exposure assessments addressing non-dietary ingestion of granules should indicate this is
considered to be an episodic event, and should be addressed as a single scenario (i.e., the
exposure should not be combined with any other sources of exposure to the pesticide). Granule
size, granular color, particle density, and instructions such as "soil incorporate" should also be
considered.

An alternative assessment methodology for episodic granular ingestion can be done which
examines the amount of granular product that a child could eat before any adverse effects occur.
This alternative methodology can be used as characterization in support of the episodic granular
ingestion assessment methodology discussed above.

3.2.7 Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Mowing

This SOP provides a method for estimating potential dermal doses from contact with turf that has
previously been treated with pesticides. Considering the strengths and limitations of available
data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages (see Appendix A for more
details), exposure for adults and children 11 < 16 years old is calculated in this scenario. This
scenario assumes that pesticide residues are transferred to the skin of adults and children 11 < 16
years old that enter treated lawns for mowing.

It is assumed that individuals can be mowing previously treated turf on the same day a pesticide
is applied even though this may be an unlikely scenario. However, the assessment can be refined
to more accurately reflect exposure over a longer period of time (e.g., a week or month) if usage
and activity information is available to allow for such calculations.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm - Mowing

Exposure resulting from contacting previously treated turf while mowing is calculated as
follows:

E= TTRt * CF1 * TC *ET

(3.17)

where:

E

TTRt

CF1

TC

exposure (mg/day);

turf transferable residue on day "t" (|ig/cm2);
weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);
transfer coefficient (cm2/hr); and

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ET = exposure time (hr/day).

TTRt = AR* Far* (1-Fd/ * CF2 * CF3	(3.18)

where:

TTRt	= turf transferable residue on day "t" (|ig/cm );

AR	= application rate (lbs ai/ft or lb ai/acre);

Far	= fraction of ai retained on turf (unitless);

Fd	= fraction of residue that dissipates daily (unitless);

t	= post-application day on which exposure is being assessed;

o

CF2 = weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 10 jug/lb); and

CF3 = area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/cm2or 2.47 x 10"8 acre/cm2).

Absorbed dose, normalized to body weight, are calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(3.19)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application dermal exposure while mowing following applications to lawns and turf is
generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-
term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions - Mowing

Recommended values for post-application dermal mowing exposure assessments are provided in
Table 3-12. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

I'iihlo 3-12: Turf ( Mow inii) - Ki-comim-ndcd Point l.s(iin;i(os for PoM-.\pplic;ilion l)ci in;il llxposmv

l";iclors

Algorithm Noiiilion

i:\posuiv l";idor
(unils)

Poilll r.Milllilk-IM

AR

Application rate
mass active ingredient per unit area

Maximum labeled
application rate

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I'iihlo 3-12: Turf ( Mow inii) - Ki-comim-ndcd Point l.s(iin;i(os for Pos(-\|)|)lic;i(ion l)ci in;il llxposmv

l";iclors

Far

Fraction of AR as
TTR following
application

LAVPAVDG

0.01

Granules

0.002

Fd

Daily residue
dissipation

L/WPAVDG

0.1

Granules

0.1

TC

Transfer Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Adult

5,500

Children 11 < 16 years
old

4,500

ET

Exposure time
(hours per day)

1

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Adults

80

Children 11 < 16 years
old

57

LAVP/WDG = liquid/wettable powder/water dispersible granule

Turf Transferable Residue (TTR)

See discussion of TTR in Section 3.2.2 above.

Fraction of Application Rate Available For Transfer (Fm)

See discussion of Far in Section 3.2.2 above.

Daily residue dissipation (FD)

See discussion of FD in Section 3.2.2 above.

Transfer Coefficient (TC)

The transfer coefficients used for the "mower" dermal scenarios were derived from data
collected during a golf course maintenance study (Klonne and Bruce, 2005). These data were
gathered while human volunteers (1) mowed greens with a walk-behind mower (8 participants)
and (2) mowed fairways with a riding mower (8 participants) on a golf course. The walk-behind
mower activity consisted of mowing using a walk-behind reel mower with a grass catcher,
emptying the grass catcher, and hosing off the mower with water at the conclusion of mowing.
Greens mowing occurred in the morning and a monitoring event consisted of mowing 4 to 5
greens (approximately 2 to 3 hours). The riding mower activity consisted of mowing fairways
(using a 5-reel riding mower), mowing tee boxes/surrounds (using a 3-reel riding mower),
emptying the grass catcher, and hosing off the mower with water at the conclusion of mowing.
Fairway mowing occurred in the morning and a monitoring event consisted of mowing either 5
to 6 fairways or tees/surrounds for 9 holes (approximately 2 to 4.5 hours). Post-application
exposure resulting from golf course mowing was deemed an appropriate surrogate for residential
homeowner mowing.

An analysis was performed to assess the statistical differences between the TCs calculated using
the walk-behind mower data vs. the riding mower data. It was determined that there was no
statistical difference between these datasets and, thus, in calculating the adult dermal "mower"
transfer coefficient, the data were combined (See Section D. 7.1 of Appendix D). For children 11

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<16 years old, the transfer coefficient is adjusted for body surface area using a factor of 0.82
(i.e., a 18% reduction in the TC) as outlined in Section 2.3. Table 3-13 provides some summary
statistical information about the turf dermal transfer coefficient distribution for mowing
activities.

The recommended point estimates for use in post-application adult and children 11 < 16
years old dermal exposure assessments are 5,500 and 4,500 cm2/hr, respectively.

Tsihle 3-13: Turf (Mow ingi - Dcniiiil r.xposurc Tniiisfi'r CoclTicicnls (T-sliirl ;iihI Shorts) for IihN\ idiuils

IViionninii Mowing .\cli\ilios

Sliilislic

Ailull Tr;insrcr ( odTicicnl
(ciir/hn

Children 11 < l(> Yours Old
1 musl'iT ( oiTI'icii'ni (cnr/lir) 1

50Ql percentile

2,700

2,200

75 th percentile

6,300

5,200

95th percentile

22,000

18,000

99th percentile

54,000

44,000

AM(SD)

5,500 (7,300)

4,500 (NA)

GM (GSD)

2,700 (3.5)

2,200 (NA)

Range

319-25,860

NA

N

16

NA

1A 18% reduction in the adult transfer coefficient is recommended to account for the differences of body surface
areas between adults and children 11 < 16 years old.

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure from treated turf is the
duration of time spent mowing. No microactivity data were available that specifically examined
the amount of time a person spends mowing their home lawn; however, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics American Time Use Survey from 2007 (ATUS) examined the number of hours per day
a person performs lawn and garden care activities around their home. Based on these data, the
recommended point estimate for use in post-application dermal exposure assessment is 1
hour/day for mowing activities.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application mowing exposure assessments for
pesticide applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
turf with pesticides;

o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

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o Daily activity patterns specific to the typical amount of time a person spends
mowing their home lawn.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Transfer Coefficient

•	The use of the mowing component from a golf course maintenance study as a surrogate
for residential homeowner mowing is reasonably representative of the exposures related
to residential mowing activities. HED believes that residential mower's highest
exposures are most likely to occur when clippings are removed by hand from collection
bags for disposal and this activity was represented in the mowing activity of the golf
course maintenance study.

Turf Transferable Residue

•	The Modified California Roller Method was used in the selected turf dermal transfer
coefficient study to collect TTR. This TTR collection method was agreed upon by the
ORETF, CDPR, PMRA, and the Agency. For all assessments, transfer coefficients from
this study should only be used with TTR studies that utilize the Modified California
Roller Method. If chemical-specific TTR data collected via the Modified California
Roller Method are not available, then default TTR data (i.e., based on the application
rate) should be used.

•	Absent chemical-specific data, estimates of turf transferable residue factors such as the
amount available following application and dissipation are used genetically based on
existing data for a wide variety of chemicals. Use of this data genetically, including
using high-end estimates, may overestimate exposure for other chemicals.

•	Assessors should recognize that mowing grass after an application may be limited by
label directions indicating not to mow until a certain period of time has passed after
application or else the product may not work.

•	Assessors should recognize that real world factors such as rainfall/irrigation and grass
growth can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides on turf.

Exposure Time

•	The extent to which the amount of time spent conducting certain activities varies over an
extended period of time is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no variation
when assessing longer-term exposure times is considered conservative.

3.2.8 Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment: Golfing

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating potential dermal doses to golfers from
dermal contact with turf that has previously been treated with pesticides. Considering the
strengths and limitations of available data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed
lifestages (See Appendix A for more details); exposure for adults, children 11 < 16 years old, and
children 6 < 11 years old is calculated in this scenario. This scenario assumes that pesticide
residues are transferred to the skin of adults and teens that play golf on treated turf.

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It is assumed that individuals can be golfing on previously treated turf on the same day a
pesticide is applied. However, the assessment can be refined to more accurately reflect exposure
over a longer period of time (e.g., a week or month) if toxicological or activity information is
available to allow for such calculations.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm - Golfing

Exposure resulting from contacting previously treated turf while golfing is calculated as follows:

E= TTRt * CF1 * TC * ET

(3.20)

where:

and

E	= exposure (mg/day);

TTRt	= turf transferable residue on day "t" (|ig/cm );

CF1	= weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);

TC	= transfer coefficient (cm /hr); and

ET	= exposure time (hr/day).

TTRt = AR*F* (1-Fdf * CF2 * CF3

(3.21)

where:

TTRt	= turf transferable residue on day "t" (|ig/cm );

AR	= application rate (lbs ai/ft2 or lb ai/acre);

F	= fraction of ai retained on turf (unitless);'

Fd	= fraction of residue that dissipates daily (unitless);

t	= post-application day on which exposure is being assessed;

o

CF2	= weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 10 jug/lb); and

CF3	= area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/cm2or 2.47 x 10"8 acre/cm2).

Absorbed dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(3.22)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application dermal exposure while golfing following applications to golf course turf is
generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-

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Lawns/Turf

term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions - Golfing

Recommended values for post-application dermal golfing exposure assessments are provided in
Table 3-14. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

liihlo 3-14: 1 in

'1'(Coifing) - Rocoin minded Point llsliniiilos lor PoM-.\pplic;ilion l)crm;il llxposmv



l";ic(ปrs



Al^uriihm

I'1\|)ummv l";ic(or

Point I.N(iiii;ik'(s)

Noliiiion

( ii nils)



AR

Application rale

Maximum labeled



(mass active ingredient per unit area)

rate

F

Fraction of AR as TTR

LAVP/WDG

0.01



following application

Granules

0.002

Fd

Daily residue dissipation

LAVP/WDG

0.1





Granules

0.1

TC

Transfer Coefficient

Adult

5,300



(cm2/hr)

Children 11 < 16 years old

4,400





Children 6 < 11 years old

2,900

ET

Exposure time
(hours per day)

Pesticides used on greens, tees,
and fairways

4





Pesticides used only on greens

1





and tees



BW

Body Weight

Adults

80



(kg)

Children 11 < 16 years old

57





Children 6 < 11 years old

32

NA = not applicable

LAVP/WDG = liquid/wettable powder/water dispersible granule

Turf Transferable Residue (TTR)

See discussion of TTR in Section 3.2.2 above.

Fraction of Application Rate Available For Transfer (F)

See discussion of F in Section 3.2.2 above.

Daily residue dissipation (FD)

See discussion of FD in Section 3.2.2 above.

Transfer Coefficient (TC)

The transfer coefficients used for the "golfer" dermal scenarios were derived using the best
available data. In this case, data collected during a golf course maintenance study (Klonne and
Bruce, 2005) was considered to provide the best representation of the exposures that might be
experienced by golfers. Data were gathered while human volunteers moved cups on golf greens
(6 participants). The cup changing activity consisted of making a new hole with a hand operated

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Lawns/Turf

cup cutter, putting the plastic cup liner from the old hole into the new hole, filling the old hole
with sand and the plug from the new hole. Some cup changers also repaired ball marks on the
greens with a hand tool similar to those used by golfers. Cup changing occurred first thing in the
morning and a monitoring event consisted of changing 18 cups. Most workers performed the
cup changing while bending over and not contacting the turf with anything, but their shoes and
hands; however, one worker routinely kneeled on one knee and two other workers kneeled for a
few holes. HED has fit a distribution from the 6 cup changing exposures to calculate a surrogate
transfer coefficient for golfers (See Section D. 7.1 of Appendix D).

For children 11 < 16 years old, the transfer coefficient is adjusted for body surface area using a
factor of 0.82 (i.e., a 18% reduction in the TC) as outlined in Section 2.3. For children 6 < 11
years old, the transfer coefficient is adjusted for body surface area using a factor of 0.55 (i.e., a
45% reduction in the TC) as outlined in Section 2.3. Table 3-15 provides some summary
statistical information about the turf dermal transfer coefficient distribution for golfing activities.

The recommended point estimates for use in post-application adult, children 11<16 years
old, and children 6<11 years old dermal exposure assessment are 5,300; 4,400; and 2,900
cm2/hr, respectively.

Table 3-15: Turf (Colfinii) - l)crm;d llxposmv

l i iiiislii- Coefficients (T-shirt iiml Shorts) lor IihN\ idiiiils





Collin"



Sliiiislic

Ariull Tninsfcr CoelTk-ienl
(cur/hi)

Children 11 < l(> Yc;irs
Old 1 ViinslVr Coefficient

Children (i < 11 Yc.irs Old
I'mnslcr Coefficient



(cnr/lir) 1

(cnr/lir)"

50 peiveiiule

ISnn

2,300

1,500

75 th percentile

6,400

5,300

3,500

95th percentile

21,000

17,000

12,000

99th percentile

49,000

40,000

27,000

AM(SD)

5,300 (7,000)

4,400 (NA)

2,900 (NA)

GM (GSD)

2,800 (3.3)

2,300 (NA)

1,500 (NA)

Range

988-18,863

NA

NA

N

6

NA

NA

1 A 18% reduction in the adult transfer coefficient is recommended to account for the differences of body

surface areas between adults and children 11 < 16 years old.



A 45% reduction in the adult transfer coefficient is recommended to account for the differences of body

surface areas between adults and children 6 < 11 years old.



AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)



Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure from treated turf while
golfing is the duration of time spent golfing. The duration is assumed to be 4 hours for a
chemical that can be used on all parts of a golf course (greens, tees, and fairways). This estimate
is the average time it takes to play a round of golf and is based on a report completed by the
Center for Golf Course Management (1992).

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Lawns/Turf

It should also be noted that some chemicals are limited to use on greens and tees or are primarily
used on just greens and tees for cultural reasons. When chemicals meet these criteria, the
exposure time is 1 hour because contact time is proportionately lower with the treated area. If a
chemical has a label restriction for greens and tees, then a single exposure calculation should be
completed for the 1 hour duration.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application golfing exposure assessments for
pesticide applications to turf include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to turf) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
golf course turf with pesticides;

o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Daily activity patterns specific to the typical amount of time a person spends
golfing.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Risk assessments for children (< 5 years old) golfing are complex due to the extrapolation of
adult dermal exposure data and because of the increased likelihood of other behaviors that might
contribute to exposure, such as mouthing contaminated hands or golf balls. Therefore, the risk
associated with children in a golfing scenario is addressed qualitatively below:

•	Five-year-old children are assumed to be the representative lifestage for children in a
golfing scenario. The surface area to body weight ratio (SA/BW) for male children 5
years of age (the difference is larger for males compared to females making the value
more protective) was calculated by using the 95th percentile for body surface area and the
50th percentile for body weight. The ratio was intentionally skewed to account for the
uncertainties that would be expected with calculating dose levels for children if more
definitive data were available, and for potential additional exposure that may occur from
mouthing behaviors. This skewed SA/BW ratio for children was compared to that of the
average adult, and found to be approximately 70 percent greater. Based on this parameter
alone, a child's exposure could be almost twice that of the adult golfer; however, it
should be noted that a child is not expected to use the golf course for the same length of
time as an adult. While an adult is likely to play a full round of golf (i.e., 18 holes),
which takes approximately 4 hours, a child would probably only spend about 2 hours
(i.e., the 75th percentile for time spent playing on grass by children aged 1-4 years and 5-
11 years) on the course. Thus, the child's shorter duration on the golf course offsets the
higher SA/BW ratio, and therefore, the child golfer's exposure is likely to be similar to
that of the adult golfer.

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Lawns/Turf

Transfer Coefficient

•	The use of the cup changing component from a golf course maintenance study is an
acceptable surrogate for golfer exposure because it is assumed that a golfer's highest
exposures are most likely to occur when contacting residues from turf on and around the
greens and residues remaining on the golf ball. The actions associated with cup changing
in the golf course maintenance study are similar to typical golfer actions and, as a result,
the actions should result in similar exposures.

Turf Transferable Residue

•	The Modified California Roller Method was used in the selected turf dermal transfer
coefficient study to collect TTR. This TTR collection method was agreed upon by the
ORETF, CDPR, PMRA, and the Agency. For all assessments, transfer coefficients from
this study should only be used with TTR studies that utilize the Modified California
Roller Method. If chemical-specific TTR data collected via the Modified California
Roller Method are not available, then default TTR data (i.e., based on the application
rate) should be used.

•	Absent chemical-specific data, estimates of turf transferable residue factors such as the
amount available following application and dissipation are used genetically based on
existing data for a wide variety of chemicals. Use of the data genetically, including using
high-end estimates, may result in overestimates for some chemicals.

•	Assessors should recognize that real world factors such as rainfall/irrigation, grass
growth, and grass mowing can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides on turf.
Irrigation and mowing are of particular importance to the golfer scenario in that both of
these activities occur on almost a daily basis at most golf courses. Based on these factors,
the golfer exposure scenario should be considered conservative in nature when compared
to possible real world exposures.

Exposure Time

•	The extent to which the amount of time spent conducting certain activities varies over an
extended period of time is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no variation
when assessing longer-term exposure times is considered conservative.

3.2.9 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risk estimates resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across
different routes of exposure are the same (see Section 1.3.5). When combining scenarios, it is
important to fully characterize the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk
inputs and estimates. Risk estimates should be combined even if any one scenario or route of
exposure exceeds the level of concern because this allows for better risk characterization for risk
managers. The following issues should be considered when combining scenarios for the
residential turf SOP:

ฆ There are a number of non-dietary ingestion exposure scenarios that could potentially be
combined with the dermal exposure scenario. These non-dietary ingestion scenarios
should be considered inter-related and it is likely that they occur interspersed amongst

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Lawns/Turf

each other across time. For example, a child may place his hand in his mouth X number
of times as well as place an object in his mouth Y number of times during a certain period
of time. Each of these events could result in a potential transfer of residue, but could also
result in a soil ingestion event as soil may be present on the hand or object during
mouthing. The potential combinations of co-occurrence of the hand-to-mouth/object-to-
mouth/soil ingestion scenarios across a particular period of time are limitless. Combining
all three of these scenarios with the dermal exposure scenario would be overly-
conservative because of the conservative nature of each individual assessment. Based on
this discussion, the post-application exposure scenarios that should be combined for
short-term exposure durations are the dermal and hand-to-mouth scenarios. This
combination should be considered a protective estimate of children's exposure to
pesticides used on turf.

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Gardens and Trees

Section 4 Gardens and Trees

The procedures outlined in this section should be used to assess dermal and inhalation exposure
during (i.e., handler) and following pesticide applications (i.e., post-application) to gardens and
trees at home by professional pesticide applicators or homeowners themselves. Other potential
sources of exposure addressed by this section where professional applications could potentially
lead to exposure by the general population, if applicable to the pesticide and its label under
consideration, include "pick-your-own" farms and treated plants purchased at retail locations.
For the purposes of this section, a "pick-your-own" farm is a commercial farming operation that
allows public access for harvesting fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants in large-scale fields
that can be treated with commercially labeled pesticides. Additionally, as dietary exposure is a
separate component of the overall human health exposure/risk assessment, this section does not
include dietary exposure resulting from fruits or vegetables treated with pesticides at home.

The following are example use sites from pesticide product labeling that would necessitate an
assessment for this scenario:

•	Gardens:

o Flowers (e.g., chrysanthemums);
o Fruits (e.g., strawberries); and
o Vegetables (e.g., tomatoes, squash, etc.).

•	Trees:

o	Fruits (e.g., apples, citrus);

o	Nuts (e.g., pecans);

o	Shrubs (e.g., boxwood); and

o	Ornamentals (e.g., maples).

The exposure assessor should assume use is permitted for use in home gardens and trees or by
homeowners unless a specific statement on the label indicates the product is only used in non-
residential settings. Examples of such statements include:

o Commercial or research greenhouse use only;
o For nursery-grown ornamentals only; and
o For use in commercial plantings only.

Additionally, "Restricted Use Pesticide" classification indicates that the product cannot be
bought or applied by homeowners (i.e., no residential handler exposure/risk assessment
required), but it may be applied by commercial applicators to residential sites; therefore, a post-
application risk assessment may be required.

Once scenarios are identified, the assessment should then characterize and estimate the potential
for exposure by route (i.e., dermal, inhalation) using the methodologies outlined in this section.

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Gardens and Trees

4.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

Handler exposure can result from treating home gardens and trees with pesticides. Some key
assumptions for these assessments include:

•	Adults are considered the index lifestage for this scenario as it is assumed that pesticides
are applied by adults only (i.e., individuals 16 years and older).

•	All application equipment and methods are assumed feasible unless prohibited by the
product label.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers, for a given formulation-application method combination, is estimated by
multiplying the formulation-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the
amount of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE * AR * A	(4.1)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE = unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

AR = application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft, lb ai/gal); and
A = area treated or amount handled (e.g., ft2/day, gal/day).

Dermal and/or inhalation absorbed doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

E* AE

E> =	(4.2)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for applications to gardens and trees is generally considered short-term in
duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.3 such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 4-1 and Table 4-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data

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Gardens and Trees

sources used to derive recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

liihk'4-l: (iiii'dcus iiiid l ives- Recommended I nil I-ainisiiiv img/lh ;ii) Point I sliiniKis

I'ormiikilinn

l'.(|iiipmcnl/.\pplic;iliun
Method

Doi'iiiid

Iiihidiilion

Appendix P;iiic
Reference

Point l.sliniiik'

Point I stiniiitc

Granules

Push-type spreaders

0.81

0.0026

C-4

Belly grinders

360

0.039

C-ll

Spoon

6.2

0.087

C-20

Cup

0.11

0.013

C-24

Hand dispersal

160

0.38

C-28

Shaker can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for granule applications using a cup
recommended as surrogate data.

Dusts/Powders

Plunger duster

250

1.7

C-32

Bulb duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for plunger duster applications recommended
as surrogate data.

Electric/power duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for shaker can applications of dusts/powders
recommended as surrogate data.

Hand crank duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for shaker can applications of dusts/powders
recommended as surrogate data.

Shaker can

4300

18

C-36

Liquid concentrates

Manually-pressurized
handwand

63

0.018

C-56

Hose-end sprayer

58

0.0014

C-79

Backpack

130

0.14

C-91

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Hose-end sprayer

6.26

0.034

C-107

Trigger-sprayers

85.1

0.061

C-113

Aerosol can

370

3.0

C-134

Wettable Powder

Manually-pressurized
handwand

69

1.1

C-141

Hose-end sprayer

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Backpack

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for manually-pressurized handwand
applications of wettable powders recommended as surrogate

data.

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for hose-end sprayer applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Wettable Powder in
Water-soluble
Packaging

Manually-pressurized
handwand

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for manually-pressurized handwand applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Hose-end sprayer

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for RTU hose-end sprayers recommended as surrogate data.

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Gardens and Trees

liihk'4-l: (iiii'dcus iiiid l ives- Recommended I nil r.xposniv img/lh ;ii) Point r.slim;ilcs

I'ormiikition

l'.(|iiipmcnl/.\pplic;ilion
Method

l)crm;il

Iiihidiilion

Appendix P;iiic
Reference

Point I sliniiitc

Point I stiniiitc

Backpack

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for manually-pressurized handwand applications of liquid
concentrates recommended as surrogate data.

Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Exposure data
for RTU hose-end sprayers recommended as surrogate data.

Dry Flowable /
Water-dispersible
Granule

Manually-pressurized
handwand
Hose-end sprayer
Backpack
Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Application
method-specific exposure data for wettable powders
recommended as surrogate data.

Micro-encapsulates

Manually-pressurized
handwand
Hose-end sprayer
Backpack
Sprinkler can

No exposure data available for this scenario. Application
method-specific exposure data for liquid concentrates
recommended as surrogate data.

T;il>lc4-2: (.unions ;ind l ives - Recommended lliindler r.xposniv l uctor Point l-'sliimiles

r.xposniv l";ic(or
(units)

Poinl l'.sliniiile(s)

Application Rate
(mass ai per unit area)

Maximum labeled rate

Garden Size

(ft2)

1200

Amount product or
finished spray solution
used

Manually-pressurized handwand
(gallons)

5

Backpack
(gallons)

5

Hose-end sprayer
(gallons)

11

Sprinkler can
(gallons)

5

Ready-to-use single use containers
(e.g., aerosol cans, trigger-spray bottles, shaker cans)

2

Body Weight
(kg)

80

Unit Exposures

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio, for a given formulation/application
method combination, between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled, with units
mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled). The
recommended point estimates are shown in Table 4-1. Data summaries can be found in

Appendix C.

Amount of active ingredient Handled

The algorithm for estimating handler exposure requires some estimate of the amount of active
ingredient handled per day. This factor varies based on the type of equipment or application

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Gardens and Trees

method used and is estimated based on the application rate specified on the product label. First,
the assessor should assemble application rate information in terms of active ingredient per area
treated (e.g., lb ai/1000 ft) and/or active ingredient concentration established per volume of
spray (e.g., lb ai/gallon solution). For example, instructions for a granule formulation might
direct application of 2 lbs of product per 100 square feet or a spray application might say to
apply 2 gallons of solution per 100 square feet. Additionally, the assessment must reflect
exposure resulting from use of the product and chemical at the maximum allowable application
rate found on the product label. The probability of using a product at its maximum allowable
rate at home is unknown, so additional information (e.g., use surveys or pest-specific application
rates), can be used, if available, to characterize the exposure resulting from use at the maximum
allowable rate.

Once the application rate is determined, an amount of area treated or amount of volume sprayed
is used to convert the application rate into the amount of active ingredient handled (which is then
used with the unit exposure to estimate handler exposure). For this scenario, the amount of area
treated is estimated using information about garden size from a survey (Johnson et al., 1999).
Note that these results represent garden sizes, not garden areas treated. Table 4-3 below presents
a statistical summary assuming a lognormal distribution for garden size to be used when
application rates are in terms of area. The recommended point estimate for garden size is
1200 ft2. Additional information and analysis is presented in Section A. 1 of Appendix C.

1 'sihie 4-3: Sisilisliesil Siimmsin - (.union Si/e ifr)

50th percentile

80

75th percentile

390

95th percentile

3700

99th percentile

18000

AM(SD)

1200 (18000)

GM (GSD)

80 (10)

Range

unknown

N

364

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

If a case is being considered in which the application rate is based on spray concentration, an
estimate for the amount of finished spray solution volume is necessary. Such a rate would be
used for spraying trees, for example, where an "area-based" approach would not be appropriate
or useful because label instructions provide target spray concentrations. However, this factor is
likely application method-specific (i.e., one might apply more solution using a hose-end sprayer
than a sprinkler can) and explicit information on volumes sprayed in home applications is
unavailable.

For hose-end sprayers, application volume was derived from a study measuring exposure during
applications of liquid formulations to fruit trees and ornamental shrubs using a hose-end sprayer
(Merricks, 1998). A statistical summary assuming a normal distribution for application volume
is provided in Table 4-4 below. The recommended point estimate for amount sprayed for
hose-end sprayers is 11 gallons. Statistical analyses and data summary are provided in Section
A.l of Appendix C.

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Gardens and Trees

1 ;il)lc 4-4: Miilisliciil Siimniiin - Application Volume (pillions) lor IIoso-oikI Spr;i>ors

50 percentile

11

75 th percentile

14

95th percentile

19

99th percentile

22

AM(SD)

11(5.1)

GM (GSD)

10(1.6)

Range

6-21

N

20

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

For all other applications, information on the amount of product used is largely unavailable. For
manually-pressurized handwands, backpacks, and sprinkler cans, a volume of 5 gallons is
recommended; for aerosol cans and trigger-sprayers, 2 cans or containers per application
is recommended. Should ready-to-use containers of granules or dusts/powders not specify
an area-based application rate, 2 containers per application is recommended. These are
conservative estimates based on professional judgment informed by existing applicator studies
which discussed the extent of use (e.g., duration, volume, etc.).

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine handler exposure assessments for pesticide
applications to gardens and trees include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to gardens and trees) - either
chemical-specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides,
etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o Daily/weekly/monthly probability of treating gardens and trees with pesticides;
o Amount of product or formulation used or area treated per application;
o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used.

•	Handler exposure data:

o Specific for garden and tree applications, beyond what had been included in
previous residential data call-ins (DCIs), including those formulations and/or
application methods currently unavailable in Table 4-2;
o Describing the extent to which an individual's exposure for a given formulation
and application method varies from application-to-application.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

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Gardens and Trees

Unit Exposures

•	The exposure data underlying unit exposures are considered reasonable for the purposes
of estimating exposure. The data are from actual applications using standardized
exposure sampling methodologies and laboratory analyses.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amounts of active ingredient handled for typical residential gardens
and trees application equipment is largely unavailable. The estimates used however, are
believed to result in health protective exposure estimates.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

4.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from conducting activities in previously treated areas such
as gardening or picking fruits following pesticide applications by professional pesticide
applicators or by homeowners themselves.

Adults and children 6 < 11 years old are considered the index lifestages for this exposure
scenario as it is assumed that younger children (i.e., < 6 years old) won't utilize these areas for
playing nor engage in the types of activities associated with these areas (e.g., gardening or
picking fruits) to the extent that older children will. Additionally, by law, "pick-your-own"
farms cannot spray pesticides within the pre-harvest interval (PHI), e.g., 7 or 14 days prior to
harvest. Therefore, assessments applicable for activities at "pick-your-own" farms should
account for residue dissipation during the PHI (i.e., residue @ "day of application + PHI").

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three scenarios
resulting from contact with gardens and/or trees that have previously been treated with
pesticides:

•	Section 4.2.1 - adult/children 6 < 11 years old inhalation exposure resulting from
activities in gardens and/or trees;

•	Section 4.2.2 - adult/children 6 < 11 years old dermal exposure resulting from activities
in gardens and/or trees; and

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Gardens and Trees

• Section 4.2.3 - children 1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion.

4.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

Post-application inhalation exposure while performing activities in previously treated gardens or
trees is rarely assessed due to the combination of low vapor pressure for typical pesticide active
ingredients and the expected dilution in outdoor air. These should be handled on a case-by-case
basis.

4.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment

Post-application dermal exposure resulting from contact with previously treated gardens and
trees is dependent on three exposure factors: foliar residue, leaf-to-skin residue transfer, and
exposure time. Considering the strengths and limitations of available data and behavioral
characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages, post-application dermal exposure is assessed for
adults and children 6 < 11 years old.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm

The algorithm to calculate daily exposure and dose is shown below. As discussed in Section
1.3.4, residential post-application exposure assessment must include calculation of exposure on
the day of application. Therefore, though an assessment can present exposures for any day "t"
following the application, it must include "day 0" exposure.

E = DFRt * CF1 * TC * ET

(4.3)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

DFRt	= dislodgeable foliar residue on day "t" (|ig/cm );

CF1	= weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);

TC	= transfer coefficient (cm /hr); and

ET	= exposure time (hrs/day).

In the absence of chemical-specific data, DFRt can be calculated as follows:

DFRt = AR* Far* (1-Fd)' * CF2 * CF3

(4.4)

where:

2

DFRt = dislodgeable foliar residue on day "t" (|ig/cm );

AR = application rate (lbs ai/ft2 or lb ai/acre);

Far = fraction of ai as dislodgeable residue following application (unitless);
Fd = fraction of residue that dissipates daily (unitless);
t	= post-application day on which exposure is being assessed;

o

CF2 = weight unit conversion factor (4.54 x 10 jug/lb); and

CF3 = area unit conversion factor (1.08 x 10"3 ft2/cm2 or 2.47 x 10"8 acre/cm2).

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Gardens and Trees

Absorbed dermal dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(4.5)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application dermal exposure following applications to gardens and trees is generally
considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate
short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment
intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or
lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments are provided in Table
4-5 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

1 "sihie 4-5: (iiii'dens. l ives, iiiid "Pick-jour-ow n" hu ms - Keeoinineiuled Poiiil llsliniiiles lor Posi-

Apnlieiilion Derniiil l-'\pซisiire l-'iielors

Algorithm
Noliiiioii

r.\|)<>Mire l";ie(ปr
(unils)

Poiiil l'.sliiiiiile(s)

AR

Application rate
(mass ai per unit area)

Maximum labeled
rate

Far

DFR following application, if chemical-specific is unavailable
(fraction)

0.25

Fd

Daily residue dissipation, if chemical-specific is unavailable
(fraction)

0.10

TC

Transfer
Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Gardens3

Adults

8400

Children 6 < 11 years old

4600

Trees, Retail

Plants (if
applicable)3

Adults

1700

Children 6 < 11 years old

930

Indoor Plants

Adults

220

Children 6 < 11 years old

120

ET

Exposure

Time
(hours per
day)

Home activities'3

Gardens

Adults

2.2

Children 6 < 11 years
old

1.1

Trees, Retail
Plants (if
applicable)

Adults

1.0

Children 6 < 11 years
old

0.50

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Gardens and Trees

1 iihlo 4

-5: (.unions. 1

'im. iiiid "Pick-winr-Miiv hiclnr
(iinils)

Poim l'.sliiiiiilo(s)









Adults

1.0







Indoor Plants

Children 6 < 11 years
old

0.50





"Pick-your-own"
Farms (if
applicable)

Adults

5.0





Children 6 < 11 years old

1.9

BW

Body weight

Adults

80



(kg)

Children 6 < 11 years old

32

a Transfer coefficient point estimates from a composite distribution assuming equal proportion of time spent
conducting various activities. See "Transfer Coefficient" section below. Children 6 < 11 years old TC derived
using surface area adjustment (see Section 2.3).

b Activity time point estimates from a composite distribution assuming equal proportion of each respective
activity. Time for children 6 < 11 years old derived using hrs/day ratio adjustment. See "Exposure Time" section
below and Section D. 8.1 of Appendix D,

Application Rate

The assessment must reflect exposure resulting from use of the product and chemical at the
maximum allowable application rate found on the product label. The probability of using a
product at its maximum allowable rate at home or at "pick-your-own" farms is unknown, so
additional information (e.g., use surveys), can be used, if available, to characterize the exposure
resulting from use at the maximum allowable rate.

When chemical-specific residue information is unavailable, the assessment methodologies
outlined in this section require the application rate to be in terms of mass active ingredient per
area (e.g., lb ai/ft). Typically, this is listed on the label however, it sometimes must be
estimated based on the solution concentration (e.g., lb ai/gallon dilute solution) and the volume
of solution applied (e.g., 0.5 gallons solution/ft). This "area-based" approach is intuitive for
garden applications where a user can approximate their garden's size and spray accordingly.

This is more difficult, however, for applications to trees since a user would not typically spray
trees on a square footage basis. More likely, the product label directs the user to "spray to run
off' or "as needed". In these cases, a label indicating the chemical's application rate for orchards
or other trees used by professional applicators should be used - typically listed as an "area-
based" rate in pounds of active ingredient per acre (lb ai/acre). In the event there is no
professional label, the "area-based" application rate from sprays to gardens should be used. The
assumption of similar foliar concentration for gardens and trees is reasonable absent chemical-
and site-specific residue data.

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Gardens and Trees

Dislodgeable Foliar Residue

Estimates of Chemical Residue following Pesticide Applications

Following an application, some pesticide residue remains on the leaves of the target plant for an
individual to contact and remove from the leaf surface. This is represented by a measurement
from a standardized analytical method (Iwata, et al., 1977) and is referred to as dislodgeable
foliar residue (DFR). If DFR measurements are unavailable, it can be estimated from the
application rate using default fractions. Either way, the goal is to establish an average
concentration of pesticide residue per unit area of foliage (e.g., |ig/cm2) that an individual can
potentially contact over the course of the exposure period. Exposure can then be predicted using
a surface-to-skin residue "transfer coefficient" (discussed below) - a metric which accounts for
contact with treated surfaces based on the type of crop and activity being performed (e.g.,
harvesting apples).

As stated previously, it is assumed that contact with previously treated residential gardens or
trees occur on the same day of application. Therefore, whether measured or estimated, the
exposure assessment needs to include an estimated exposure based on the DFR on the day of
application (i.e., DFRt=o). For "pick-your-own" farms, however, individuals cannot conduct
activities until the PHI has expired; therefore, residue should be representative of residue that has
dissipated for a number of days (e.g., at 7 days or DFRt=7). When chemical- and crop-specific
data are available, DFR on the day of application and subsequent days can be estimated using a
standard exponential decay model. Notably, the Agency recently revised the data requirements
that pertain to conventional pesticides. As part of these revisions, DFR studies were classified as
required for all occupational and residential uses under 40 CFR 158, subpart K (158.1070; post-
application exposure data requirements table).

In the absence of data, however, DFR can be estimated using generic assumptions for both the
initial residue available (i.e., DFRt=o) and residue dissipation. Analysis of DFR data from field
studies for various types of crops and various active ingredients indicate that the amount of
dislodgeable residue, on the day of application, expressed as a fraction of the application rate,
ranges from 0.02 to 0.89 (i.e., 2% to 89%). The data were fit to a lognormal distribution with a
geometric mean of 0.18 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.21. Because dislodgeable
residue cannot physically be greater than that deposited, the distribution must be truncated at 1.0
(i.e., 100% of the application rate). Note that this distribution is only meant as a basis for
selecting a generic value for the DFR on the day of application as a fraction of the application
rate and is inappropriate to use probabilistically. Because the data are comprised of a variety of
chemicals on a variety of crops under a variety of conditions, this distribution represents the
variability of many different situations. Within each particular DFR study, because the nature of
the sampling results in an average DFR estimate, the distribution of the DFR on the day of
application as a fraction of the application rate is much less variable - indicating that, for a given
chemical the range may be only 2 - 5% or 30 - 35%, not 2 - 89%. Furthermore, because the
chemical-specific variability of this fraction is small, a distribution for use probabilistically is
unnecessary (i.e., it will not have much effect on the outcome) and a point estimate is appropriate
for use in both deterministic and probabilistic assessments. When chemical-specific data are
unavailable the recommended default value for the fraction of application rate as

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Gardens and Trees

dislodgeable foliar residue for both liquid and solid formulations following application is
0.25 (25%). Complete data analysis can be found in Section D.6.2 of Appendix D.

Residue Dissipation

An analysis of various available studies was conducted to determine residue dissipation for use
in exposure assessment in the absence of chemical-specific data. Expressed as a fraction per
day, residue dissipation ranges from 0.03 to 0.47 (i.e., 3% to 47%) with a geometric mean of
0.16 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.18. Complete data analysis can be found in Section
D.6.2 of Appendix D. The recommended default residue dissipation for both liquid and
solid formulations for use in exposure assessment is 0.10 (10% per day).

Transfer Coefficient

Post-application dermal exposure can be predicted using estimates for foliar residue, leaf-to-skin
residue transfer for individuals contacting treated foliage during certain activities, and exposure
time. The measure of leaf-to-skin residue transfer for a given crop and activity is known as the
transfer coefficient (TC). Transfer coefficients are derived from concurrent measurements of
exposure and foliar residue, and are the ratio of exposure rate, measured in mass of chemical per
time (e.g., |ig/hr), to residue, measured in mass of chemical per foliar surface area (e.g., |ig/cm ).
In other words, transfer coefficients are exposure rates (e.g., mg/hr) normalized to residue (e.g.,

2	2

mg/cm ), with resulting units of cm /hr. It follows that exposure rate for a given crop and
activity can then be predicted from a given residue using the transfer coefficient. Additionally,
transfer coefficients are typically applied genetically - that is, for any given chemical, crop-
activity transfer coefficients (e.g., apple harvesting) can be used.

Unlike occupational settings where individuals generally perform one task on one crop
throughout the day (e.g., harvesting apples), individuals in residential settings are likely to
conduct various activities related to gardening and tree or plant maintenance. Transfer
coefficients from occupational reentry exposure studies conducted by the Agricultural Reentry
Task Force (ARTF), were used to establish composite transfer coefficients representing an array
of plausible activities likely to occur in residential settings associated with home gardening and
other scenarios. Additionally, also unlike occupational settings, the transfer coefficients
represent individuals wearing shorts and short-sleeve shirts by using "outer dosimeter" exposure
measurements for the forearm and lower leg sections.

Transfer coefficients were derived for activities conducted in gardens and in trees (both at home
and at "pick-your-own" farms), as well as for indoor plants and retail plants treated at
commercial locations. Table 4-6 below lists the representative crops and activities and the
occupational field reentry studies used to derive their respective transfer coefficients. Because
the individuals monitored in these studies were adults, use of these transfer coefficients to assess
post-application exposure for children 6 < 11 years old requires an adjustment for body surface
area as described in Section 2.3. The recommended adjustment factor for children 6 < 11
years old is 0.55. In practice, this means that a transfer coefficient for children 6 < 11 years old
are expected to be approximately 55% of an adult transfer coefficient (i.e., Adult TC * 0.55).
Complete data analysis for all transfer coefficients can be found in Section D. 7.2 of Appendix D.

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Gardens and Trees

Tsihle 4-(ป: (.unions. Trees, iind "Pick-viiir-im if" l-~;irms - Triinsler CoelTieienl Studies

Residential Posl-;ipplie;ilion Ac(i\i(>

Rep resell l;ili\e ( rop/.\e(i\ i(\
( onihin;itions

Siiulj ( ode

MRU)

AR IT #

Gardens
(vegetables, fruits, and flowers)

Cabbage weeding

45191701

ARF037

Tomato tying

45530103

ARF051

Squash harvesting

45491902

ARF049

Chrysanthemum pinching

45344501

ARF039

Trees and Retail Plants
(fruits, nuts, ornamentals, shrubs,
bushes)

Ornamental citrus tree pruning

45469501

ARF043

Apple harvesting

45138202

ARF025

Orange harvesting

45432301

ARF041

Grapefruit harvesting

45432302

ARF042

Indoor Plants

Ornamental citrus tree pruning

45469501

ARF043

Gardens

Transfer coefficients for residential gardening were derived using studies representing likely
residential gardening activities such as weeding and picking flowers, fruits, or vegetables. Also,
when appropriate for certain pesticides, these would be applicable for activities in "pick-your-
own" farms growing field grown crops (e.g., pumpkins, strawberries, etc.). Four separate
exposure studies were used: a study each for cabbage weeding (Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID
45191701), tomato tying (Klonne, et al., 2001; MRID 45530103), squash harvesting (Klonne, et
al., 2001; MRID 45491902), and chrysanthemum pinching (Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID
45344501). Each individual study was fit to a lognormal distribution, and then combined into a
single custom distribution via simulation assuming an equal proportion (e.g., 25%) for each
distribution. Table 4-7 below summarizes the statistical information for this data set. Based on
this composite dataset, the recommended point estimates for use in post-application dermal
exposure assessment for gardens are 8400 cm2/hr for adults and 4600 cm2/hr for children 6
<11 years old.

Tsihle 4-"7: Si;iiislie:il Sumiiiiin - Ciirdeninu Tr;insl'er CoelTieieiils (enr/lir)

50th percentile

3200

75th percentile

13000

95th percentile

31000

99th percentile

38000

AM

8400

Range

160-41000

N

67

AM = arithmetic mean

Note: Distributional parameters are not applicable for this distribution. Users are directed to the distributional
parameters for each of the sub-distributions outlined in Section D. 7.2 of Appendix D.

Trees and Retail Plants

Transfer coefficients were derived representing activities at home that individuals would perform
on trees such as picking roses or apples or thinning shrubs and bushes. Also, when appropriate
for certain pesticides, these would be applicable for activities in "pick-your-own" farms growing
tree crops (e.g., apples, some flowers, etc.) as well as for contact with retail plants previously
treated with pesticides at commercial locations. Four separate exposure studies were used: a

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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Gardens and Trees

study each for apple harvesting (Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID 45138202), orange harvesting
(Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID 45432301), grapefruit harvesting (Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID
45432302), and ornamental citrus tree pruning (Klonne, et al., 2000; MRID 45469501).

Each individual study was fit to a lognormal distribution, and then combined into a single custom
distribution via simulation assuming an equal proportion (e.g., 25% each) for each distribution.
Table 4-8 below summarizes the statistical information for this data set. Based on this composite
dataset, the recommended point estimates for use in post-application dermal exposure
assessment are 1700 cm2/hr for adults and 930 cm2/hr for children 6 < 11 years old.

1 "sihie 4-X: Si;iiislic
-------
Gardens and Trees

Home Activities

Exposure times for activities associated with gardens and trees at home were derived using a
residential survey (Johnson et al., 1999) and Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (as presented in 1997 EPA
Exposure Factors Handbook; Vol. Ill, Table 15-62). While Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 includes
information on "time spent working with soil in a garden or other circumstances working" for all
lifestages including children 6 < 11 years old, the data are presented as hours/month, thus
making it difficult to interpret daily exposure times necessary for exposure assessments of short
duration. The residential survey (Johnson et al., 1999), on the other hand, asked about specific
types of residential landscaping and maintenance activities and the amount of time an individual
spends conducting such activities quantified in "hours per week" and "days per week".

However, because this survey only included individuals 18 years or older, Tsang and Klepeis,
1996 (as presented in 1997 EPA Exposure Factors Handbook; Vol. Ill, Table 15-62) was used to
adjust these results for those under 18 years. Analysis of this survey information can be found in
Section D.8.1 of Appendix D.

Gardens

As for transfer coefficients for gardening, a custom distribution for home gardening was
simulated using cumulative distributions derived from the Johnson, et al. (1999) survey results
for vegetable gardening and flower gardening in equal proportion (i.e., 50% each). Each
cumulative distribution was truncated at 16 hours per day (i.e., 16 hrs = 100th percentile) to
subtract for 8 hours of sleep. Additionally, as described in Appendix D, based on Tsang and
Klepeis, 1996 (as presented in 1997 EPA Exposure Factors Handbook; Vol. Ill, Table 15-62),
activity time for children 6 < 11 years old is considered to be approximately half that for adults
and are adjusted accordingly. Table 4-10 below provides a statistical summary of the composite
distribution for time spent in home gardening activities. The recommended point estimates for
use in post-application dermal exposure assessment are 2.2 hours per day for adults and
1.1 hours per day for children 6 < 11 years old.

1 "sihie 4-10: Nome Ciirileninii-Ae(i\i(\ Time (hrs/(l;i\) S(;i(islic;il Siiiiiin;ir\

Sliiiislie

(iiirrieninu

Adults

Youlhs

50th percentile

1.4

0.7

75 th percentile

2.9

1.5

95th percentile

6.9

3.5

99th percentile

13

6.5

AM

2.2

1.1

N

883

883

Notes:





AM = arithmetic mean



- Distributions are truncated at 16 hours per day



- Distributional parameters are not applicable (NA) for this distribution. Users are directed to the distributional

parameters for each of the sub-distributions outlined in Section D.8.

lof Appendix D

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Gardens and Trees

Trees. Retail Plants and Indoor Plants

A custom distribution for activity time associated with trees at home was simulated using
cumulative distributions derived from the Johnson, et al., 1999 survey results for roses,
shrubs/bushes, and fruit/nut trees (i.e., 33% each). This distribution is also considered a
reasonable representation for time spent during activities associated with indoor plants. Each
cumulative distribution was truncated at 16 hours per day (i.e., 16 hrs = 100th percentile) to
subtract for 8 hours of sleep. Table 4-11 below provides a statistical summary of the composite
distribution. The recommended point estimates for use in post-application dermal exposure
assessment are 1.0 hour per day for adults and 0.5 hour per day for children 6 < 11 years
old.

Tsihlo 4-11: lloino Tiocs. Koliiil Phinls. iiiid Indoor Phiuls - Ao(i\ i(\ Timo (hrs/d;i\) Sl;i(is(io;d Suinm;ir\

Sliiiislio

l-'ruil. Nul. iind ()rn;imoiil;il 11

oos iind liushos iiiid Shrubs



Adults

Youths

50th percentile

0.5

0.25

75th percentile

1.4

0.7

95th percentile

3.4

1.7

99th percentile

6.3

3.2

AM

1.0

0.5

N

831

831

Notes:





AM = arithmetic mean



- Distributions are truncated at 16 hours per day.



- Distributional parameters are not applicable (NA) for this distribution. Users are directed to the distributional

parameters for each of the sub-distributions outlined in Section D.8.

1 of Appendix D.

"Pick-your-own" Farm Activities

Survey information specifically for the amount of time spent at "pick-your-own" farms is
unavailable. Therefore, information from Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (presented in the 1997 EPA
Exposure Factors Handbook; Vol. Ill Table 15-112) for amount of time "spent outdoors at a
farm" was used. The time for adults, aged 18-64 years, ranged from 5 minutes to 16 hours per
day, while the time for children, aged 5-11, ranged from 25 minutes to 4.4 hours per day. Note
that, while the upper-end of the distribution indicates the time spent for adults is near 16 hours
per day, it is assumed that anything greater than 8 hours at a "pick-your-own" farm is unlikely
and values higher than this are likely a characteristic of the genericness of the data set used to
estimate this exposure factor (i.e., "time spent outdoors at a farm" is not necessarily
representative of "time spent at a "pick-your-own" farm"). Table 4-12 below provides a
statistical summary of this data. When a "pick your own" farm post-application exposure
assessment is appropriate, the recommended values for exposure time are 5.0 hours per day
for adults and 1.9 hours per day for children 6 < 11 years old. Additional information can be
found in Section D.8 of Appendix D.

Tsihlo 4-12: Timo Spoilt ill "PioU-uiur-ow n" l"sirms (hrs/d;i\) Sliiiisiioiil Suiiiin;ir\

l.il'osliiiio

Alio
(from diiiii)

Sliiiisiios

N

M o;i n

Sumniiin I'oroonIilos

5

25

50

75

yo

•)5

yx

<)<)

Adults

18-64

91

5.0

0.3

1.3

3.8

8.3

10.6

13.0

15.6

15.9

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Gardens and Trees

Children
6<11

5-11

7

1.9

0.4

0.8

1.7

2.2

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

Source: Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (presented in 1997 EPA Exposure Factors Handbook Vol. Ill; Table 15-112).

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application dermal exposure assessments for
pesticide applications to gardens and trees include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied to gardens and trees) - either
chemical-specific or generic intervals by pesticide-type (e.g., fungicides, insecticides,
etc.).

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o Daily/weekly/monthly probability of treating gardens and trees with pesticides;
o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Daily activity patterns specific to gardens and trees.

•	Post-application exposure data:

o Specific for residential garden and tree activities;

o Describing the extent to which an individual's exposure for a given activity
varies.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Transfer Coefficient: Because exposure data for deriving "residential" transfer coefficients were
unavailable, they were derived using occupational exposure studies. This is likely health-
protective due to the level of activity by workers compared to an individual conducting a similar
activity at home (e.g., picking apples). Additionally, the relationships underlying the use of post-
application exposure data as transfer coefficients - proportionality between exposure and time
and between exposure rate (i.e., mg/hr) and residue - are uncertain, though potentially
conservative.

Dislodgeable Foliar Residue: Absent chemical-specific data, estimates of dislodgeable foliar
residue factors such as the amount available following application and dissipation are used
generically based on existing data for a wide variety of chemicals. Use of these data genetically,
including using high-end estimates, may overestimate exposure for some chemicals.

Exposure Time: Information on the amount of time spent conducting certain activities, while
from a robust survey, was not available in a "per day" format. Thus, to normalize weekly data
on a "per day" basis, the assumption was made (based on the responses for "days per week" for
these activities) that individuals conducted activities 2 days per week. Additionally, the survey
did not provide information on individuals younger than 18 years of age; therefore, an
adjustment was made to the survey information based on the distributional ratio of adults to
children 6 < 11 years old for "time spent working with soil in a garden or other circumstances
working" from Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (as presented in the 1997 EPA Exposure Factors
Handbook; Vol. Ill Table 15-62).

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Gardens and Trees

Information on time spent at a "pick-your-own" farm is unavailable; therefore "time spent
outdoors on a farm" was used as a reasonable surrogate dataset.

4.2.3	Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment

As a standard practice, post-application non-dietary ingestion exposure (i.e., hand-to-mouth,
object-to-mouth, soil ingestion, etc.) for adults is not assessed - it is assumed that an adult would
not place pesticide-contaminated hands, objects, or soil in their mouth. Additionally, for this
scenario, post-application non-dietary ingestion exposure is also not assessed for young children.
Unlike treated grass at home or in recreational areas or indoor floor surfaces, for this scenario the
potential for exposure via non-dietary ingestion for young children is greatly diminished. Since
the extent to which young children engage in the types of activities associated with these areas
(e.g., gardening or picking fruits) or utilize these areas for prolonged periods of play is low,
significant non-dietary ingestion exposure is not expected.

4.2.4	Combining Post-application Scenarios

Aggregation of post-application exposure is generally not applicable to activities associated with
gardens and trees, given the lack of non-dietary ingestion exposure expected for the activities
and index lifestages. In the event post-application inhalation exposure is assessed, it should be
combined with post-application dermal exposure for adults and children 6 < 11 years old
according to Section 1.3.5.

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

Section 5 Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

This section covers the following exposure scenarios:

•	Outdoor aerosol space sprays (handler/post-application);

•	Candles, coils, torches, mats (post-application);

•	Outdoor residential misting systems (handler/post-application); and

•	Animal barn misting systems (handler/post-application).

Each of these exposure scenarios is designated for outdoor use fogging products only. Each
section offers additional description of the exposure scenario and the handler and/or post-
application exposure. Indoor fogging products (i.e., "bug bombs") are covered in Section 7.
While barns and stables are "indoors" (i.e., enclosed or semi-enclosed structures), they are
included in this section because of methodological similarities to the other scenarios in this
section and because barns often have significantly more air exchange than standard indoor
commercial or residential spaces.

5.1 Outdoor Aerosol Space Sprays (OASS)

Outdoor aerosol space sprays are insecticide products available in aerosol cans formulated to kill
or repel outdoor flying pests by an aerosol "fog". This section provides a standard method for
estimating handler (i.e., applicator) exposure and post-application exposure to outdoor aerosol
space sprays (OASS) used to kill or repel flying insects in outdoor spaces like yards or patios.
This exposure scenario can also be used to assess wasp/hornet spray products that typically have
a more directed spray pattern than other types of outdoor foggers, for lack of scenario-specific
data for these types of products. For handlers, inhalation and dermal exposure may occur during
the application of the aerosol spray product (i.e., the spray event); thus dermal and inhalation
exposure should be assessed. Post-application exposure may occur from inhalation exposure
following a spray application, as well as dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure resulting
from residues deposited on the turf or lawn.

5.1.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

This section provides a standard method for completing handler exposure assessments for adults
treating an outdoor space with outdoor aerosol space sprays. It is assumed that only individuals
16 years of age or older handle (i.e., mix/load/apply) pesticides. The basis for this scenario is
that handler exposure occurs as the aerosol spray is being applied by the applicator holding the
product can and activating the spray. The method should be used for estimating potential doses
that residential users may receive during aerosol applications from inhalation and dermal contact
when chemical-specific data are unavailable.

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This scenario assumes that pesticides may be inhaled or may come into contact with the skin
during the application of aerosol spray products. The method to determine handler inhalation
and dermal exposure to pesticides from aerosol applications relies on data from a study in which
dermal and inhalation exposures were measured during use of an aerosol spray for indoor
insecticide crack and crevice treatment, and is used in this scenario to represent an outdoor
aerosol spray (See Appendix C). Thus, this method should be used in the absence of chemical-
specific data, or as a supplement to estimates based on chemical-specific data.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers is estimated by multiplying a unit exposure appropriate for the formulation
and application method by an estimate of the amount of active ingredient handled in a day using
the equation below:

E = UE * AR	(5.1)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE = unit exposure (mg/lb ai); and
AR = application rate (lb ai/day).

The application rate can be calculated as follows:

AR = A product * A.I. * CF1 * N	(5.2)

where:

AR = application rate (lb ai/ day);

A product = amount of product in 1 can (oz or g/can);

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

CF1 = weight conversion factor (1 lb/16 oz or 1 lb/454 g); and

N = number of cans used in one application (cans/day).

Alternatively, if the aerosol can contents are expressed as a volume in milliliters, the application
rate for use in the exposure assessment can be calculated as follows:

AR A product * A.I. * CF1 * D product *N	(5.3)

where:

AR = application rate (lb ai/ day);

A product = amount of product in 1 can (mL/can);

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

CF1 = weight conversion factor (1 lb/454 g);

D product = density of product (g/mL); and
N = number of cans used in one day (cans/day).

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

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F* AF

D=	(5.4)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for outdoor aerosol space spray applications is generally considered short-term
in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.3 such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 5-1 and Table 5-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

T;tl>lc5-I: Outdoor Aerosol Sp;tcc Spr;t\s- Recommended I nil r.xpostirc (m^/lh ;ii) Point r.slim;ilcs

l-'o i'iiiii l;i I ion

Icpiipnunt/
Application
Method

l)crm;il

Inhiiliilion

Appendix P:iiic
Reference

Point Msiiniiiic

Point I'.siiniiiic

Ready-to-Use
(RTU)

Aerosol can

370

3.0

C-134

1 ;il>lc 5-2: Outdoor Aerosol Sp:ice Spr;i\s - Recommended Ihindlcr l.xposniv l-'iiclor Point Mstiniiites

Algorithm
Solution

l-lxpoMirc l-'iiclor
(units)

Point l'.sliniiile(s)

AR

Application rate
(lb ai/ day)

Product-specific

D product

Density of
product
(g/mL)

Water-based
products

1.0 (or product-specific)

Solvent-based
products

0.8 (or product-specific)

N

Number of cans used per day

1

A.I.

Percent ai in product

Product-specific

A product

Amount of product per can
(ounces, grams or milliliters)

Product-specific

BW

Body weight
(kg)

80

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Unit Exposures (UE)

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio, for a given formulation/application
method combination, of exposure to amount of active ingredient handled, with units of mass
exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled).

Application Rate (AR)

For the purposes of OASS handler exposure assessment, the application rate is the amount of
active ingredient applied per day. The application rate can be determined from product-specific
factors that are listed on the label or from generic factors listed above.

Number of Cans (N)

Absent product- or chemical-specific data, it is assumed that 1 full can of product is applied
by a residential handler at one time, and that one can of product represents a residential
handler's complete insecticidal aerosol product use per day. According to the Residential
Exposure Joint Venture (REJV) survey (REJV, 2002), no household surveyed used more than
one outdoor aerosol space spray product in one day. If extensive pest pressure exists, residential
users would likely seek alternative application equipment.

Density (D product)

The density should represent the product being assessed. If product-specific densities are
available, they should be used in the assessment. Otherwise, if the product is water-based, the
assessor should use the density of water (1.0 g/mL). If the product is solvent-based, the
assessor should use 0.8 g/mL, an average based on an informal survey of various organic
solvents described in CRC (Lide, 1981).

Amount of Product (A product)

The amount of product (ounces, grams or milliliters per can) is a product-specific value and can
be found on the product label.

Future Research/Data Needs

There are several main research/data needs with respect to the outdoor aerosol space spray
handler scenario.

•	A monitoring study is needed in which the spray application is conducted in a manner
consistent with outdoor aerosol space sprays to more appropriately characterize dermal
and inhalation handler exposure potential. The unit exposures for the outdoor aerosol
space spray handler scenario were sourced from a study in which the spray application
was completed indoors to baseboards.

•	Use pattern information (i.e., amount handled, etc.) is needed to better characterize the
residential handler exposure potential during application events.

•	Scenario-specific unit exposure data are needed to more appropriately characterize
dermal and inhalation handler exposure from wasp/hornet directed aerosol spray

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applications; the wasp/hornet directed aerosol spray products typically have a modified
delivery system (i.e., directed spray) than other outdoor products.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	Only one study is available to represent unit exposures for residential handlers of aerosol
spray products. The study is used to represent all residential handler (indoor and
outdoor) aerosol exposure scenarios. The monitoring study was completed indoors where
applicators directed the aerosol spray towards the baseboards of a residence. As the only
data available, this study was considered a reasonable surrogate for outdoor aerosol space
sprays.

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amounts of active ingredient handled for typical outdoor aerosol
sprace sprays is largely unavailable. The estimates used however, are believed to result
in health protective exposure estimates.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

5.1.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from activities performed in a treated patio or yard
following outdoor aerosol space spray pesticide applications. While exposure may occur for
people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestages based
on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and limitations of available data (sqq Appendix A).

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three post-
application exposure pathways resulting from use of area foggers:

•	Section 5.1.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposure; and,

•	Section 5.1.2.2 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal and children 1 < 2 years old non-
dietary exposure.

Post-application exposure is not anticipated to occur following pesticide application of wasp/
hornet products. These products are applied directly to insect nests/hives and it is not likely that
residential bystanders would be present in these areas.

5.1.2.1 Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

The well-mixed box (WMB) model was used to develop the exposure equation for the outdoor
aerosol space spray post-application inhalation scenario (See Section D. 3 of Appendix I) for
additional detail on the WMB). The WMB was used to model pesticide air concentrations within
an enclosed, fixed volume (i.e., a box) over time after an initial outdoor aerosol space spray
application. The WMB model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions: fresh air

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(having no pesticide concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate; a turbulent internal
airflow thoroughly mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-laden air resulting in a uniform
pesticide air concentration within the box; and the perfectly mixed air exits the box at the same
constant airflow rate (i.e., the inflow rate equals the outflow rate). Thus, the outdoor area where
the aerosol is being applied is assumed to be in an enclosed box. Using the WMB model is
conservative for estimation of exposures for an open patio, deck or yard where dissipation is
expected to be greater than the enclosed space that the WMB depicts.

The evacuation of the aerosol from the box depends on airflow. For an outdoor scenario, the
airflow, Q, is the product of the cross-sectional area and the wind velocity. The cross-sectional
area is dependent on the area/volume of the treated space, and is defined in each SOP sub-
scenario. The WMB model developed for this scenario models the pesticide air concentrations
after an initial, instantaneous release of an outdoor aerosol space spray. Only dissipation due to
airflow into and out of the box is modeled.

For the inhalation route of exposure, the point of departure (POD) could be based on the
reference concentration (RfC) methodology. In the RfC methodology, air concentrations are not
converted to doses, rather, risks are assessed on the basis of comparison of exposure
concentrations with reference concentrations typically determined from animal studies. This
approach is not always available for every chemical; therefore, the exposure assessor should
discuss the possibility of this approach with a toxicologist.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm

Post-application inhalation exposure to adults or children in an outdoor area that has been treated
with an aerosolized pesticide is largely dependent on the amount applied and the airflow. It
should be noted that two factors, exposure time and volume, are not significant factors for
calculation of exposure from outdoor aerosol space sprays. Exposure time is not a significant
factor in the exposure calculation due to the rapid dissipation of pesticide air concentrations from
outdoor aerosol space sprays. Based on the minimum airflow rate (Q) given in Table 5-3 below,
the pesticide air concentration within the enclosed space is virtually zero (less than 0.1% of the
initial concentration) after approximately 7 minutes. The integration of the WMB model
equation to derive the exposure equation results in the volume term used to calculate the initial
concentration (mass of active ingredient/volume of box) canceling out the volume term from the
decay rate constant (See Section D.3.1 of Appendix D for equation description and derivation).

^ IR*AR

h =	

0

(5.5)

where:

E
IR

AR = application rate (mg ai/day); and
Q	= airflow through the treated area (m3/hour).

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The airflow through the treated space can be calculated as follows:

Q=AV *CF1 * CF2 * Across.sectlon	(5.6)

where:

"3

Q	= airflow through treated space (m /hr);

AV	= air velocity (m/s);

CF1	= time unit conversion factor (60 seconds/1 minute);

CF2	= time unit conversion factor (60 minutes / hour); and

-^cross-section = cross-section of outdoor space treated (m ).

Application rate can be calculated as follows:

AR = A

product

* A.I. * CF1 * N	(5.7)

where:

AR = application rate (mg ai/ day);

A product = amount of product in 1 can (oz or g/can);

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

CF1 = weight conversion factor (28,350 mg/oz or 1,000 mg/g); and

N = number of cans applied per day in one application (cans/day).

Alternatively, if the aerosol can contents are expressed as a volume in milliliters, the application
rate for use in the exposure assessment can be calculated as follows:

AR = A.I. * A product * CF * Dproduct *N	(5.8)

where:

AR = application rate (mg ai/day);

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

A product = amount of product per can (mL/can);

CF = conversion factor to convert grams to milligrams (1,000 mg/1 g);

D product = density of product (g/mL); and

N = number of cans applied per day in one application (cans/day).

Absorbed inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(5.9)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

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Post-application inhalation exposure following applications of outdoor aerosol space sprays is
generally considered short-term in duration, but is dependent on the use pattern of the specific
product being assessed and the dissipation/degradation properties of the active ingredient.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile
can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4
such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If
longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed
necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended parameters for post-application inhalation exposure assessments are provided in
Table 5-3 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in
more detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Table 5-3: Outdoor Aerosol Sp;iee Sprsijs - Recommended Posl-;ipplic;ition Inhibition l.xposui e l";ie(or

Point I.N(ini;i(cs

Algorithm
Noliiliou

l.xposiirc l";ie(or
( ii nils)

I'oiul l'.sliiiiiile(s)

AR

Application rate
(mg ai / day)

Product-specific

-^cross-section

Cross sectional area of area treated
(m2)

15

AV

Air velocity
(m/s)

0.1

Q

Airflow through treated area
(m3/hr)

5,400

N

Number of cans applied per day in one application
(cans/day)

1

D product

Density of product
(g/mL)

Water-based products

1.0

Solvent-based products

0.8

A.I.

Percent ai in product

(%)

Product-specific

A product

Amount of product
(mL/can)

Product-specific

IR

Inhalation rate
(m3/hour)

Adult

0.64

Children (1 < 2 years
old)

0.33

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Adult

80

Children (1 < 2 years
old)

11

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of active ingredient applied per day. The application rate can
be determined from product-specific factors that are listed on the product label. This application
rate is determined by amount of product in a can, how many cans are used in an application, and
the percentage of active ingredient.

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Air Velocity (AV)

The air velocity is the speed of the air moving through the treated area defined for the well-
mixed box model. The fraction of the chemical available for inhalation in outdoor air is a
function of the movement of air into and out of the backyard "box". The air velocity determines
the rate at which the contents of the outdoor area treated are evacuated. Wind velocity is an
influencing factor affecting flying pest nuisance. Bidlingmayer et al. (1995) examined the effect
of wind velocity on suction trap catches. Their research noted that trap catches declined as wind
velocities increased over the entire range of observed velocities. Wind velocities within the
range of normal mosquito flights, about 1 m/s, resulted in trap catch reductions on significant
nights of approximately 50% by wind at 0.5 m/s and 75% at 1.0 m/s.

The wind speed range considered here corresponds with the lower two tiers of the Beaufort wind
force scale, an empirical measure for describing wind speed. The Beaufort wind force scale is a
range on a numerical basis of 0-10, from still air conditions up to hurricane force winds. This
SOP covers Beaufort numbers 0-1. The Beaufort number 0 corresponds to calm wind conditions
of <0.3 m/s [18 meters/minute; 0.7 mph]. The Beaufort number 1 corresponds to light air
conditions of 0.3-1.5 m/s [18-90 meters/minute; 0.7-3.4 mph]. This SOP provides a distribution
of wind velocities from 0.1-1.5 m/s [0.2-3.4 mph], the upper limit for "light air" condition on the
Beaufort scale and a reasonable upper bound for wind velocities where these products would be
used to control flying pests. This windspeed represents a range of values foreseeable where
OASS products may be used (i.e., in a yard or on an outdoor patio where flying pests may pose a
nuisance). When wind velocities are higher than 1.5 m/s, these products are less likely to be
used because of reduced flying pest pressure.

The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic exposure assessment is 0.1 m/s
(0.22 mph). The range of air velocities applicable to this assessment are 0.1 m/s to 1.5 m/s.

A

cross section

Across-section represents the cross-sectional area of the volume of treated space for this exposure
scenario, with units m . Unless otherwise specified by the product label, the exposure scenario
for outdoor aerosol space sprays considers a 20 ft. x 20 ft. x 8 ft. (height) space treated.
Therefore, the cross-sectional area for the treated space is 160 ft (20 ft width x 8 ft height)
or 15 m2.

Airflow (Q)

Airflow (Q) is defined as the volume of natural air that uniformly passes through a given area in
a specified period of time. In the well-mixed box model, the airflow through the treated space is

"3

the product of the air velocity (AV) and the cross-sectional area (Acr0ss section), with units m /hour.
As mentioned above, the cross-sectional area of the space treated is assumed to be 20 ft x 8 ft

2	2

(160 ft or 15 m ). The range of air velocities to represent calm air conditions is 0.1 m/s to a
maximum of 1.5 m/s. Therefore, the airflow for a typical space treated is assumed to range from

3	3

5,400 m /hour (as the conservative default value) to 81,000 m /hour (representing a high-end
air velocity for calm air conditions).

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Number of Cans per Day (N)

Absent product- or chemical-specific data, it is assumed that 1 full can of product is applied

by a residential handler at one time, and that one can of product represents a residential
handler's complete insecticidal aerosol product use per day. According to the Residential
Exposure Joint Venture (REJV) survey (REJV, 2002), no household surveyed used more than
one outdoor aerosol space spray product in one day. If extensive pest pressure exists, residential
users would likely seek alternative application equipment.

Density (D product)

The density should represent the product being assessed. If product-specific densities are
available, they should be used in the assessment. Otherwise, if the product is water-based, the
assessor should use the density of water (1.0 g/mL). If the product is solvent-based, the
assessor should use 0.8 g/mL, an average based on an informal survey of various organic
solvents described in CRC (Lide, 1981).

Amount of Product (A product)

The amount of product (ounces, grams, or milliliters per can) is a product-specific value and
should be stated on the label.

Future Research/Data Needs

There are several research/data needs with respect to the post-application outdoor aerosol space
spray scenario.

•	Survey data could be developed to examine the actual size of the space treated by typical
outdoor aerosol space sprays. The OASS exposure scenario assumes that residential
users treat a 20 ft x 20 ft space, unless otherwise specified on the label.

•	Limited data are available to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution pattern that
results from the release of an aerosol spray can.

•	Use pattern information (i.e., amount handled, etc.) is needed to better characterize the
residential post-application exposure potential after application events.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

The OASS exposure scenario also makes the following health protective assumptions:

•	all the amount of the applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and

•	all the amount of the applied pesticide settles onto the treated area (e.g.,turf) and is
available for dermal exposure

•	the simplifying assumptions implicit in the well-mixed box model identified in the first
two paragraphs of Section 5.1.2.1 would be health protective, since the modeled air
concentrations would dissipate less rapidly (resulting in higher pesticide concentrations)
in the artificially defined fixed volume compared to a true open outdoor space.

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5.1.2.2 Post-application Dermal and Non-dietary Ingestion Exposure
Assessment

Dermal and incidental oral post-application exposures are expected to occur after the spray
settles onto the treated areas of a yard (e.g., deck, patio, or turf). Based on the data available and
the assumptions that would be considered for assessing dermal and non-dietary ingestion
exposures from smooth surfaces (e.g., patios and decks) and textured surfaces (e.g., turf/lawns),
this SOP makes a health protective assumption that all of the outdoor spray settles onto turf.

This settling is assumed to occur in a uniform fashion throughout the treated area, similar to a
direct lawn broadcast treatment. Once the application rate is determined, the turf transferable
residues and resulting dermal and incidental oral exposures should be assessed following the
methodologies outlined in Section 3.2.

The following equation can be used to convert the application rate in pounds ai per square foot as
is deposited on the turf:

where:

AR Aproduct * A.I.*CF1 *N
Ta

(5.10)

AR	= application rate (lb ai/ft or lb ai/A);

A product	= amount of product per can (oz or g/can);

A.I.	= percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

CF1	= weight conversion factor (1 lb/16 oz or 1 lb/454 g);

N	= number of cans applied per day in one application (cans); and

Ta	= treated area (ft2 or A).

Alternatively, if the aerosol can contents are expressed as a volume in milliliters, the application
rate for use in the exposure assessment can be calculated as follows:

A * A t * (T * n * TsJ

j t}	product	-^product	/r 1 1

AK — 		(j.ll

where:

AR

2

= application rate (lb ai/ft or lb ai/A);

A.I.

= percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

A product

= amount of product per can (mL/can);

CF

= conversion factor (1 lb/454 g);

D product

= density of product (g/mL);

N

= number of cans per day in one application (cans); and

Ta

= treated area (ft2 or A).

Post-application dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure following applications of outdoor
aerosol space sprays is generally considered short-term in duration, but is dependent on the use
pattern of the specific product being assessed and the dissipation/degradation properties of the
active ingredient. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-

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day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Algorithm Inputs and
Assumptions

The following provides a general discussion for each exposure factor and recommended point
estimates for use in exposure assessment.

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied per unit area. The application rate per
day/spray can be determined from product-specific factors that are listed on the label or from
generic factors listed above. This application rate is calculated in lbs ai/ft or lb ai/A.

Amount of Product (A product)

The amount of product (ounces, grams, or milliliters per can) is a product-specific value and
should be stated on the label.

Number of Cans per Day (cans)

Absent product- or chemical-specific data, it is assumed that 1 full can of product is applied

by a residential handler at one time, and that one can of product represents a residential
handler's complete insecticidal aerosol product use per day. According to the Residential
Exposure Joint Venture (REJV) survey (REJV, 2002), no household surveyed used more than
one outdoor aerosol space spray product in one day. If extensive pest pressure exists, residential
users would likely seek alternative application equipment.

Percent Active Ingredient in Product (A.I.)

The percent active ingredient in the product being assessed can be determined from the product
label.

Treated Area (Ta)

An outdoor living space with dimensions of 20 ft. x 20 ft. x 8 ft. (i.e., 400 ft ) is assumed when
calculating airborne concentration levels and turf deposition. The recommended treated area
is based on a recent survey on U.S. decking market, which was conducted by the Center for
International Trade in Forest Products (CINTRAFOR). This deck size was selected to represent
the typical area treated on a patio, deck, or yard. In this survey, CINTRAFOR contacted a
random sample of U.S. homebuilders via telephone. Based on the survey results, the mean deck
size for "spec" homes (n=109) was 361ft2. This translates to approximately a 20 ft x 18 ft
surface area. The mean deck size for custom homes (n=174) was 490 ft (Eastin et al., 2005).
This translates to approximately 20 ft x 24.5 ft surface area. The overall mean deck size
identified in this survey is believed to be an appropriate surrogate for the amount of outdoor
living space treated by aerosol fogging products. Therefore, in the absence of additional

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information, 20 ft. x 20 ft. x 8 ft. is used as the volume of space that is treated with an outdoor
aerosol space spray and 20 ft x 20 ft is used as the surface area of a treated area.

Density (D product)

The density should represent the product being assessed. If product-specific densities are
available, they should be used in the assessment. Otherwise, if the product is water-based, the
assessor should use the density of water (1.0 g/mL). If the product is solvent-based, the
assessor should use 0.8 g/mL, an average based on an informal survey of various organic
solvents described in CRC (Lide, 1981).

Future Research/Data Needs

There are four main potential research/data needs with respect to the post-application exposure
from the outdoor aerosol space spray scenario.

•	The OASS exposure scenario assumes that residential users treat a 20 ft x 20 ft space
unless otherwise specified on the product label. Survey and efficacy data could be
developed to examine the actual size of the amount of space treated by typical outdoor
aerosol space sprays.

•	Extremely limited data are available to indicate the spatio-temporal deposition pattern
that results from the release of an aerosol spray can. Additional studies could be
designed to capture the deposition pattern of aerosol spray pesticides in outdoor
conditions.

•	Survey data could be developed to examine the amounts of aerosol spray product/active
ingredient handled during typical outdoor treatment scenarios.

•	No data are available to indicate the extent of dermal deposition on skin from airborne
particles as a result of aerosolized pesticide spray events. Studies could be designed to
capture the extent of dermal deposition as a result of aerosolized pesticide sprays.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

The OASS exposure scenario makes the following health protective assumptions:

•	all the amount of the applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and

•	all the amount of the applied pesticide settles onto the turf and is available for dermal
exposure.

5.1.2.3 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risk estimates resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across
different routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully
characterize the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and
estimates. Risk estimates should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure
exceeds the level of concern because this allows for better risk characterization for risk
managers.

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It is likely that children could be exposed to an area treated by an OASS product via inhalation,
dermal and non-dietary ingestion (hand-to-mouth) routes and that these scenarios could occur
simultaneously. Therefore, these exposure scenarios should be combined when toxicological
effects are the same across these routes of exposure.

5.2 Candles, Coils, Torches & Mats (CCTM)

Candles, coils, torches, and mats (CCTM) are pesticide products that are ignited or placed on a
burner to release the active ingredient as a smoke or vapor in order to repel insects. The scenario
represents use of CCTM products for a gathering of people outdoors in a yard or on a patio using
the product(s) to repel flying pests. This section provides standard methods for estimating
potential exposure to pesticides from the use of pesticidal candle, coil, torch or mat for the
purposes of outdoor pest control.

Handler exposure, both dermal and inhalation, is expected to be negligible as the application
activity (i.e., product activation) does not involve application (e.g., spraying liquids or spreading
granules) in the typical sense. However, adult and child post-application inhalation exposure
resulting from being in proximity to CCTM products following activation is the primary
exposure route. Post-application dermal exposure from CCTM use is expected to be negligible.

5.2.1	Handler Exposure Assessment

Pesticidal candles, coils, torches and mats are typically marketed for residential use to repel
flying insects and pests. Upon activation (i.e., ignition or heating), these products emit small
particles (<2 |im) over the useful life of the product (Lucas, J., EPA, Allethrins SMART
Meeting, 10/17/03). Handler exposure does not need to be assessed quantitatively because the
ignition or activation of these products is instantaneous and quantitative post-application
exposure adequately assesses the exposure potential from CCTM.

5.2.2	Post-Application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from presence in a patio or yard during use of candles, coils,
torches, or mats containing pesticides. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults
and children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestages based on behavioral
characteristics and the strengths and limitations of available data (sqq Appendix A).

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three post-
application exposure pathways resulting from use of candles, coils, torches, and mats:

•	Section 5.2.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposure; and,

•	Section 5.2.2.2 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal and children non-dietary exposure.

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5.2.2.1 Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

Post-application inhalation exposure occurs as a result of inhalation of the airborne emission
released by the pesticidal candle, coil, torch or mat. This section provides a standard method for
completing post-application inhalation exposure assessments for adults and children during the
use of pesticidal candles, coils, or mats for short-term pest control.

As with the outdoor aerosol space sprays, the algorithm assumes a simple WMB model
adequately represents the exposure scenario (See Section D.3 of Appendix D for additional
details on the WMB). The algorithms presented in this scenario assume that no further
inhalation exposure occurs after the CCTM is spent or extinguished. The exposure scenario
assumes that the CCTM product is in use for the entire exposure time.

The WMB model was used to develop the exposure equation for the CCTM post-application
inhalation scenario (Fan et al, 2001). The CCTM scenario differs from the other exposure
scenarios in this SOP section in that the WMB model includes a constant emission rate term
during the exposure time and, thus, results in a more complex exposure equation. The WMB
model was used to model pesticide air concentrations within an enclosed, fixed volume (i.e., a
box) over time during the constant emission of a pesticide from a CCTM product. The WMB
model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions: fresh air (having no pesticide
concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate; a turbulent internal airflow thoroughly
mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-laden air resulting in a uniform pesticide air concentration
within the box; and the perfectly mixed air exits the box at the same constant airflow rate (i.e.,
the inflow rate equals the outflow rate). Thus, the outdoor area where the CCTM product is
being applied is assumed to be in an enclosed box. Using the WMB model is conservative for
estimation of exposures for an open patio or deck where dissipation is expected to be greater than
the enclosed space that the WMB depicts.

The evacuation of the CCTM emission from the box depends on airflow. For an outdoor
scenario, the airflow, Q, is the product of the cross-sectional area and the wind velocity. The
cross-sectional area is dependent on the area/volume of the treated space, and is defined in each
SOP sub-scenario. The WMB model developed for this scenario models the pesticide air
concentrations during a constant emission of pesticide from a CCTM product. Only constant
emission and dissipation due to airflow into and out of the box is modeled.

For the inhalation route of exposure, the point of departure (POD) could be based on the
reference concentration (RfC) methodology. In the RfC methodology, air concentrations are not
converted to doses, rather, risks are assessed on the basis of comparison of exposure
concentrations with reference concentrations typically determined from animal studies. This
approach is not always available for every chemical; therefore, the exposure assessor should
discuss the possibility of this approach with a toxicologist.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm

The following algorithm is used to determine post-application inhalation exposure to the CCTM
products (See Section D.3.2 of Appendix D for equation description and derivation):

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„ IR-Ve-ER

E =			

0

ET-

V_

Q

(5.12)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

"3

IR = inhalation rate (m /hr);

Ve = vaporization efficiency (%);
ER = emission rate (mg ai/hr);

ET = exposure time (hr/day);

"3

V = volume of treated space (m ); and
Q	= airflow (m3/hr).

The airflow through the treated space can be calculated as follows:

(1 = A V *CF 1 * CF7 * A

siy J 1	* si cross-section

(5.13)

where:

Q

AV
CF1
CF2

Across-sec tion

airflow through treated space (m /hr);
air velocity (m/s);

time unit conversion factor (60 seconds/1 minute);
time unit conversion factor (60 minutes / hour); and

cross-section of outdoor space treated (m ).
The emission rate from a CCTM product can be calculated as follows:

A*NP

ER = -

UL

(5.14)

where:

ER

A

NP

UL

= emission rate (mg ai/hr);

= amount of mg ai in CCTM product (mg ai/product);
= number of products used (products); and
= useful life of product (hours).

Inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

D =

E*AF
BW

(5.15)

where:

D

E

AF

BW

= dose (mg/kg-day);

= exposure (mg/day);

= absorption factor (inhalation); and
= body weight (kg).

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Post-application inhalation exposure following uses of candles, coils, torches, or mats is
generally considered short-term in duration, but is dependent on the use pattern of the specific
product being assessed and the dissipation/degradation properties of the active ingredient.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile
can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4
such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If
longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed
necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application inhalation exposure assessments are provided in Table
5-4 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Tabic 5-4: CCTM - Recommended .Post-application Inhalation Exposure Faetor Point Estimates

Algorithm
Notation

Exposure Faetor
(units)

Point Estimate(s)

VE

Vaporization efficiency
(percent)

100% assumed unless registrant provides data
for product

A

Amount of ai in the product
(mg)

Product-specific

ER

Emission rate

Calculated

(mg ai/hr)

UL

Useful life

Candles/Coils/T orches

4

(hours)

Mats

4

ET

Exposure time

Adults

2.3

(hours)

Children 1 < 2 years old

2.3

V

Volume of treated space
(m3)

51

Q

Airflow through treated area
(m3/hr)

4,000

AV

Air velocity
(m/s)

0.1

NP

Number of products used
(# products)

1 product per treated area

Across-

section

Cross sectional area of area treated
(m2)

11

IR

Inhalation rate

Adults

0.64

(m3/hour)

Children 1 < 2 years old

0.33

BW

Body Weight

Adults

80

(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

Vaporization Efficiency (Vhj

Vaporization efficiency is the percentage of active ingredient in the product that becomes
available for inhalation exposure through heating, burning, or activation of the product.
As a CCTM product is heated or burned, it is likely that not all of the active ingredient in the
product will be available for inhalation exposure. If this information is available through product

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efficacy studies or other sources, it can be used in the equation. In the absence of data, 100%
vaporization efficiency will be assumed for the active ingredient.

Amount of Active Ingredient in Product (A)

The amount of active ingredient available in the product (e.g., mg ai/product) is found on the
product label.

Useful Life (UL)

The useful life is the time (measured in hours) that the CCTM product is active (i.e., it is
active as an emission source). For example, many candles and coils have a 4-6 hour
useful life. Mosquito mats often have a useful life of 4 hours. This can also be a
product-specific input. (Lucas, J., EPA Allethrins SMART Meeting, 10/17/03).

Emission Rate (ER)

The emission rate (mg ai/hour) is the amount of active ingredient available in the product,
measured in milligrams ai/product, divided by the useful life (UL) of the product.

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure is the duration of time spent
in areas treated by CCTM products. The exposure time for adults and children conservatively
assumes that the time spent in the volume of treated space is equivalent to the time spent at home
outdoors in the yard or other areas around the house ("doers only"). The exposure time values
are from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Table 16-20), converted from minutes
per day to hours per day. The original analysis generated statistics for the subset of the survey
lifestage that reported being in the location or doing the activity in question (i.e., "doers only").
Based on these data, the recommended point estimate for use in post-application inhalation
CCTM exposure assessment for adults and children is 2.3 hrs/day.

Tsihle 5-5: Time Spoilt Outdoors Ai Home in I lie Y;ird or Oilier Are;is Outside I lie

Mouse

Siniislie

Hours pei' l);i\

Atlu Its

Children 1 < 2 \esirs old

5th percentile

0.1

0.4

25th percentile

0.5

1.0

50th percentile

1.5

1.5

75th percentile

3.0

3.0

90th percentile

5.5

5.1

95th percentile

7.3

5.8

Arithmetic Mean

2.3

2.3



Reference: 2011 EFH, Table
16-20 (Adults 18-64)

Reference: 2011 EFH, Table 16-
20 (Children 1 < 4 years old)

Volume (V)

•j

The volume of treated space is assumed to be 51 m for CCTM products, unless otherwise
noted on an available product label. The 51m3 volume represents a 15 ft. x 15 ft. x 8 ft. (1800

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-3

ft) treated space. This represents a typical treated space based on experience and professional
judgment and review of current product labels that pertain to this exposure scenario.

Air Velocity (AV)

The air velocity is the speed of the air moving through the treated volume defined for the well-
mixed box model. The fraction of the chemical available for inhalation in outdoor air is a
function of the movement of air into and out of the backyard "box". The air velocity determines
the rate at which the contents of the outdoor area treated are evacuated. Wind velocity is an
influencing factor affecting flying pest nuisance. Bidlingmayer et al. 1995 examined the effect
of wind velocity on suction trap catches. Their research noted that trap catches declined as wind
velocities increased over the entire range of observed velocities. Wind velocities within the
range of normal mosquito flights, about 1 m/s resulted in trap catch reductions on significant
nights of approximately 50% by wind of 0.5 m/s and 75% at 1.0 m/s.

The wind speed range considered here corresponds with the lower two tiers of the Beaufort wind
force scale, an empirical measure for describing wind speed. The Beaufort wind force scale is a
range on a numerical basis of 0-10, from still air conditions up to hurricane force winds. This
SOP covers Beaufort numbers 0-1. The Beaufort number 0 corresponds to calm wind conditions
of <0.3 m/s [18 meters/minute; 0.7 mph]. The Beaufort number 1 corresponds to light air
conditions of 0.3-1.5 m/s [18-90 meters/minute; 0.7-3.4 mph]. Thus, this SOP provides a
distribution of wind velocities from 0.1-1.5 m/s [0.2-3.4 mph], the upper limit for "light air"
condition on the Beaufort scale and a reasonable upper bound for wind velocities where these
products would be used to control flying pests. This windspeed represents a range of values
foreseeable where CCTM products may be used (i.e., in a yard or on an outdoor patio where
flying pests may pose a nuisance). When wind velocities are higher than 1.5 m/s, these products
are less likely to be used because of reduced flying pest pressure.

The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic exposure assessment is 0.1 m/s
(0.22 mph). The range of air velocities applicable to this assessment are 0.1 m/s to 1.5 m/s.

A

cross section

Across-section represents the cross-sectional area of the volume of treated space for this exposure
scenario, measured in m2 Unless otherwise specified by the product label, the exposure scenario
for CCTM considers a 15ft x 15 ft x 8 ft space; therefore the cross-sectional area for the
treated space is 120 ft2 (15 ft width x 8 ft height) or 11 m2.

Airflow (Q)

Airflow (Q) is defined as the volume of natural air that uniformly passes through a given area in
a specified period of time. The airflow is a function of the cross-sectional area and wind velocity
In the well-mixed box model, the airflow through the treated space is the product of the air
velocity and the cross-sectional area, and is measured in m3/hour. As mentioned above, the

2	2

cross-sectional area of the space treated is assumed to be 15 ft x 8 ft (120 ft, or 11 m ). The
range of air velocities to represent calm air conditions is 0.1 m/s to a maximum of 1.5 m/s.

-2

Therefore, the airflow for a typical space treated is assumed to range from 4,000 m /hour (as the
health-protective default value) to 60,000 m3/hour.

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Number of Products Used (Np)

The number of products is related to the size of the space treated by the product user. A product
user is typically directed to use a proportional amount of product per area (e.g., if 1 CCTM treats
a 15 ft x 15 ft area, then treating twice the space would require double the product). The
airborne concentration of active ingredient is the same in both examples. Therefore, the CCTM
exposure scenario considers the smallest typical treatment area (i.e., 15 ft x 15 ft). The
recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic exposure assessment is 1 product
used for the default treated space size (15 ft x 15 ft area). This value can be adjusted based
on product-specific label directions for how many CCTM products can treat the typical 15 ft by
15 ft area.

Future Research/Data Needs

The following area areas for research/data need with respect to the post-application exposure
from the CCTM scenario:

•	the extent of post-application inhalation exposure potential as a result of airborne
particles released from the activation of candles, coils, torches, and mats

•	studies designed to capture the extent of inhalation exposure as a result of the activation
and use of these types of consumer products.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	The simplifying assumptions implicit in the well-mixed box model identified in the first
two paragraphs of Section 5.2.2./would tend to be health protective since the modeled air
concentrations would dissipate less rapidly (resulting in higher pesticide concentrations)
in the artificially defined fixed volume compared to a true open outdoor space.

•	Due to the relative useful life (e.g., 4-6 hours for candles & mats) of CCTM products
compared to the time spent outdoors, the algorithm models the air concentration during
the "burn time" of the CCTM products. Exposure time is typically less than the burn
time of the product. If time spent outdoors (ET) were to exceed the useful life of such
products, the exposure equation derived for this section would need to be modified to
account for the change in the emission rate of the product.

•	A source emission continued beyond the useful life of the product would overestimate
pesticide air concentrations, thus the use of the exposure equation in this section
represents a health protective approach.

5.2.2.2 Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure
Assessment

The inhalation route of exposure is expected to be the primary post-application exposure route.
Residues deposited on patios or other surfaces are expected to be negligible after use of a CCTM
product. Due to the size fraction of particles released from the activation of CCTM products,
particles are expected to remain airborne rather than be deposited on surfaces. Therefore, dermal
and incidental oral post-application exposures to surface residues do not need to be quantitatively
assessed.

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5.2.2.3 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risk estimates resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across
different routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully
characterize the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and
estimates. Risk estimates should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure
exceeds the level of concern because this allows for better risk characterization for risk
managers.

As no residues from CCTM products are expected to be deposited on patios or other surfaces, no
post-application dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposures are expected to occur. Therefore,
these exposure scenarios are not quantitatively assessed, and are not combined with post-
application inhalation exposure.

5.3 Outdoor Residential Misting Systems (ORMS)

Outdoor residential misting systems (sometimes called "mosquito misters") are application
systems designed to spray pesticides in a fine mist to kill mosquitoes and other insects outdoors.
Misting systems include spray nozzles that are mounted around the perimeter of a home in the
lawn or landscaping, or on parts of the house or fence. The spray nozzles are connected by
tubing to a supply of insecticide. These systems can operate automatically (i.e., at preset
intervals) or manually (e.g., remote control or switch).

This section provides standard methods for estimating potential doses from pesticides applied
using outdoor residential misting systems (ORMS) in yards or on patios. Adults filling the
ORMS drums with the pesticide may experience dermal and inhalation exposure. Adults and
children occupying the yard or patio following the application of a pesticide using an ORMS
may experience inhalation, dermal and incidental oral exposure. This section describes the
methods for estimating the potential dose for handlers using ORMS, the method for estimating
the potential dose from post-application inhalation exposure to a treated yard or patio, as well as
the method for estimating residue deposited on the lawn following a pesticide treatment from the
ORMS which can be used in conjunction with methods outlined in Section 3.2 to estimate dermal
and oral post-application doses following direct applications to lawns.

5.3.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

Misting systems are typically marketed as systems that include a mix tank, a timer controlled
pump, and fixed pipes or hoses that run to the nozzles. The systems are often professionally
installed and include a service contract to cover maintenance and insecticide refilling.
Nevertheless, it is possible for residential homeowners to purchase the pesticide and load the
tank (or drums) themselves; therefore, a residential handler assessment may be required.

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This section provides a standard method for conducting handler exposure assessments for adults
mixing and loading pesticides to be used in outdoor residential misting systems. It is assumed
that only individuals 16 years of age or older mix and load (i.e., handle) pesticides.

The basis for this scenario is that handler exposure occurs as the pesticide is poured into the
drum by the applicator holding the product container; no applicator scenario is required as
misting systems spray the pesticide in the treatment area automatically.

This scenario assumes that pesticides can be inhaled or can come into contact with the skin
during the mixing and loading of the pesticide products in the drums as part of the residential
misting system. The method to determine handler inhalation and dermal exposure to pesticides
from these activities relies on data measuring dermal and inhalation exposure during mixing and
loading (i.e., pouring a liquid pesticide). Thus, this method should be used in the absence of
chemical-specific data, or as a supplement to estimates based on chemical-specific data.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers is estimated for a given formulation-application method combination by
multiplying the formulation-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the
amount of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE *AR

(5.16)

where:

E

UE
AR

exposure (mg/day);

unit exposure (mg/lb ai); and

application rate (lb ai/day).

The application rate can be calculated as follows:

AR = Vd*N*DR *A.I. *Dmo

(5.17)

where:

AR	= application rate per day (lb ai/ day);

Vd	= volume of the drum of the misting system (gallons/drum);

N	= number of drums filled per day (drums/day)

DR	= dilution rate (volume product /volume total solution);

A.I.	= percent active ingredient in product (%); and

Dh2o	= water density (lb/gal).

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

(5.18)

BW

where:

D

dose (mg/kg-day);

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E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for outdoor residential misting systems is generally considered short-term in
duration as filling the centralized reservoir tanks typically occur once in a 90-day period.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile
can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.3
such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 5-6 and Table 5-7. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

T;il>lc5-(>: Outdoor Rcsidcnthil Misling S\s(ems - Recommended I nil llxnosuiv img/lh ;ii) Point Istiniiitcs

l-'o nun hi 1 icin

K(|ii ipmoiil/
Application
Method

Derniid

lnh;tl;ilion

Appendix

PiliiC
Reference

Point l.sliniiitc

Point I'.siiniiiie

Liquid concentrates

Mixing/loading

0.232

0.000219

NA

NA = not applicable - data from occupational handler data source (see:
lUtD:/Avww.CDa.aov/DCSticidcs/scicncc/handlcr-c\DOSiirc-data, html)

Tsihle 5-"7: Outdoor Rcsidcnthil Misting Systems - Recommended Ihindlcr l-'.xposiirc l';ictor Point

I.Nliniiilcs

Algorithm
Notation

r.xposiirc l-iictoi-
(units)

Point I'lsliniitlets)

AR

Application rate
(lb ai/ day)

Product-specific

Dh20

Density of product
(lb/gal)

8.34

VD

Volume of Drum
(gallons/drum)

55

DR

Dilution Rate (volume product /volume
total solution)

Product-specific

N

Number of drums filled per day
(drums/day)

1

A.I.

Percent ai in product

(%)

Product-specific

BW

Body weight
(kg)

80

Unit Exposure (UE)

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As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio between exposure and the amount of
active ingredient handled for a given formulation/application method combination, with units
mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled).

Drum Volume (Vp)

The drum feeds into the plumbing that leads to the nozzles of the residential misting system. The
default drum size is based on a typical drum size (30 or 55 gallons).

Number of Drums Filled per Day (N)

One drum is assumed to be filled per day, as residential misting systems are likely only
connected to one drum.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the
product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution).

Water Density (DH2o)

The dilute solution of pesticide for application through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon), since pesticide concentrate is typically mixed
with large volumes of water.

Future Research/Data Needs

Potential research/data need with respect to the outdoor residential misting system scenario
include:

•	survey data to examine the prevalence of these systems in the United States

•	information detailing the breakdown of maintenance (i.e., characterizing the percentage
of systems that are professional maintained versus homeowner maintained), and

•	equipment type (e.g., how often the systems are refilled/reloaded, and the spray
frequency of these systems).

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	The unit exposures used for this scenario are from the "All Liquids, Open Mixing and
Loading" Scenario in EPA's Occupational Pesticide Handler Unit Exposure Surrogate
Reference Table (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/science/handler-exposure-table.pdf).
The use of occupational exposure data may overestimate homeowner exposure.
Additionally, the values were adjusted to represent the type of clothing a homeowner or
non-professional residential handler would wear (i.e., short-sleeved shirt, shorts and no
chemical-resistant gloves) and are the best available data set for determining residential
exposures during open pouring with liquid chemicals.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

5.3.2 Post-Application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from physical activities in areas previously treated by
residential misting systems. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and
children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestages depending on the exposure scenario
based on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and limitations of available data (see
Appendix A).

Automatic spray systems were originally used in animal housing structures, such as dairy barns,
to control flying insects. Recently, these systems have been adapted for use in residential sites,
including residential yards, to control mosquitoes and other pests. These systems are fed from a
central holding tank and utilize an array of spray nozzles to automatically deliver a fine mist of
dilute solution at specified intervals throughout the day.

It is currently unclear whether these systems are intended to target flying insects or insect resting
surfaces. According to a discussion paper written by the Consumer Specialty Products
Association (CSPA, 2005), these systems are designed to apply product to resting surfaces where
insects seek harborage during non-feeding periods. However, in an efficacy study conducted by
Florida A & M University, it was determined that the system was only efficacious against flying
insects (Cilek et. al, 2008). Despite the discrepancy, it is reasonable to assume that some residue
deposits on outdoor surfaces and is available for both dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three post-
application exposure pathways resulting from contact during outdoor activities in patios and
backyards following use of an outdoor residential misting system:

•	Section 5.3.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposure resulting from
activities on patios and backyards; and,

•	Section 5.3.2.2 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal and children 1 < 2 years old non-
dietary ingestion exposure.

5.3.2.1 Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides a standard method for completing post-application inhalation exposure
assessments for adults and children after a pesticide treatment in an outdoor space. The basis for
this scenario is that inhalation exposure occurs from the airborne aerosols released by mister

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

nozzles. The well-mixed box (WMB) model was used to develop the exposure equation for the
outdoor residential misting systems (ORMS) post-application inhalation scenario.9 The WMB
model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions: fresh air (having no pesticide
concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate; a turbulent internal airflow thoroughly
mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-laden air resulting in a uniform pesticide air concentration
within the box; and the perfectly mixed air exits the box at the same constant airflow rate (i.e.,
the inflow rate equals the outflow rate). Thus, the outdoor area where the aerosol is being
applied is assumed to be in an enclosed box. Using the WMB model is conservative for
estimation of exposures for an open patio, deck or yard where dissipation is expected to be
greater than the enclosed space that the WMB depicts. Also, this scenario assumes instantaneous
spray releases, that is, the total amount of aerosol released at each spray event is modeled to
occur instantaneously.

The evacuation of the aerosol from the box depends on airflow. For an outdoor scenario, the
airflow, Q, is the product of the cross-sectional area and the wind velocity. The cross-sectional
area is dependent on the area/volume of the treated space, and is defined in each SOP sub-
scenario. The WMB model developed for this scenario models the pesticide air concentrations
after multiple instantaneous aerosol spray releases at regular time intervals10. Only dissipation
due to airflow into and out of the box is modeled.

For the inhalation route of exposure, the point of departure (POD) could be based on the
reference concentration (RfC) methodology. In the RfC methodology, air concentrations are not
converted to doses, rather, risks are assessed on the basis of comparison of exposure
concentrations with reference concentrations typically determined from animal studies. This
approach is not always available for every chemical; therefore, the exposure assessor should
discuss the possibility of this approach with a toxicologist.

Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm

The following algorithm is used to determine post-application inhalation exposure to the ORMS
(See Section D.3.3 of Appendix D for equation description and derivation):

E

IR*Cn *V

Q

int(ET ฆ PR) +

^ _ j^frac(ET-PK) ^

O^R)

(5.19)

where:

E
IR

C„
V
Q

ET

= exposure (mg/day);

= inhalation rate (m /hr);

"3

= initial air concentration (mg/m );
= volume of treated space (m );

"3

= airflow (m /hr);

= exposure time (hours/day);

9

For the ORMS and animal barn scenarios, the WMB models describing the air concentrations over time have the same form. The
parameterization of these models is the only difference. For the ORMS scenario, the decay rate constant is specified by the ratio of the airflow
rate and the volume of the treated space; whereas for the animal barn scenario, the decay rate constant is specified by the air changes per hour.

10	The regular spray applications are assumed to continue for the entire time spent outdoors.

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

= pulse rate (spray events/hr);

= fraction portion of the product of the exposure time (ET) and the pulse
rate (PR);

= integer (i.e., whole number) portion of the product of the exposure time
(ET) and the pulse rate (PR).

= time between application events (i.e., the inverse of the pulse rate, or
1/PR).

For example, if the time between applications is 40 minutes or 2/3 hour (i.e., Tba = 0.67) or
equivalently, the pulse rate is 3 sprays over 2 hours (i.e., PR = 1.5); and the exposure time is
three hours (ET = 3), then int(ET PR) = int(3 x 1.5) = int(4.5) = 4; and frac(ET PR) = frac(4.5) =
0.5.

Note: If you are assessing (1) exposure due to one spray event or (2) exposure due to multiple
spray events when the exposure time is a whole number multiple of the time between
applications, see Section D. 3.3 of Appendix D, equation D. 17 and D.20, respectively.

The airflow in the patio/backyard is determined as follows:

Q AV CF 1 CF2 Acr0ss_secfi0n	(5.20)

where:

Q

"3

= airflow through treated space (m /hr);

AV

= air velocity (m/s);

CF1

= time unit conversion factor (60 seconds/1 minute);

CF2

= time unit conversion factor (60 minutes/ hour); and

Across-sec tion

= cross-section of outdoor space treated (m ).

If chemical-specific data are available, air concentration is the air concentration at time 0.
Specifically, the scenario assumes that individuals could be exposed to the air concentration
immediately after application. While most product labels indicate that ORMS must be
programmed so that "people or pets may not be present", there are frequently no restrictions on
reentry time into the treated area. If data are not available, then the initial air concentration can
be calculated using the following formula:

Co = AR * CF 1 * CF2	(5.21)

where:

Co
AR
CF1
CF2

PR

frac(ETPR)
int(ETPR)

R

Tba

"3

= initial air concentration (mg/m );

"3

= application rate per spray event (lbs ai/ft);
= weight unit conversion factor (454,000 mg/lb); and

3	3

= volume unit conversion factor (35.3 ft / 1.0 m ).

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If application rates are given on the label, these rates should be used. Application rates are
typically given in ounces of solution per 1000 ft3 per spray event. The following equation can be

"3

used to convert this rate to pounds ai per ft :

AR = ARlabei*A.I.*CF*DH20
V

y NC

where:

"3

AR = application rate per spray (lb ai/ ft);

ARiabei = application rate on label (given as ounces per 1000 ft3) (oz);
A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (%);

CF = volume unit conversion factor (1 gallon/128 ounces);

Dh2o = water density (lb/gal); and

Vnc = nozzle coverage volume (as stated on label) (typically 1000 ft3, or as
otherwise stated on the product label).

If application rate is not given on the label, it can be calculated as follows:

1R A.I. * PR * GPM * SD * PH20

Vnc

where:

"3

AR = application rate per spray (lb ai/fit);

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (%);

DR = dilution rate (volume of product/volume total solution);

GPM = nozzle flowrate (gal/min);

SD = spray duration (min);

Dh2o = water density (lb/gal); and

"3

Vnc = nozzle coverage volume (ft ).

Absorbed inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(5.24)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Post-application inhalation exposure following applications by outdoor residential misting
systems is generally considered short-term in duration but is dependent on the use pattern of the
specific product being assessed and the dissipation/degradation properties of the active
ingredient. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day

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exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity
patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are
deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are
recommended.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application inhalation exposure assessments are provided in Table
5-8 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Tsihie 5-X: Outdoor Kesidenli;il Misling Stslems- Keeommenrieri Pos(-;ipplk';i(ion 1 nh;il;ilion r.xposuiv

l-'iielors Point I'.siiniiiies

Algorithm
Noliilion

l'l\|)UMire l-iielor
(units)

Poim l'.sliniiile(s)

AR

Application rate per spray event
(lb ai/1000 ft3)

Product-specific

PR

Pulse Rate
(spray s/hr)

1

(unless otherwise specified on label)

DR

Dilution Rate (volume product/volume total
solution)

Product-specific

GPM

Nozzle flowrate
(gal/min)

0.014

SD

Spray duration
(min)

1

Dh20

Water density
(lb/gal)

8.34

Vnc

Nozzle coverage volume

(ft3)

1,000 ft3 per nozzle

V

Volume of treated space
(m3)

90.6

Q

Airflow
(m3/hr)

5,400

AV

Air velocity
(m/s)

0.1

Co

Initial air concentration
(mg/m3)

Calculated; concentration at time "0"

-^cross-section

Cross sectional area of area treated
(m2)

15 m2

ET

Exposure time
(hours/day)

Adult

2.3

Children 1 < 2
years old

2.3

IR

Inhalation rate (m3/hour)

Adult

0.64

Children 1 < 2
years old

0.33

BW

Body weight
(kg)

Adult

80

Children 1 < 2
years old

11

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Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied per unit area times the number of sprays
applied per day. The application rate can be determined from product-specific factors that are
listed on the label or from generic factors listed above. This application rate needs to be
determined on a volume basis (i.e., lb ai applied per 1,000 cubic feet) to determine inhalation
exposures.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the
product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution).

Pulse Rate (PR): Number of Spray Events per hour

The pulse rate, or number of spray events per hour, is label-specific. A default of 1 spray event
per hour is assumed when no product-specific data are available (CSPA 2005). This value is
combined with exposure time (hours/day) to determine exposure to the individual. It is assumed
that the airborne residues would disperse between applications.

Nozzle Flow rate (GPM)

The nozzle flowrate is a function of the amount of water the system will use in a 24-hr period.
For this SOP, a nozzle flowrate (gal/min) of 0.011-0.014 gal/min is assumed (CSPA, 2005;
Cilek, et. al., 2008). The nozzle flow rate is a function of the number of nozzles on the system
and the number of minutes that the system operates each day. This is the amount of diluted
product released from the nozzle per unit of time.

Spray Duration (SD)

Available information indicates the spray duration is approximately 30-60 seconds (0.5 - 1.0
min) in length (CSPA, 2005). The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic
risk assessment is 60 seconds (1 minute).

Water Density (DH2o)

The dilute solution of pesticide for application through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon), as the pesticide concentrate is typically mixed
with large volumes of water.

Nozzle Coverage Volume (VNc)

The nozzle coverage volume is specified in the product label. If no volume is specified, the

-2

volume coverage of 1,000 ft per nozzle is assumed. The range of volume coverage is 880-
1440 ft3 per nozzle (CSPA, 2005; Cilek, et. al., 2008),

Volume of Treated Space (V)

3	3

An outdoor living space with dimensions of 20 ft. x 20 ft. x 8 ft. (i.e., 3,200 ft or 90.6 m ) is
assumed when calculating airborne concentration levels. This volume was selected to

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

represent typical treated space - e.g., a patio, deck, or yard. This value is based on a recent
survey on U.S. decking market which was conducted by the Center for International Trade in
Forest Products (CINTRAFOR). In this survey, CINTRAFOR contacted a random sample of
U.S. homebuilders via telephone. Based on the survey results, it was determined that the mean
deck size for "spec" homes (n=109) was 361ft . This translates to approximately a 20 ft x 18 ft
surface area. The mean deck size for custom homes (n=174) was 490 ft2 (Eastin et al., 2005).
This translates to approximately 20 ft x 24.5 ft surface area. The overall mean deck size
identified in this survey is believed to be is an appropriate surrogate for the amount of outdoor
living space treated by ORMS. Therefore, in the absence of additional information, 20 ft. x 20 ft.
x 8 ft. is used as the volume of outdoor space that is treated with ORMS and other outdoor sprays
and 20 ft x 20 ft is used as the surface area of a treated area.

A

cross section

Across-section represents the cross-sectional area of the volume of treated space for this exposure
scenario, measured in m . Unless otherwise specified by the product label, the exposure scenario
for misting systems considers a 20ft x 20 ft x 8 ft area; therefore, the cross-sectional area for
the treated space is 160 ft2 (20 ft width x 8 ft height) or 15 m2.

Air velocity (AV)

The air velocity is the speed of the air moving through the treated area defined for the well-
mixed box model. The fraction of the chemical available for inhalation in outdoor air is a
function of the movement of air into and out of the backyard "box". The air velocity determines
the rate at which the contents of the outdoor area treated are evacuated. Wind velocity is an
influencing factor affecting flying pest nuisance. Bidlingmayer et al., 1995 examined the effect
of wind velocity on suction trap catches. Their research noted that trap catches declined as wind
velocities increased over the entire range of observed velocities. Wind velocities within the
range of normal mosquito flights, about 1 m/s resulted in trap catch reductions on significant
nights of approximately 50% by wind of 0.5 m/s and 75% at 1.0 m/s.

The wind speed range considered here corresponds with the lower two tiers of the Beaufort wind
force scale, an empirical measure for describing wind speed. The Beaufort wind force scale is a
range on a numerical basis of 0-10, from still air conditions up to hurricane force winds. This
SOP covers Beaufort numbers 0-1. The Beaufort number 0 corresponds to calm wind conditions
of <0.3 m/s [18 meters/minute; 0.7 mph]. The Beaufort number 1 corresponds to light air
conditions of 0.3-1.5 m/s [18-90 meters/minute; 0.7-3.4 mph]. Thus, this SOP provides a
distribution of wind velocities from 0.1-1.5 m/s [0.2-3.4 mph], the upper limit for "light air"
condition on the Beaufort scale and a reasonable upper bound for wind velocities where these
products would be used to control flying pests. This windspeed represents a range of values
foreseeable in which ORMS may be used (i.e., in a yard or on an outdoor patio where flying
pests may pose a nuisance). When wind velocities are higher than 1.5 m/s, ORMS are less likely
to be used because of reduced flying pest pressure.

The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic exposure assessment is 0.1 m/s
(0.22 mph). The range of air velocities applicable to this assessment are 0.1 m/s to 1.5 m/s.

Airflow (Q)

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Airflow is defined as the volume of natural air that uniformly passes through a given area in a
specified period of time. In the well-mixed box model, the airflow through the treated space is

"3

the product of the air velocity and the cross-sectional area, and is measured in m /hour. As
mentioned above, the cross-sectional area of the space treated is assumed to be 20 ft x 8 ft (160

2	2

ft or 15 m ). The range of air velocities to represent calm air conditions is 0.1 m/s to a
maximum of 1.5 m/s. Therefore, the airflow for a typical space treated is assumed to range from

3	3

5,400 m /hour (as the health protective default value) to 81,000 m /hour.

Air Concentration (Co)

The initial concentration is based upon instantaneous release of diluted product and mixing into a
fixed space (nozzle coverage area). It is assumed there is complete mixing of the applied
product in the area.

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure is the duration of time spent
in areas treated by outdoor residential misting systems. The exposure time for adults and
children conservatively assumes that the time spent in the volume of treated space is equivalent
to the time spent at home outdoors in the yard or other areas around the house ("doers" only).
The exposure time values are from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Table 16-20),
converted from minutes per day to hours per day. The original analysis generated statistics for
the subset of the survey lifestage that reported being in the location or doing the activity in
question (i.e., "doers" only). Based on these data, the recommended point estimate for use in
post-application inhalation exposure assessment for adults and children is 2.3 hrs/day.

Tsihle 5-9: Time Spoilt Outdoors At Homo in I lie Y;inl or Oilier A reus Outside (he

House

Sliilislie

Horn's pei' l);i\

Adults

Children 1 < 2 \e;irs old

5th percentile

0.1

0.4

25th percentile

0.5

1.0

50th percentile

1.5

1.5

75 th percentile

3.0

3.0

90th percentile

5.5

5.1

95th percentile

7.3

5.8

Arithmetic Mean

2.3

2.3



Reference: 2011 EFH, Table
16-20 (Adults 18-64)

Reference: 2011 EFH, Table 16-
20 (Children 1 < 4 years old)

Future Research/Data Needs

Areas where future research would address some data gaps with respect to the post-application
ORMS scenario include:

• Limited air monitoring data are available for ORMS. Studies could be designed to
characterize the air concentration of aerosolized pesticide sprays after misting
applications.

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•	No data are available to characterize the prevalence of outdoor residential misting
systems in different regions of the U.S. A survey could be conducted to determine
ORMS use patterns.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	The simplifying assumptions implicit in the well-mixed box model identified in the first
two paragraphs of Section 5.3.2.1 would be health protective; the modeled air
concentrations would dissipate less rapidly (i.e., resulting in higher pesticide
concentrations) in the artificially defined fixed volume compared to a true open outdoor
space.

•	The ORMS exposure scenario makes the health protective assumption that all of the
applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and then that all of the
applied pesticide settles onto the turf and is available for dermal exposure.

5.3.2.2 Post-application Dermal and Non-dietary Ingestion Exposure
Assessment

Dermal and incidental oral post-application exposures are expected to occur after the spray
settles onto the treated areas of a yard (e.g., deck, patio, or turf). Based on the data available and
the assumptions that would be considered for assessing dermal and non-dietary ingestion
exposures from smooth surfaces (e.g., patios and decks) and textured surfaces (e.g., turf/lawns),
this SOP makes a health protective assumption that all of the outdoor spray settles onto turf.

This settling is assumed to occur in a uniform fashion throughout the treated area, similar to a
direct lawn broadcast treatment. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and
children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestages based on behavioral characteristics
and the strengths and limitations of available data. Once the application rate is determined, the
turf transferable residues and resulting dermal and incidental oral exposures should be assessed
following the methodologies outlined in Section 3.2.

To calculate the residue on turf, use one of the following equations.

If application rates are given on the label, these rates should be used. Application rates are

"3

typically given in ounces per 1000 ft . A high-end height estimate of 8 feet is assumed which
allows for a smaller turf surface area for the pesticide to be deposited on and, therefore, a higher
concentration of residue is available. The following equation can be used to convert the
application rate in pounds ai per square foot as is deposited on the turf:

AT? *AT*PTซ*r) *W
^=AKlabd A.l. 1* UH20 H

where:

AR

ARlabel
A.I.

2

= application rate per spray (lb ai/ ft);

= application rate on label (in ounces per 1,000 cubic feet) (oz);
= percent active ingredient in product (%);

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CF	= conversion factor to convert ounces to gallons (1 gallon/128 ounces);

Dh2o	= water density (lb/gal);

H	= height of nozzle (8 ft); and

Vnc	= nozzle coverage volume (ft3).

If application rate is not given on the label, it can be calculated using the following formulas:

AR A.I. * PR * GPM * SD * PH20	(5 26)

where:

NC

2

AR	= application rate per spray (lb ai/fit);

A.I.	= percent active ingredient in product (%);

DR	= dilution rate (volume product/volume total solution);

GPM	= nozzle flowrate (gal/min);

SD	= spray duration (min);

Dh2o	= water density (lb/gal); and

Anc	= nozzle coverage area (ft).

Post-application dermal and non-dietary exposure following applications by outdoor residential
misting systems is generally considered short-term in duration, but is dependent on the use
pattern of the specific product being assessed and the dissipation/degradation properties of the
active ingredient. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-
day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Algorithm Inputs and
Assumptions

The following provides a general discussion for each exposure factor and derivation of
recommended point estimates for use in exposure assessment.

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied per unit area times the number of sprays
applied per day. The application rate can be determined from product-specific factors that are
listed on the label or from generic factors listed above. This application rate needs to be
determined on an area basis (i.e., lbs ai applied per square foot) to assess incidental oral and
dermal exposures.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the

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product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution).

Nozzle Flow rate (GPM)

The nozzle flowrate is a function of the amount of water your system will use in a 24-hr period.
For this SOP, a nozzle flowrate (gal/min) of 0.011-0.014 gal/min is assumed (Cilek, et. al.,
2008; CSPA, 2005). The nozzle flow rate is a function of the number of nozzles on the system
and the number of minutes that the system operates each day. This is the amount of diluted
product released from the nozzle per unit of time.

Spray Duration (SD)

Each spray event is assumed to last for approximately 30-60 seconds (0.5 - 1.0 min) (CSPA,
2005). The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic risk assessment is 60
seconds (1 minute), in the absence of available product-specific information.

Water Density (DH2o)

The dilute solution of pesticide for application through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon), as the pesticide concentrate is typically mixed
with large volumes of water.

Nozzle Coverage Area or Volume (ANcor V^c)

-2

The nozzle coverage volume is specified in the product label as 1,000 ft per nozzle (Vnc)- A
conservative height estimate of 8 ft is assumed, making the ground area coverage 125 ft per
nozzle (Anc). A high-end height estimate of 8 feet is assumed which allows for a smaller turf
surface area for the pesticide to be deposited on and, therefore, a higher concentration of residue
is available, thus producing a health protective estimate. An 8 foot height is also the assumed
height of the box model, and a reasonable high-end estimate of the height of the residential
misting system based on professional judgment.

Future Research/Data Needs

Future areas of research that could address data gaps with respect to the post-application ORMS
scenario include:

•	No data are available to characterize the prevalence of outdoor residential misting
systems in different regions of the U.S. A survey could be conducted to determine
ORMS use patterns.

•	No data are available to characterize the deposition pattern of ORMS systems in the
outdoor environment. Studies could be designed to capture the deposition patterns, air
concentrations, and chemical fate during for ORMS treatments.

•	No data are available to indicate the extent of dermal deposition on human skin from
aerosolized pesticides released from ORMS. Studies could be designed to capture the
extent of dermal deposition as a result of airborne aerosols released from ORMS.

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Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Outdoor Residential Misting Systems typically operate on timed applications or by
remote control activation. The ORMS scenario models residential bystander exposure in
that it assumes bystanders are present immediately following a spray event, not during
the application.

•	The ORMS exposure scenario makes the health protective assumption that all of the
applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and then that all of the
applied pesticide settles onto the turf and is available for dermal and incidental oral
exposure.

5.3.2.3 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risk estimates resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across
different routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully
characterize the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and
estimates. Risk estimates should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure
exceeds the level of concern because this allows for better risk characterization for risk
managers.

It is likely that children could be exposed to an area treated by ORMS via inhalation, dermal and
non-dietary ingestion (hand-to-mouth) routes and that these scenarios could occur
simultaneously. Therefore, these exposure scenarios should be combined when toxicological
effects are the same across these routes of exposure.

5.4 Animal Barn Misting Systems

Animal barn residential misting systems are application systems designed to spray an aerosolized
insecticide to kill mosquitoes and other nuisance insects in and around barns. These systems are
fed from a central holding tank and utilize an array of spray nozzles to automatically deliver an
aerosolized insecticide at specified intervals throughout the day. The spray nozzles are typically
mounted between 8-10 feet high. These systems operate automatically (i.e., at preset intervals)
or manually (e.g., via remote control or switch).

This section provides standard methods for estimating potential doses from pesticides applied
using misting systems in animal barns. Adults filling the misting system drums with the
pesticide have the potential for dermal and inhalation exposure. Adults and children occupying
animal barns following the application of a pesticide using a misting system can experience
inhalation, dermal and incidental oral exposure.

This section provides the methods for estimating the potential dose for handlers using misting
systems, the method for estimating the potential dose from post-application inhalation exposure
to a treated barn, as well as the method for estimating residue deposited on hard surfaces
following a pesticide treatment from a animal barn misting system which can be used in

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conjunction with methods outlined in Section 3.2 source not found to estimate dermal and oral
post-application doses following direct applications to indoor surfaces.

5.4.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

Barn misters are typically marketed as systems that include a mix tank, a timer-controlled pump,
and fixed plumbing that run to the spray nozzles. The systems are generally expected to be
professionally installed and include a service contract to cover maintenance and insecticide
refilling. However, it is possible for a residential user to purchase pesticide concentrates and
load the drum/holding tank to refill these systems. Therefore, a residential handler scenario may
be necessary.

This section provides a standard method for completing handler exposure assessments for adults
who are mixing and loading insecticides to be used in barn misting systems. The basis for this
scenario is that handler exposure occurs as the pesticide is poured into the drum by the handler
holding the product container; no applicator scenario is required to be assessed as the misting
nozzles spray the pesticide in the treatment area automatically (without contact with the
residential handlers).

This scenario assumes that pesticides are available to be inhaled or have the potential to contact
the skin during the mixing and loading of the pesticide products in drums/holding tanks as part of
the barn misting system. It is assumed that only individuals 16 years of age or older mix and
load (i.e., handle) pesticides. The method to determine handler inhalation and dermal exposure
to pesticides from these activities relies on data measuring dermal and inhalation exposure
during mixing and loading (e.g., pouring a liquid pesticide). Thus, this method should be used in
the absence of chemical-specific data, or as a supplement to estimates based on chemical-specific
data.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers, for a given formulation-application method combination, is estimated by
multiplying the formulation-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the
amount of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE *AR

(5.27)

where:

E

UE
AR

exposure (mg/day);

unit exposure (mg/lb ai); and

application rate (lb ai/day).

The application rate can be calculated as follows:

AR = Vd*N*DR *A.I. *Dh20

(5.28)

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where:

AR	= application rate per day (lb ai/ day);

Vd	= volume of the drum of the misting system (gallons/drum);

N	= number of drums filled per day (drums/day);

DR	= dilution rate (volume of product/volume of total solution);

A.I.	= percent active ingredient in product (%); and

Dh2o = water density (lb/gal).

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

F* AF

D=	(5.29)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for animal barn misting systems is generally considered short-term in duration
as filling the centralized reservoir tanks typically occur once in a 90 day period. Refinement of
this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be
accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.3 such as
the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 5-10 and Table 5-11. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

1 "sihie 5-10: Aniniiil |};un Misting S\s(ems- Recommended I nil llxposnre (mji/lh ;ii) Poinl Kslim;iles

I'ormiihilion

r.(|iii|>menl/
Application
Method

l)erm;il

lnh;iliilion

Appendix Piiiie
Reference

Poinl llsliniiile

Poinl llsliniiile

Liquid
concentrates

Mixing/loading

0.232

0.000219

NA

NA = not applicable - data from occupational handler data source (see:
lUtD:/Avww.CDa.aov/DCSticidcs/scicncc/handlcr-c\DOSiirc-data, html)

T;ihlc5-ll: Aniniiil liiirn Misting Stsicms - Recommended Ihindlcr llxposnre l";iclor Poinl Msliniiiles

Algorithm
Noiiiiion

llxposnre l-iiclor
(iniils)

Poinl l'lsliniiile(s)

AR

Application rate
(lb ai/ day)

Product-specific

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1 "sihie 5-11: Aniniiil li;irn Misting S\stems - Recommended Ihmdler lAposure l ;ie(or Point l.s(im;i(es

Dh20

Density of product
(lb/gal)

8.34

VD

Volume of Drum
(gallons/drum)

55

DR

Dilution Rate (volume of product /
volume of total solution)

Product-specific

N

Number of drums filled per day
(drums/day)

1

A.I.

Percent ai in product concentrate
(%)

Product-specific

BW

Body weight
(kg)

80

Unit Exposure (UE)

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio between exposure and the amount of
active ingredient handled for a given formulation/application method combination, with units
mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled).

Drum Volume (Vp)

The default assessment can provide risk estimates based on three typical drum/holding tank
sizes (30, 55, or 125 gallons) as part of the animal barn misting system, unless additional
scenario-specific information is provided on the product labels. The 30 and 55 gallon drums
represent likely configurations of a residential animal barn misting system and the 55 and 125
gallon systems represent likely configurations of the commercial stable animal misting system.

Number of Drums Filled per Day (N)

One drum is assumed to be filled per day on an episodic basis, as residential misting systems
are likely only connected to one drum.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the
product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution). For example, a 1:3 dilution would be a 0.25 dilution rate.

Water Density (DH2o)

Pesticide products used in misting systems are typically mixed with large volumes of water.
Therefore, the dilute insecticide solution applied through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon).

Future Research/Data Needs

Future research that could address data needs with respect to the animal barn misting system
scenario include:

• survey data that could be produced to examine the prevalence of these systems in the

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United States.

•	Information detailing the breakdown of maintenance (i.e., characterizing the percentage
of systems that are professional maintained versus homeowner maintained), and

•	equipment type (i.e., how often the systems are refilled/reloaded, and the spray frequency
of these systems) could be useful to fully characterize the residential handler exposure
potential.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	The unit exposures used for this scenario are from the "All Liquids, Open Mixing and
Loading" Scenario in EPA's Occupational Pesticide Handler Unit Exposure Surrogate
Reference Table (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/science/handler-exposure-table.pdf).
The use of occupational exposure data may overestimate homeowner exposure.
Additionally, the values were adjusted to represent the type of clothing a homeowner or
non-professional residential handler would wear (i.e., short-sleeved shirt, shorts and no
chemical-resistant gloves) and are the best available data set for determining residential
exposures during open pouring with liquid chemicals.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

5.4.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from presence in residential barns or commercial stables
following pesticide applications. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and
children 3 < 6 years old are considered the index lifestage depending on the exposure scenario
based on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and limitations of available data.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three post-
application exposure pathways resulting from time spent in animal barns that have previously
been treated by a misting system:

•	Section 5.4.2.1 - adult/children 3 < 6 years old inhalation exposure; and,

•	Section 5.4.2.2 - adult/children 3 < 6 years old dermal and children 3 < 6 years old non-
dietary ingestion exposure.

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5.4.2.1 Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

This section provides a standard method for completing post-application inhalation exposure
assessments for adults and children after a pesticide treatment in a animal barn. The basis for
this scenario is that inhalation exposure occurs from the airborne aerosols released by mister
nozzles. As with the ORMS scenario, the well-mixed box (WMB) model was used to develop
the exposure equation for the animal barn misting systems post-application inhalation scenario11.
The WMB model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions: fresh air (having no
pesticide concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate (based on the number of air
changes per hour), a turbulent internal airflow thoroughly mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-
laden air resulting in a uniform pesticide air concentration within the box, and the perfectly
mixed air exits the box at the same constant airflow rate (i.e., the inflow rate equals the outflow
rate). Thus, the indoor area where the aerosol is being applied (i.e., barn) is assumed to be in an
enclosed box, which is a reasonable assumption for a walled, indoor space. This scenario
assumes instantaneous spray releases; that is, the total amount of aerosol released at each spray
event is modeled to occur instantaneously.

The evacuation of the aerosol from the box depends on airflow. For an indoor scenario, the
airflow is the product of the volume of the treated space and the number of air changes per hour,
ACH. The WMB model developed for this scenario models the pesticide air concentrations after
multiple instantaneous aerosol spray releases at regular time intervals12. Only dissipation due to
airflow into and out of the box is modeled.

For the inhalation route of exposure, the point of departure (POD) could be based on the
reference concentration (RfC) methodology. In the RfC methodology, air concentrations are not
converted to doses, rather, risks are assessed on the basis of comparison of exposure
concentrations with reference concentrations typically determined from animal studies. This
approach is not always available for every chemical; therefore, the exposure assessor should
discuss the possibility of this approach with a toxicologist.

Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm

Post-application inhalation exposure for adults/children resulting from animal barns that have
been previously treated with pesticide can be calculated using the following equations (See
Section D.3.4 of Appendix D for equation description and derivation):

r IR-Cr,- ET ฆ PR

E =	2		(5.30)

ACH	V ;

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

IR	= inhalation rate (m /hr);

ACH	= air changes per hour (hour"1);

11	For the ORMS and animal barn scenarios, the WMB models describing the air concentrations over time have the same form. The
parameterization of these models is the only difference. For the ORMS scenario, the decay rate constant is specified by the ratio of the airflow
rate and the volume of the treated space; whereas for the animal barn scenario, the decay rate constant is specified by the air changes per hour.

12	The regular spray applications are assumed to continue for the entire time spent inside the animal barn.

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-3

Co = initial concentration (mg/m );
PR = pulse rate (sprays/hr); and
ET = exposure time (hrs/day).

Note: If you are assessing (1) exposure due to one spray event or (2) exposure due to multiple
spray events when the exposure time is not a whole number multiple of the time between
applications, see Section D. 3.4 of Appendix D, equationD.30 andD.35, respectively.

If product-specific data are available, air concentration is the residue immediately after a spray,
typically referred to as "time 0". This exposure scenario assumes that individuals are exposed to
the air concentration immediately after the application event. However, if chemical-specific data
are not available, the initial air concentration can be calculated using the following formula:

C0 = AR * CF1 * CF2	(5.31)

where:

"3

Co = initial air concentration (mg/m );

AR = application rate per spray event (lbs ai/ft3);

CF1 = weight unit conversion factor (454,000 mg/lb); and
CF2 = volume unit conversion factor (35.3 ft3/ 1.0 m3).

If application rates are given on the product label, these rates should be used. Application rates
are typically given on product labels in ounces per 1000 ft3. The following equation can be used

3	3

to convert the application rate from ounces product per 1000 ft to pounds ai per ft :

AR= ARlabei*A-L*CF*DH20	(5 32)

V

y NC

where:

"3

AR = application rate per spray (lb ai/ ft);

ARiabei = application rate on label (given as ounces per 1000 ft3) (oz);
A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (%);

CF = volume unit conversion factor (1 gallon/128 ounces);

Dh2o = water density (lb/gal); and

Vnc = nozzle coverage volume (as stated on label) (1000 ft3).

If application rate is not given on the label, it can be calculated as follows:

A.I. * DR * GPM * SD * D,

AR =

'mo

V

v NC

where:

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (%);

"3

AR = application rate per spray (lb ai/ft);

(5.33)

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DR = dilution rate (volume of product/volume of total solution);
GPM = nozzle flowrate (gal/min);

SD = spray duration (min);

Dh2o = water density (lb/gal); and

"3

Vnc = nozzle coverage volume (ft).

Absorbed inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

E*AF

D =

BW	(5.34)

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application inhalation exposure following applications by misting systems in animal barns
is generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-
term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application inhalation exposure assessments are provided in Table
5-12 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of: i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Table 5-12: Aniiiiiil li;irn Misting S\s(ems - Recommended lnh;il;i(ion Iaixisiiit l ;ic(or Point l.s(iin;i(cs

Algorithm
Noliilion

r.\|)osiiiv l";ic(or
(iinils)

I'oinl llsliiiiiilcis)

AR

Application rale per sjpra\ cv cnl
(lb ai/ ft3)

Product-specific

DR

Spray dilution rate
(volume of product/ volume of total solution)

Product-specific

GPM

Nozzle flowrate
(gal/min)

0.014

SD

Spray duration
(min)

1

Vnc

Nozzle coverage volume

(ft3)

1,000 ft3 per nozzle, or label specific

ACH

Air changes per hour
(hour1)

4

Dh20

Water density

8.34

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Tsihle5-I2: Aniiiiiil li;irn Misting S\s(ems- Recommended lnh;il;i(ion I'xposure l ;ic(or Point llsiiniiiies



(lb/gal)



PR

Pulse Rate
(spray s/hr)

1 spray event per hour

Co

Initial air concentration
(mg/m3)

Calculated; Concentration at time "0"

ET

Exposure time
(hr/day)

Adult

4

Children 3 < 6 years old

2

IR

Inhalation rate
(m3/hour)

Adult

0.64

Children 3 < 6 years old

0.42

BW

Body weight
(kg)

Adult

80

Children 3 < 6 years old

19

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied per unit volume per spray event. The
application rate can be determined from product specific factors that are listed on the label or
from generic factors listed above. This application rate needs to be determined on a volume
basis (i.e., lb ai applied per 1000 cubic feet) to determine inhalation exposures.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the
product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution).

Nozzle Flow rate (GPM)

The nozzle flowrate is a function of the amount of water the system will use in a 24 hr period. A
nozzle flowrate (gal/min) of 0.011-0.014 gal/min is assumed (CSPA, 2005; Cilek, et. al.,
2008). The nozzle flow rate is a function of the number of nozzles on the system and the number
of minutes that the system operates each day. This is the amount of dilute pesticide spray
released from the nozzle per unit of time.

Spray Duration (SD)

Each spray event is assumed to last for approximately 30-60 seconds (0.5 - 1.0 min) (CSPA,
2005). The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic risk assessment is 60
seconds (1 minute).

Nozzle Coverage Volume (V^c)

The nozzle coverage volume is specified in the product label. If no volume is specified, it is

•j

assumed that the nozzle coverage area is 1,000 ft per nozzle (CSPA, 2005; Cilek, et. al.,
2008). The range is 880-1440 ft3.

Air Changes per Hour (ACH)

Air changes per hour is the rate that air within an indoor environment is replaced by outdoor air.
For a typical barn, the air exchange rate ranges between 4 and 8 air changes per hour. This is
the ratio of the airflow over the volume of space (Q/V). Typical equine references suggest this

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range of air changes per hour to maintain fresh air conditions and good air quality in the more
challenging stable environments. A lower number of air changes per hour reflect winter
conditions and a higher number of air changes represent warmer weather conditions (Horse
Stable Ventilation Publication, Penn State University 2003).

Water Density (DH2o)

Pesticide products used in these systems are typically mixed with large volumes of water.
Therefore, the dilute pesticide solution applied through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon).

Air Concentration (Co)

The initial concentration is based upon instantaneous release of diluted product and mixing into a
fixed space (nozzle coverage area). It is assumed there is complete mixing of the applied
product in the area.

Pulse Rate (PR): Number of Spray Events per Hour

The number of spray events per hour is label-specific. A default value of 1 spray event per
hour will be assumed when no product-specific data are available (CSPA, 2005). Based on an
evaluation of product information, this value is considered a health protective assumption.

Exposure Time (ET)

The exposure time of adults who spend time in and around animal barns is 4 hours per day

in the treated space. Children are assumed to spend 2 hours per day in the treated space.
These recommended exposure time values are based on a study that examined the relationship
between respiratory problems and time spent in animal barns (Mazan, 2009). In this study, it
was reported that anecdotal evidence suggests that casual riders are unlikely to spend more than
1-2 hours per day and a total 2-5 days per week in a barn. Based on this anecdotal evidence, 4
hours per day is believed to be a conservative estimate of time spent inside an animal barn for the
adult rider who also performs some non-occupational barn-related tasks. Similarly, since casual
child riders are likely to spend less time performing non-riding activities than adults, 2 hours per
day is believed to be a conservative estimate for children.

Future Research/Data Needs

There are three main research/data needs with respect to the post-application animal barn misting
system scenario.

•	Limited air monitoring data are available for animal barn misting systems. Studies could
be designed to characterize the air concentration of aerosolized pesticide sprays.

•	No data are available to characterize the prevalence of animal barn misting systems in
different regions of the U.S. A survey could be conducted to determine animal barn
misting system use patterns.

•	No data are available to determine how much time a person spends in a residential animal
barn and a commercial animal stable. A time-activity survey could be conducted to
determine the breakdown of activities and time spent in animal barns.

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Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

• Animal Barn Misting Systems typically operate on timed applications or by remote
control activation. The scenario models residential post-application inhalation exposure
and it assumes individuals are present immediately following a spray event, not during
the application.

5.4.2.2 Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure
Assessment

For pesticide use in an animal barn misting system, there is potential for post-application dermal
and incidental oral exposure once the aerosol settles on surfaces inside the barn. A person could
potentially be exposed to these residues when cleaning the barn, taking out equipment, and
interacting with animals housed in barns.

Dermal and incidental oral post-application exposures are expected to occur after the spray
settles onto the areas inside the barn. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults
and children 3 < 6 years old are considered to be the most representative index lifestages for the
animal barn misting system scenarios. This assumption is based on the behavioral characteristics
of the index lifestages, safety rules and precautions inside a animal barn, and the strengths and
limitations of available data. Aerosol settling is assumed to occur in a uniform fashion
throughout the treated area, and exposure is assumed to be similar to a broadcast indoor
treatment. Once the application rate is determined, the indoor hard surface transferable residues
and resulting dermal and incidental oral exposures should be assessed following the
methodologies outlined in Section 7.2. The indoor post-application exposure scenario should be
used as a surrogate to assess animal barn hard surfaces after a broadcast treatment. The
Exposure Time (ET) input should be the same used in the animal barn misting system post-
application inhalation exposure assessment (Section 5.4.2.1).

To calculate the residue on indoor hard surfaces, use one of the following equations.

If application rates are given on the label, these rates should be used. Application rates are

"3

typically given in ounces per 1000 ft . A high-end height estimate of 8 feet is assumed which
allows for a smaller turf surface area for the pesticide to be deposited on and, therefore, a higher
concentration of residue is available. The following equation can be used to convert the
application rate in pounds ai per square foot as is deposited on indoor surfaces:

AR *AT*TF1*n

AR= label	H2Q	(5.35)

V\r

NC

where:

2

AR = application rate per spray (lb ai/ cm );

ARiabei = application rate on label (in ounces per 1,000 cubic feet) (oz);
A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (%);

CFi = conversion factor to convert ounces to gallons (1 gallon/128 ounces);
Dh2o = water density (lb/gal);

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CF2 = conversion factor (1 ft2/929 cm2);
H = height of nozzle (8 ft); and

"3

Vnc = nozzle coverage volume (ft).

If application rate is not given on the label, it can be calculated using the following formulas:

AR = A.I. * PR * GPM * SD * CF * PH2Q

A-nc

where:

2

AR	= application rate per spray (lb ai/cm );

A.I.	= percent active ingredient in product (%);

DR	= dilution rate (volume product/volume total solution);

GPM	= nozzle flowrate (gal/min);

SD	= spray duration (min);

CF	= conversion factor (1 ft2/929 cm2);

Dh2o	= water density (lb/gal); and

Anc	= nozzle coverage area (ft2).

Post-application dermal exposure following applications by animal barn misting systems is
generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-
term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal and Non-Dietary Ingestion Algorithm Inputs and
Assumptions

The following provides a general discussion for each exposure factor and derivation of
recommended point estimates for use in exposure assessment.

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied per unit area times the number of sprays
applied per day. The application rate can be determined from product specific factors that are
listed on the label or from generic factors listed above. This application rate needs to be
determined on an area basis (i.e., lbs ai applied per square centimeter) to assess incidental oral
and dermal exposures.

Dilution Rate (DR)

The label should state the amount (e.g., gallons) of concentrated product per amount of water.
This can also be given as parts of product per parts of water. Dilution rate is the volume of the
product amount stated on the label divided by the sum of product volume and water volume (i.e.,
volume total solution).

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

Nozzle Flow rate (GPM)

The nozzle flowrate is a function of the amount of water your system will use in a 24-hr period.
A nozzle flowrate (gal/min) of 0.011-0.014 gal/min is assumed (Cilek, et. al., 2008; CSPA,
2005). The nozzle flow rate is a function of the number of nozzles on the system and the number
of minutes that the system operates each day. This is the amount of diluted product released
from the nozzle per unit of time.

Spray Duration (SD)

Each spray event is assumed to last for 30-60 seconds approximately (0.5 - 1.0 min) (CSPA,
2005). The recommended point estimate for use in a deterministic risk assessment is 60
seconds (1 minute).

Water Density (DH2o)

The dilute solution of pesticide for application through the misting system is assumed to have
the same density as water (i.e., 8.34 lbs/gallon), as the pesticide concentrate is typically mixed
with large volumes of water.

Nozzle Coverage Area or Volume (ANCor VNc)

•j

The nozzle coverage volume is specified in the product label as 1,000 ft per nozzle (Vnc)- A
conservative height estimate of 8 ft is assumed, making the ground area coverage 125 ft per
nozzle (Anc)- A high-end height estimate of 8 feet is assumed which allows for a smaller turf
surface area for the pesticide to be deposited on and, therefore, a higher concentration of residue
is available, thus making the exposure estimate health-protective. An 8 foot height is also the
assumed height of the box model, and a reasonable high end estimate of the height of the
residential animal barn misting system based on professional judgment.

Exposure Time (ET)

The exposure time of adults who spend time in and around animal barns is 4 hours per day

in the treated space. Children are assumed to spend 2 hours per day in the treated space.
These recommended exposure time values are based on a study that examined the relationship
between respiratory problems and time spent in animal barns (Mazan, 2009). In this study, it
was reported that anecdotal evidence suggests that casual riders are unlikely to spend more than
1-2 hours per day and a total 2-5 days per week in a barn. Based on this anecdotal evidence, 4
hours per day is believed to be a conservative estimate of time spent inside an animal barn for the
adult rider who also performs some non-occupational barn-related tasks. Similarly, since casual
child riders are likely to spend less time performing non-riding activities than adults, 2 hours per
day is believed to be a conservative estimate for children.

Note: Exposure Time (ET) input should be the same used in the animal barn misting system
post-application inhalation exposure assessment (Section 5.4.2.1), not the indoor post-application
assessment.

Future Research/Data Needs

There are three main research/data needs with respect to the post-application animal barn
scenario.

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

•	No data are available to characterize the prevalence of animal barn misting systems in
different regions of the U.S. A survey could be conducted to determine animal barn
misting systems use patterns.

•	No data are available to characterize the deposition pattern of animal barn misting
systems. Studies could be designed to capture the deposition patterns on hard surfaces
for animal barn misting systems and residue available for transfer.

•	No data are available to indicate the extent of dermal deposition on human skin from
aerosolized pesticides released from animal barn misting systems. Studies could be
designed to capture the extent of dermal deposition as a result of airborne aerosols
released from animal barn misting systems.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Animal Barn Misting Systems typically operate on timed applications or by remote
control activation. The animal barn scenario models residential post-application
exposure and assumes individuals are present immediately following a spray event, not
during the application.

•	The animal barn exposure scenario makes the health protective assumption that all the
amount of the applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and that all
the amount of the applied pesticide settles onto the ground in the barn and is also
available for dermal and incidental oral exposure.

•	Quantitative dermal post-application exposure assessment is assumed to be health-
protective for animal barn misting systems. Persons are not likely to be participating in
activities on animal barn floors that would result in significant contact and/or transferable
residue available for dermal exposure, such as the indoor activities assumed as part of the
indoor hard surface post-application dermal assessment. Therefore, the surrogate post-
application dermal methodology (derived as part of the Indoor Environments SOP) is a
health protective surrogate to estimate animal barn post-application dermal exposure.

•	Non-dietary ingestion post-application exposure is expected to be minimal compared to
the post-application dermal and inhalation exposure. It is expected that those children
entering animal barns are typically under adult supervision. Therefore, a quantitative
assessment of hand-to-mouth exposure is health protective.

5.4.2.3 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risk estimates resulting from different exposure pathways are combined when it is likely that
they can occur simultaneously based on the use pattern, the behavior associated with the exposed
lifestage, and when the toxicological effects across different routes of exposure are the same.
When combining scenarios, it is important to fully characterize the potential for co-occurrence as
well as characterizing the risk inputs and estimates. Risk estimates should be combined even if
any one scenario or route of exposure exceeds the level of concern because this allows for better
risk characterization for risk managers.

For animal barn misting system scenarios, it is likely that children could be exposed to an area
treated via the inhalation, dermal and non-dietary ingestion (hand-to-mouth) routes. Therefore,

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Outdoor Fogging/Misting Systems

these exposure scenarios should be considered and combined, if appropriate, when toxicological
effects are the same across these routes of exposure.

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Insect Repellents

Section 6 Insect Repellents

This section provides an outline of the procedures used to assess, estimate and characterize
exposures resulting from the use of personal insect repellents available in many formulations
such as aerosol sprays, lotions, pump sprays, gels, towelettes and wrist bands. It also includes
repellents formulated with sunscreens. Other repellent-type products are covered under separate
sections such as mosquito coils (Section 5.2), misting systems (Section 5.7), or repellent-
impregnated clothing or textiles (Section 9).

Exposure results from deliberate application to the skin and clothing of individuals. Repellent
use can be on the order of days or weeks or longer, depending on the activity pattern and
geographic area. Insect repellents are used on people of all ages. While exposure may occur for
people of all ages, considering the strengths and limitations of available data and behavioral
characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old are
considered the index lifestages whose exposure assessments are expected to encompass those for
all lifestages.

Repellents are all "ready-to-use" (i.e., there is no mixing of liquid concentrates or powders) and
are sprayed or otherwise applied onto the skin or clothing. The individual applying insect
repellents is, for the purposes of this section, the "handler". Adults are assumed to experience
both dermal and inhalation handler exposure, as well as post-application dermal and, potentially,
inhalation exposure. Adults are assumed to apply repellents to themselves or to others.

However, for aerosol and pump-spray repellents, individuals to whom the products are being
applied can experience indirect inhalation exposure during the application. For children, post-
application exposure consists of dermal, (potentially) inhalation, and hand-to-mouth exposure.

6.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

Unlike other pesticide applications, "handler" and "post-application" exposures resulting from
repellent applications are not truly separate events since many applications are self-applications.
Therefore, for the purposes of this SOP, "handler" dermal exposure can be considered in concert
with "post-application" dermal exposure (i.e., dermal exposure is only assessed as part of the
post-application dermal scenario). However, for aerosol and pump-sprayer repellent products,
inhalation exposure for adults and children during the application process is possible and can be
assessed under the standard "handler" process described below.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers, for a given formulation-application method combination, is estimated by
multiplying the formula-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the amount
of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

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Insect Repellents

E = UE * AR	(6.1)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE = unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

AR = application rate (e.g., lb ai/day)

The application rate can be calculated as follows:

AR = A.I * W* N	(6.2)

where:

AR = application rate per day (lb ai/ day);

A.I. = % active ingredient in product (by weight);

W = weight of product unit (e.g., 12 oz aerosol can)

N = number of product units used per day (e.g. cans/day)

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

E* AE

D=	(6.3)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for repellent applications is generally considered short-term in duration.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile
can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.3
such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for repellent handler exposure (inhalation only) assessments are provided
in Table 6-1 and Table 6-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

Tsihle (>-l: Insert Kcpi'llenls - Recommended I nil I-'aixisiiiv (iii^/ll) ;ii) Point l-lsiiniiiios

l-'o nun hi 1 icin

l.(|iiipnicn(/\pplic;ition
Method

Doi'iiiiil

Inhibition

Appendix P.iiie
UcTcmicc

Point l.stiniiitc

I'oinl llsliiiiiilo

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Insect Repellents

Tsihle (>-l: Insert Repellents - Recommended I nil l-lxposnrc (m^/lh ;ii) Point r.slimiitcs

l-'o nun hi 1 icin

l'.(|iiipniem/.\pplic;ilion
Method

Doi'iiiiil

Inhiiliilion

Appendix Psiiio
Rd'cmicc

Point l.stiniiitc

I'oinl llsliiiiiilo

Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Aerosol can

Dermal handler
exposure for

repellent
applications
considered as part
of post-application
dermal exposure.

3.0

C-134

Trigger-pump sprayers

0.061

C-113

T;ibk'(>-2: Insect Repellents - Recommended Ihimllcr l-'.xposiirc I'nctor Point l-'.stim;itcs

I xposnic l-iicloi-
(units)

Poinl r.sliniiilc(s)

Application Rate
(% ai in product)

Maximum labeled rate

Amount used

# aerosol cans or pump
sprays per day

1

Body Weight
(kg)

Adult

80

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

Unit Exposures

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio, for a given formulation/application
method combination, between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled, with units
mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled). The
recommended point estimates are shown in Table 6-1. Data summaries can be found in

Appendix C.

Application Rate

The algorithm for estimating handler exposure requires some estimate of the amount of active
ingredient handled per day. For repellents, this factor varies based on the type of product being
applied and is estimated based on the percentage of active ingredient specified on the product
label and the amount of product being sprayed. Both of these can be determined on a product-
and chemical-specific basis, however, as a default, 1 can or pump spray bottle per day for
handlers is assumed based on professional judgment.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine handler exposure assessments for repellents include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often repellents are applied)

•	Survey information detailing:

o Daily/weekly/monthly probability of using a repellent product;
o Amount of product or formulation used per application; and,

•	Handler exposure data:

o Specific for repellent applications;

o Describing the extent to which an individual's exposure for a given formulation
and application method varies from application-to-application.

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Insect Repellents

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	This section relies on surrogate data considered reasonable for estimating handler
exposure for scenarios that are lacking data.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amount of product/formulation (thus, active ingredient) handled per
application is largely unavailable. The recommended point estimates are, therefore,
intended to be conservative to ensure an appropriately health protective exposure
estimate.

•	The assumption that each the applicator ("handler") and the person to whom the repellent
is being applied to are equally exposed to an entire repellent product during application is
a conservative estimate for screening-level purposes. It is not possible for them to be
simultaneously exposed to the entire can, but the actual proportions of active ingredient
to which each participant is exposed is unknown.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

6.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure may occur as a direct result of a
repellent application via dermal absorption and hand-to-mouth activities, respectively. Post-
application inhalation exposure should be considered based on the chemical's volatility. While
post-application exposure may occur for people of all ages, the assessment for adults and
children 1 < 2 years old are expected to encompass the exposures for all lifestages.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three individual
scenarios resulting from use of insect repellents:

•	Section 6.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposure;

•	Section 6.2.2 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposure; and

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Insect Repellents

• Section 6.2.3 - children 1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth activity.

6.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

Post-application inhalation exposure resulting from insect repellents is generally not assessed
and should be handled on a case-by-case basis. The combination of low vapor pressure for
chemicals typically used as active ingredients in insect repellent products and dilution in outdoor
air is expected to result in minimal inhalation exposure.

6.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating dermal doses among adults and children 1 <
2 years old from skin treated with insect repellents, as well as sunscreens containing insect
repellents.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm

Post-application dermal exposure resulting from repellent treatments is a function of the amount
of product applied to the body. Thus, it is dependent on three factors:

•	The application rate (i.e., the target concentration of chemical on the skin per
application);

•	The total area of the body to which the repellent is applied; and,

•	The number of applications.

If reliable product-specific information is available that details the target concentration of active
ingredient applied to the skin (e.g., mg active ingredient per square centimeter of skin), that
information is preferable and should be used in this SOP in the formula below. However, in the
event that such information is unavailable, or otherwise considered unreliable, the assessor can
use a formulation-specific rate described in this SOP combined with the label-specified
percentage of active ingredient to obtain a reasonable estimate of the target skin concentration of
active ingredient (see the formula below). The algorithms to calculate dose are presented below.
Discussion of each factor is presented in the remainder of this SOP.

If product-specific information is available, absorbed dose is calculated as:

D = ARP * ET * AppF * SA/BW * FBody * AF	(6.4)

where:

D

ARp
ET
AppF
SA/BW

FBody

AF

= dose (mg/kg-day);

= product-specific application rate (mg ai/cm2 skin);

= exposure time (hours/day);

= application frequency (applications/hour);

= total body surface area to body weight ratio (cm /kg);

= clothing-dependent fraction of body exposed (fraction exposed/application);
= absorption factor.

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Insect Repellents

If product-specific information is unavailable, absorbed dose is calculated as:

D = ARf * Faj * ET * AppF * SA/BW * FBody * AF	(6.5)

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

ARf = formulation-specific application rate (mg product/cm2 skin);

Fai = product-specific fraction of active ingredient (mg ai/mg product);

ET = exposure time (hours/day);

AppF = application frequency (applications/hour);

SA/BW = total body surface area to body weight ratio (cm2/kg);

FBody = clothing-dependent fraction of body exposed (fraction exposed/application);

AF = absorption factor.

Post-application exposure following repellent applications is generally considered short-term in
duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as product-specific application intervals and activity patterns. If longer-term
assessments (i.e., intermediate-term, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary,
similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments are provided in Table
6-3 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

Tiihlc (>-3: Insect Repellents - Recommended Point l-'slim;ilos lor Posl-Appliciilion l)crm;il l-'.\posiirc

l";idors

Algorithm
Noiiiiion

I'1\|)ommv l";ic(or
(units)

Poinl llsliniiilols)

ARf

Formulation-specific application rate
(mg product/cm2 skin)

Aerosol

1.1

Pump spray

0.62

Lotion

2.0

Towelette

1.1

Fai

Amount of active ingredient
(%)

Maximum labeled rate
(product-specific)

l^Body

Fraction of body exposed per application
(representing shorts for men and shorts/top for women)

0.75

SA/BW

Surface Area to Body Weight Ratio
(cm2/kg)

Adult

280

Children 1 < 2
years old

640

ET

Exposure Time (hours/day)

Adult

3.7

Children 1 < 2
years old

3.5

AppF

Application Frequency

Traditional

0.25

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Insect Repellents



(applications/hour)

With sunscreen

0.5

Application Rate (ARF; mgproduct/cm skin)

Most of the products assessed will not have labels that state active-ingredient-based application
rates in quantifiable terms (e.g., mg ai/cm ). Application rates vary depending on the
formulation, with lotions being applied most heavily. Efficacy studies were used as the basis for
application rates, since these data are formulation-specific and are from actual repellent
applications (Carroll, S.P. 2007a, 2007b, 2007c, 2007d, 2007e, 2008a, 2008b). While the studies
themselves vary with respect to the application location and different types of active ingredients
the repellent efficacy studies that EPA receives are conducted by treating a portion of a subject's
skin with insect repellent, exposing the treated skin to mosquitoes, and observing the rate at
which the insects "bite" the subject's skin. Table 6-4 provides a summary for the formulation-
based application rates. The recommended point estimates are shown in Table 6-3. See
Section D.ll of Appendix D for detailed information on application rates for various
formulations.

Tsihle (>-4: Si;iiislic;d Suiiiin;ir\ - Repellent Product Annliciilion R;i(e (inii producl/enr)

Siiiiisiic

Aerosol

Pump-spr;i>

l.olion

Toiu'kMU*

5U pei'ceiiule

U 'J"1

o so

1.9

1.1

75th percentile

1.5

0.78

2.4

1.3

95th percentile

2.9

1.5

3.5

1.8

99th percentile

4.7

2.3

4.6

2.3

AM(SD)

1.1 (0.93)

0.62 (0.45)

2.0 (0.80)

1.1 (0.36)

GM (GSD)

0.92 (2.0)

0.50(1.9)

1.9(1.5)

1.1(1.4)

Range

0.17-3.5

0.056-2.3

0.68-4.5

0.5-2.5

N

144

420

120

240

Statistics based on lognormal distributions.

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure from insect repellents is the
duration of time during which repellents are applied. For duration of time during which
repellents are applied, the amount of time spent performing outdoor recreational activities was
used (U.S. EPA, 2011; Tables 16-26 and 16-25, "doers only"). It is likely that insect repellents
would be used when adults and children are performing outdoor activities, so this dataset was
considered a reasonable surrogate. Children 1 < 2 is considered the index lifestage because of
the expected greater use of repellents compared with younger children due to time spent in
activities during which repellents would be used. However, no data were available for this
lifestage, so time spent in outdoor recreation for children 3 < 6 years old was used as a surrogate
dataset. Note that only the "doers" are represented, meaning that individuals who did not
respond that they perform outdoor recreational activities were excluded. Based on these data,
the recommended point estimates for use in post-application dermal exposure assessment
for adults and children 1 < 2 years old are 3.7 and 3.5 hrs/day, respectively.

1 "sihie (>-5: l ime Spent Outdoors (ln s/d;i\)

Shitislie

Atlu lis

Children 1 < 2 je.irs old

5th percentile

0.5

0.5

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Insect Repellents

25th percentile

1.3

1.0

50th percentile

2.9

2.5

75th percentile

5.2

4.0

90th percentile

8.4

9.8

95th percentile

9.8

10.1

99th percentile

11.5

10.4

Mean

3.7

3.5



Source: U.S. EPA, 2011; Table
16-26

Source: U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 16-25 (children 3 < 6
years old data used as a surrogate dataset - not available
for children 1 < 2 years old).

Application Frequency (AppF):

The assessor should consider the exposure scenario, formulation, and target pest while
determining the number of applications per hour. Most insect repellent labels do not specify the
number of applications to be made per hour. More commonly, a label will carry a statement
such as "reapply as needed." Efficacy studies are designed to measure the duration of repellency
provided by the products tested. If product-specific information on the duration of efficacy
repellency is available, the assessor should use it in their assessment to determine the application
frequency specific to the individual product.

However, if this information is unavailable, a generic application frequency of 1 every 4 hours
(0.25 applications/hour) is recommended for traditional repellents, while an application
frequency of 1 every 2 hours (0.5 applications/hour) is recommended for repellents
formulated with sunscreens. Sunscreen applications are assumed to occur more frequently.
This is based on information from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicating effective
repellency times vary from 2-6 hours (i.e., 1 application every 2-6 hours) depending on the
product and formulation (Fradin and Day, 2002).

Body Weight and Surface Area

The exposure algorithm uses surface area (SA) and body weight (BW) as a ratio instead of as
two separate factors. The recommended point estimate ratio for adults is 280 cm2/kg and

640 cm /kg for children 1 < 2, from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition, Table 7-15
(U.S. EPA, 2011). Table 6-6 below provides a summary of this exposure parameter.

I'iihlo (ป-(ป: Surl'sici* Aivii lo Bod\ Weight Kiilio (cm'/kg)

ฆM.iilc

Ariull

Youth

( liilri

Miilos iiiid li'innk's: > IS ms.

Miilos iind l-'oniiik's: 2-IX\rs.

Miilos iiml IVniiik's: < 2 \rs.

y5

330

5yo

850

90

320

500

780

75

300

450

720

50

290

420

620

25

270

380

560

10

240

330

510

5

240

290

470

Mean

280

420

640

Source: U.S. EPA, 2011, Table 7-15.

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Fraction of Body Exposed (FBody)

Clothing-dependent fraction of body exposed (surface area body exposed/total body surface
area) are presented in Table 6-7 below. These estimates are based on Wong, et al. (2000) and are
intended to represent a range of exposure scenarios in different activity and weather conditions.
A default point estimate of 75% is recommended to reflect males and females in swimwear.
Other estimates are shown - 17% represents an individual wearing a long-sleeve shirt, pants,
socks, and shoes; 31% represents an individual wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, socks, and
shoes - to reflect additional clothing scenarios should the assessment require additional
characterization.

1 "sihie ft-"7: Percentage of Total liod\ Surface Are.i t'.xnosed

Clot liin vi Scenario

IJod> Purls l.xposcd

ฆMi of l}od\ S.\ l.\nosed

Per liod\ Piirl

Total

Long-sleeve shirt, pants, socks, shoes

Face/Neck

5%

17%

Hands/wrists

6%

Ankles

6%

Short-sleeve shirt, shorts, socks, shoes

Lower thighs/upper shins

13%

31%

Forearms

6%

Face/Neck

6%

Feet

7%

Shorts (males);
Shorts and top (females)

Torso

38%

75%

Arms

Lower thighs/upper shins

13%

Lower shins

6%

Feet

7%

Hands

5%

Face/Neck

5%

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine post-application dermal exposure assessments for
pesticide applications to insect repellents include:

•	Measurements of "whole body" exposure following repellent applications under differing
situations (e.g., single-event as well as longitudinal repeated applications at campsites,
beaches, etc.) to replace method of extrapolating from forearm or leg measurements.

•	Survey information detailing:

o Daily/weekly/monthly probability of using a repellent
o Repellent application regimens (i.e., applications per day) - both daily and
longitudinal frequencies.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Formulation-specific Application Rates: The formulation-specific application rates were derived
from available repellent efficacy studies where the amount of repellent applied to a known
surface area (i.e., the area of a certain section of forearm or leg) was measured typically via a
"before-and-after" weighing. The extent to which the data in these studies present a true
statistical representation of repellent application rates is unknown. Furthermore, because the
applications were to legs or forearms only, the use of these rates in the post-application dermal

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Insect Repellents

exposure equation requires extrapolation to the rest of the body, assuming the same loading for
across body parts.

Fraction of Body Exposed: Though a default of 75% is recommended, three "scenarios"
described by the amount of body exposed per application are meant to represent the broad range
of repellent exposure situations and can be used for additional exposure characterization. This is
because, for example, the proportion of total repellent applications comprising heavy-use
repellent applications (i.e., an application to 75% of a person's skin) is unknown.

Daily Application Frequency: The number of repellent applications per day would be highly
chemical-specific, since it would be dependent on the product's efficacy. However, in the event
this information is unknown, the range of 1 application every 2-6 hours (Fradin and Day, 2002)
is reasonable.

6.2.3 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-
to-Mouth

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the dose for children 1 < 2 years old from
incidental ingestion of pesticide residues from skin treated with insect repellents. This scenario
assumes that pesticide residues resulting from the application of insect repellents on the skin are
subsequently ingested as a result of hand-to-mouth transfer.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on the algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

E =

where:

E

HR

Fm

SAh

ET

N_Replen
SE

FreqHtM

HR * (/<;.

M * SAh

) * (ET * N _ Replen) * [ 1 - (l - SE) N _Replen

(6.6)

= exposure (mg/day);

= hand residue loading (mg/cm2);

= fraction hand surface area mouthed/event (fraction/event);
= typical surface area of one hand (cm2);

= exposure time (hours/day);

= number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
= saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and
= number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

and

HR=ARf*Fa1	(6.7)

where:

HR = hand residue loading (mg/cm );

ARf = formulation-specific application rate (mg ai/cm2 skin);

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Insect Repellents

Fai = product-specific fraction of active ingredient (mg ai/mg product);

Oral dose, normalized to body weight, are calculated as:

Z> = —	(6.8)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application hand-to-mouth exposure following repellent applications is generally considered
short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term
multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 6-8. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

I'iihlo (i-X: Insect Kopollonls - Recommended Point l-lsliniiilos lor Posi-Appliciilion Ihind-lo-Moiilh

l.xnosiirc Inclors

Algorithm
Noliilion

l.xposuiv l-iiclor
(ฆฆnils)

Point l'.sliniiilo(s)

ARf

Formulation-specific application rate
(mg product/cm2 skin)

Aerosol

1.1

Pump spray

0.62

Lotion

2.0

Towelette

1.1

Fai

Amount of active ingredient
(%)

Maximum labeled rate
(product-specific)

SAh

Typical surface area of one hand (cm2), children 1 < 2 years old

150

Fm

Fraction hand surface area mouthed
(fraction/event)

0.127

NReplen

Replenishment intervals
(intervals/hr)

Traditional

0.25

With sunscreen

0.5

ET

Exposure Time
(hours/day)

3.5

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(fraction)

0.48

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Insect Repellents

I'iihlo (i-X: Insect Kcpcllcnls - Recommended Point l-lsliniiilos lor Posl-Appliciilion Ihind-lo-Moiilh

l.xposurc Inclors

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events per hour
(events/hr)

13.9

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

11.4

Hand Residue Loading (HR)

The application rate described in the post-application dermal exposure section is assumed to be
equally distributed across the body. Therefore, those rates can be directly used as the
concentration on the hands following a repellent application. Thus, the concentration on the
hands is the product of the formulation-specific rates shown in Table 6-8 and the amount of
active ingredient in the repellent.

Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed (Fm)

See Section 2.4 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of hand surface area mouthed
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application hand-to-mouth
exposure assessment is 0.127 (12.7%).

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old of 150 cm , for one hand, is recommended
based on the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition, Table 7-2 (U.S. EPA, 2011).

Exposure Time (ET)

Another important variable for addressing post-application exposure from insect repellents is the
duration of time during which repellents are applied. For duration of time during which
repellents are applied, the amount of time spent performing outdoor recreational activities was
used (U.S. EPA, 2011; Tables 16-25, "doers only"). It is likely that insect repellents would be
used when children are performing outdoor activities, so this dataset was considered a reasonable
surrogate. Children 1 < 2 is considered the index lifestage because of the expected greater use of
repellents compared with younger children due to time spent in activities during which repellents
would be used. However, no data were available for this lifestage, so time spent in outdoor
recreation for children 3 < 6 years old was used as a surrogate dataset. Note that only the
"doers" are represented, meaning that individuals who did not respond that they perform outdoor
recreational activities were excluded. Based on these data, the recommended point estimate
for use in post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessment for children 1 < 2 years old
is 3.5 hrs/day.

Table (>-'>: Time Spoil! lor Kcpcllcnl I so (hrs/d;i\)

Sliiiislic

Children 1 < 2 je.irs old

5th percentile

0.5

25th percentile

1.0

50th percentile

2.5

75 th percentile

4.0

90th percentile

9.8

95th percentile

10.1

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Insect Repellents

99th percentile

10.4

Mean

3.5



Source: U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 16-25 (data for children 1 < 2 year unavailable - children 3 < 6
years old data used as a surrogate dataset).

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

Unlike other hand-to-mouth scenarios where replenishment can come from treated indoor
surfaces or treated turf, replenishment for insect repellents is assumed to only occur when an
application occurs. As a result, application frequency is used to represent replenishment
intervals per hour. Most insect repellent labels do not specify the number of applications to be
made per hour. More commonly, a label will carry a statement such as "reapply as needed."
Efficacy studies are designed to measure the duration of repellency provided by the products
tested. If product-specific information on the duration of efficacy repellency is available, the
assessor should use it in their assessment to determine the application frequency specific to the
individual product. However, if this information is unavailable, a generic application
frequency of 1 every 4 hours (0.25 apps/hour) is recommended for traditional repellents
and 1 every 2 hours (0.5 apps/hour) is recommended for repellents formulated with
sunscreens. This is based on information from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicating
effective repellency times vary from 2-6 hours (i.e., 1 application every 2-6 hours) depending on
the product and formulation (Fradin and Day, 2002).

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 for discussion of the distribution of values for the fraction of pesticide extracted
by saliva distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application hand-to-
mouth exposure assessment is 0.48.

Hand-to-Mouth Events per Hour (Freq HtM)

Frequency of hand-to-mouth events is an important variable for hand-to-mouth post-application
exposure assessments. However, there are currently no data available that specifically address
the number of hand-to-mouth events that occur relative to the amount of time a child is in contact
with an insect repellent. As a result, the estimates for frequency of hand-to-mouth events in
outdoor environments from the Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis were selected as a surrogate. The
outdoor data were selected because they represent the most likely time when insect repellents
will be used on children. The insect repellent SOP utilizes hand-to-mouth frequency data for the
1 < 2 year old lifestage to represent children. Distributions for different lifestages can be used if
there is a need to assess a more specific exposure lifestage. The estimates of hand mouthing
frequency (events/hour) for 1 < 2 years old were derived from 4 studies representing 32
participants. Based on an analysis of the data by Xue et al., it was determined that a Weibull
distribution (scale= 13.8, shape= 0.98) best fits the observed data. Table 6-10 provides
distributions and point estimates of hand-to-mouth events for use in residential pesticide
exposure assessment and Appendix D.9.1 provides additional analysis. The recommended
point estimate for use in post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessment is 13.9
events/hour.

1 "si hie (>-10:

I-'iv(|iiciio of Iliinri-lu-Moiiih I-.m-iKs (ocnls/hoiin

Sliiiislic

Children 1 < 2 h'iii's old

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Insect Repellents

50th percentile

8.0

75 th percentile

19.2

95th percentile

42.2

AM(SD)

13.9(13.6)

Range

1 - 46.7

N

32

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would refine post-application dermal exposure assessments for the application
of insect repellents are listed below. Existing surveys such as the REJV survey and DEET Joint
Venture Survey can be further reviewed for this information.

•	Repellent application regimens - both daily and longitudinal frequencies

•	Survey information detailing:

o Daily/weekly/monthly probability of using a repellent; and
o Product- and/or formulation-specific application rates enabling determination of
hand-specific concentrations under differing scenarios as well as repeat
applications to measure the extent to which the rate varies per individual.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Formulation-specific Application Rates: The formulation-specific application rates were derived
from available repellent efficacy studies where the amount of repellent applied to a known
surface area (i.e., the area of a certain section of forearm or leg) was measured typically via a
"before-and-after" weighing. Though the applications in these studies were to legs or forearms
only, these rates were assumed to apply to the hands as well.

Daily Application Frequency: The number of repellent applications per day would be highly
chemical-specific, since it would be dependent on the product's efficacy. However, in the event
this information is unknown, the range of 1 application every 2-6 hours (Fradin and Day, 2002)
is reasonable.

6.2.4 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risks resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that they can
occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across different
routes of exposure are the same (see Section 1.3.4). When combining scenarios, it is important
to fully characterize the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and
estimates. Risks should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure exceeds the
level of concern because this allows for better risk characterization for risk managers. For insect
repellents, the post-application exposure scenarios that should be combined are the dermal and
hand-to-mouth scenarios. This combination should be considered a protective estimate of
children's exposure from the use of insect repellents.

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Indoor Environments

Section 7 Indoor Environments

This section considers those individuals who are potentially exposed to pesticides from either
treating indoor areas with a product available for sale to the general public or after contact with
treated indoor surfaces in many settings including homes, schools, and daycares. Before the
development of an exposure assessment for this scenario, the assessor should review the
pesticide label to determine whether it is appropriate based on the usage of the product.

For the purposes of the indoor SOP, the following definitions are used:

A fogger (or total release aerosol) is a pesticide device designed to automatically release its total
content in one operation for the purpose of creating a permeating fog within a confined space to
deliver the pesticide throughout the space. Total release aerosols do not need any other
application equipment (PR NOTICE 98-6, 1998).

Broadcast application is defined as an application to broad expanses of surfaces such as walls,
floors, and ceilings (U.S. EPA, 1996); a coarse spray of liquid insecticide or application of a dust
insecticide in a room. Broadcast applications should be evenly distributed (University of
Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, 2006).

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Coarse application) is defined as a coarse spray of liquid insecticide or
application of a dust insecticide in a wide band or strip (University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Extension, 2006) or over a small area (< 2 ft2) (38 FR 21685, 1973). These applications are
typically done with a manually-pressurized handwand or an aerosol can with typical nozzles.
Example label language that would indicate this type of application includes:

"Use a coarse, manually-pressurized spray. Treat entry points such as around doors, windows, and eaves. Treat areas where
pests normally feed or hide such as baseboards and corners."

"Use a manually-pressurized system with a fan-type nozzle to apply the dilution uniformly."

"Spot treat floor or rugs beneath furniture, in closets, and storage areas, but do not apply to entire floor area."

".. .treat mattress, box springs, bed frames, and headboards."

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Pin Stream application) is defined similarly to the coarse perimeter
treatment except that the method of application utilizes a pin stream nozzle similar to what is
used for crack and crevice applications. However, these types of applications are not made into
cracks and crevices and a larger area is treated than would be expected with a crack and crevice
application. Example label language that would indicate this type of application includes the
language listed above for coarse applications with the exception of the type of nozzle used:

"Use a manually-pressurized system with a pinpoint nozzle."

Crack and crevice application is defined as an application of pesticides with the use of a pin
stream nozzle, into cracks and crevices in which pests hide or through which they may enter a

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Indoor Environments

building. Such openings commonly occur at expansion joints, between different elements of
construction, and between equipment and floors. These openings may lead to voids such as
hollow walls, equipment legs and bases, conduits, motor housings, and junction or switch boxes
(U.S. EPA, 1996). Example label language that would indicate this type of application includes:

"Treat areas where pests normally feed or hide such as around water pipes, behind or under refrigerators, cabinets, sinks and
stoves."

"Place injector tips into cracks and crevices."

When reviewing proposed labels, the following key items should be considered to determine if
an indoor assessment should be conducted, and if so, what type of application should be
assessed:

•	Look for statements describing or limiting the use of the proposed product. These
statements may be on the front panel of the label associated with the brand or trade name
or in the use directions section of the label. If a label indicates an indoor residential use,
assume that the product is used at residential sites such as daycares, schools, or other sites
where children may be present, unless a specific labeling statement indicates use in a
non-residential setting. Examples of statements that restrict use in residential sites, and
therefore, would preclude a residential assessment, include:

o For use in commercial sites only; and
o For use in food handling establishments only.

A Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) classification indicates that the product cannot be
bought or applied by homeowners (i.e., no residential handler exposure/risk assessment
required), but it may be applied by commercial applicators to residential sites; therefore,
a post-application risk assessment may be required.

•	Determine what type of application is allowed on the label. Check the label for directions
for use as a broadcast, perimeter, spot or crack and crevice treatment. Use the definitions
and key label language provided above as a guide.

•	Determine whether the pesticide label contains directions for use on carpets or hard
surfaces, such as walls, countertops, hard floors, or cabinets. If no distinction is made as
to what type of surface the product can be applied to, an assessment for both types of
surfaces should be conducted.

If an indoor use is possible, the assessment should then characterize and estimate the potential
for exposure by route (i.e., dermal, inhalation, non-dietary ingestion) following the methodology
outlined in this SOP. The assessor should consider the durations of exposure for each route.
Specific considerations include the number of applications allowed per year and the re-treatment
interval required between those treatments. Depending on the specific product, this can indicate
if intermediate- or long-term assessments are required.

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Indoor Environments

7.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

The residential indoor handler SOP provides a standard method for estimating potential dermal
and inhalation doses resulting from applying pesticides indoors. Adults are considered the index
lifestage for this scenario as it is assumed that pesticides are applied by adults only (i.e.,
individuals 16 years or older).

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

As described in Section 1.3.3, daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential
pesticide handlers, for a given formulation-application method combination, is estimated by
multiplying the formula-application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the amount
of active ingredient handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE * AR * A	(7.1)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE	= unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

AR	= application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft, lb ai/gal); and

A	= area treated or amount handled (e.g., ft2/day, gal/day).

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation doses normalized to body weight are calculated as:

d_E*AF	(7.2)

BW

where:

D

E
AF
BW

= dose (mg/kg-day);

= exposure (mg/day);

= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
= body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for indoor applications is generally considered short-term in duration.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile
can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.3,
such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (dermal and inhalation) assessments are provided in
Table 7-1 and Table 7-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

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Indoor Environments

l iihlo 7-1: Indoor l.n\ imninciHs - Recommended I nil llxnosuiv (mg/lh ;ii) Point l.slim;i(es

loniiiiliiiion

1 .c|ii ipmciil
\pplicalioii MciIhh.1

Dermal

Inhalation

\ppeiidi\ I'aue
keloid ice

Poiih 1 !siimak'

l\ปini 1 !siimale

Dusts/Powders

Plunger duster

250

1.7

C-32

Bulb duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure
data for plunger duster applications recommended as surrogate

data.

Electric/power duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure
data for shaker can applications of dusts/powders recommended as
surrogate data.

Hand crank duster

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure
data for shaker can applications of dusts/powders recommended as
surrogate data.

Shaker can

4,300

18

C-36

Liquid
concentrates

Manually-pressurized

handwand
(w/ or w/o pin stream
nozzle)

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure
data for manually-pressurized handwand applications of wettable
powder recommended as surrogate data.

Ready-to-Use
(RTU)

Aerosol can
(w/ or w/o pin stream
nozzle)

370

3.0

C-134

Trigger-sprayer

85.1

0.061

C-113

Gels

No exposure data available for this application scenario; however,
exposure is considered negligible.

Pastes

No exposure data available for this application scenario; however,
exposure is considered negligible.

Foams

No exposure data available for this application scenario; however,
exposure is considered negligible.

Bait

(granular; hand dispersal)

160

0.38

B-39

Bait station / trap
(enclosed in child
resistant packaging)

No exposure data available for this application scenario; however,
exposure is considered negligible.

Pest Strip

No exposure data available for this application scenario; however,
exposure is considered negligible.

Wettable
Powder

Manually-pressurized

handwand
(w/ or w/o pin stream
nozzle)

69

1.1

C-141

Wettable
Powder in
Water-soluble
Packaging

Manually-pressurized

handwand
(w/ or w/o pin stream
nozzle)

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure
data for manually-pressurized handwand applications of wettable
powders recommended as surrogate data.

LI

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Indoor Environments

liihlo

n-2: Indoor l'.n\ iroiiinonls - Recommended Ihmdkr I xnosuiv l";ic(or Point l.s(ini;i(cs

l.\|)(ISIIIT 1-ilClOI-

(units)

Poini
I.N(ini;i(e(s)

Amount Applied
(see units specified)



Manually-pressurized handwand
(gallons)

Broadcast





Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)

0.5



Manually-pressurized handwand
(w/pin stream nozzle)
(gallons)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Pin stream application)



Crack and crevice





Bulb duster
(pounds dust)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
Crack and crevice

0.25





Broadcast





Plunger duster (pounds dust)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)



Amount
product /
/solution used

Electric/power duster
(pounds dust)

Broadcast

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)

0.5

Hand crank duster pounds dust

Broadcast

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)





Shaker can

Broadcast

1



^containers)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)

0.5





Broadcast Surface Spray

1



Aerosol can
(# 16-oz cans)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)

0.5





Space spray

0.25



Aerosol can
(w/ pin stream nozzle)
(# 16-oz cans)

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Pin stream application)

Crack and crevice

0.5



Trigger-pump sprayer
^containers)

Broadcast

1



Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application)

0.5

Body Weight
(kg)

80

Unit Exposures

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio between exposure and the amount of
active ingredient handled for a given formulation/application method combination, with units of

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Indoor Environments

mass exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg ai exposure/lb ai handled). The
recommended point estimate for use in handler dermal and inhalation exposure
assessments represents approximately the arithmetic mean of the distribution. Data
summaries can be found in Appendix C.

Estimating the Amount of Active Ingredient Handled

The algorithm for estimating handler exposure requires some estimate of the amount of active
ingredient handled per day. This factor varies based on the type of equipment or application
method used and is estimated based on the application rate specified on the product label. First,
the assessor should assemble application rate information in terms of active ingredient per
volume of spray (e.g., lb ai/gallon solution). For example, instructions for a liquid formulation
might direct application of 0.5 gallons of solution per 100 square feet. For handler indoor
assessments, the following are the recommended amounts of active ingredient handled for
typical indoor application equipment.

•	Manually-pressurized handwand: 0.5 gallons for broadcast, perimeter/spot/bedbug
(coarse and pin stream applications) treatments and crack and crevice treatments. These
values are supported by data from the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database (PHED),
which indicate about 0.5 gallons for a commercial applicator crack/crevice and limited
surface treatment in residences.

•	Dusters: 0.5 pounds of dust for broadcast and for perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse
application) and 0.25 pounds of dust for perimeter/spot/bedbug (bulb duster application)
and crack and crevice treatments. These values are based on best professional judgment
since no data are available and may be refined based on label information.

•	Shaker can: 1 can for broadcast and 0.5 can for perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse
application) treatments. These values are based on best professional judgment since no
data are available and may be refined based on label information.

•	Aerosol Can: 1 can for broadcast surface sprays. 0.5 can for perimeter/spot/bedbug
(coarse and pin stream applications) treatment surface sprays and crack and crevice
surface spray treatments, 0.25 for space sprays. These values are supported by data from
the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database (PHED), which indicate one 15-oz can is used
to make applications to crack, crevices, baseboards, under sinks, behind appliances, etc,
as well as best professional judgment.

•	Trigger-pump sprayer: 1 container for broadcast and V2 container for
perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse application) treatments. These values are based on best
professional judgment since no data are available and may be refined based on label
information.

Future Research/Data Needs

Unavailable information that would refine handler exposure assessments for indoor pesticide
applications include:

•	Information on the amount handled or area treated for the various scenarios.

•	Information on unit exposures for several formulation/equipment combinations.

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Indoor Environments

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

The uncertainties associated with this assessment stem from the use of assumed amounts of
active ingredient handled for typical indoor treatments. The estimated doses are believed to be
high-end, conservative estimates.

Unit Exposures

•	The exposure data underlying unit exposures are considered reasonable for the purposes
of estimating exposure. The data are from actual applications using standardized
exposure sampling methodologies and laboratory analyses.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amount of product/formulation (thus, active ingredient) handled per
application is lacking, making the estimates highly uncertain. The recommended point
estimates are, therefore, intended to be high-end to ensure an appropriately conservative
exposure estimate.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

7.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from contact with indoor surfaces following a pesticide
application. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years are
considered the index lifestages for this exposure scenario based on behavioral characteristics and
the strengths and limitations of available data.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for five individual
post-application exposure pathways resulting from exposure to pesticides that have been used to
treat indoor areas:

•	Section 7.2.1 - Post-application inhalation exposures;

•	Section 7.2.2 - Post-application dermal exposures;

•	Section 7.2.3 -Non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth activity;

•	Section 7.2.4 -Non-dietary ingestion via object-to-mouth activity; and

•	Section 7.2.5 -Non-dietary ingestion via dust ingestion.

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7.2.1 Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides a standard method for completing post-application inhalation exposure
assessments for adults and children after a pesticide treatment indoors (e.g., in a house, school,
daycare, etc). The basis for each scenario is that non-handler inhalation exposure occurs while
occupying indoor areas after a pesticide treatment. It covers fogger, space spray, and surface-
directed applications, as well as foundation/soil injection termiticide applications.

Inhalation exposure primarily occurs through breathing air containing pesticide vapors or
aerosols. Aerosols are a spray of fine particles, which tend to settle out of the air after a certain
time period depending on the particle size. Some examples of indoor devices that produce
aerosols include foggers and aerosol cans. Vapors occur when the pesticide volatilizes from a
surface after an application (e.g., broadcast application with a manually-pressurized handwand).
Volatilization of a pesticide indoors is dependent on many factors, including the vapor pressure
of the chemical, the media on which it has been applied, and air temperature.

For the inhalation route of exposure, there is a possibility that the point of departure (POD) used
for risk assessment may be based on the reference concentration (RfC) methodology. In the RfC
methodology, air concentrations are not converted to doses, rather, risks are assessed on the basis
of comparison of air concentrations with reference concentrations typically determined from
animal studies. This approach is not always available for every chemical; therefore, the exposure
assessor should discuss the possibility of this approach with a toxicologist.

If the post-application inhalation exposure assessment performed needs to be refined, it is
recommended that specialized computer software be used. The computer model currently used
by the Agency is theMCCEMmodel or Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model.
The MCCEM was peer reviewed in 1998 (Eastern Research Group, 1998). The appendix to this
SOP provides standard model inputs for using MCCEM in exposure assessments, but the
assessor should refer to the MCCEM User's Manual for details on the operation of MCCEM and
for information concerning the underlying assumptions and limitations of each (U.S. EPA,
1995). One notable limitation is that MCCEM treats all emissions as vapor or gas. Therefore,
air concentration calculations for aerosols using the MCCEM model will not account for the fact
that a certain amount of the pesticide in the air is expected to settle out. All specific model
inputs and calculations represented in this SOP are based on MCCEM Version 1.2 (available on
the EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/exposure/pubs/mccem.htm).

Post-application inhalation exposure following applications indoors is generally considered
short-term in duration, but is dependent on the use pattern of the specific product being assessed
and the dissipation/degradation properties of the active ingredient. Refinement of this dose
estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by
accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as residue dissipation,
product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e.,
intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to
more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

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The indoor post-application inhalation exposure assessment section is divided into 3 sections:
indoor foggers (Section 7.2.1.1), indoor spray applications (Section 7.2.1.2; covering both space
sprays and surface-directed sprays), and foundation/soil injection termiticide applications
(Section 7.2.1.3). The following table provides a summary of the possible post-application
inhalation scenarios following treatment of indoor areas. More information about each scenario
is provided below.

Decision 1 iihlo lor Posl-iippliciilion Inhiihilion Scoiiiirios

Possible post-application
assessments

Should an (Ism'smiiciiI /)(.' conducted for the type of unnliciilions bchn\ '.'

logger
(Section 7.2.1.1)

Indoor Spray Applications
(Section 7.2.1.2)

Termiticide
Applications
(T'oundation and
Soil Injection)

(Section 7.2.1.3)

Space Spray
(i.e., living Insect Killer)

S url ace-direc ted Spray
(e.g.. Broadcast/
Spot/Perimeter/Crack and
Crevice spray w/
Manually-pressurized
I Iandwand)

Exposure to pesticide
aerosols in air

(Algorithm # 1)

No

(reentry
restriction and

ventilation
requirements)

If label has reentry
restriction/ ventilation
requirements - No

If label does not have

reentry
restriction/ ventilation
requirements — Yes

No

No

Exposure to pesticide
vapors in air

(Algorithm #2)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

(using MCCEM
model)

7.2.1.1 Indoor Foggers

Fogger devices are designed to spread a fog of pesticide filling a room with aerosols, which will
eventually settle out of the air. To address post-application inhalation exposure to pesticide
aerosols following fogger applications, most fogger product labels typically require statements
such as: "Do Not Reenter Building for Four Hours; then open exterior doors and windows and
allow to air for 60 minutes before reoccupying area" with the intention of reducing inhalation
exposure. Information provided by manufacturers indicate that the particle size distribution for
most total release foggers ranges from 15 micrometers (um) to 60 um. The average settling time
for various particle sizes can be calculated based on Stokes Law (see Section D-l of Appendix
D). According to calculations of settling time versus droplet size, it will take 2 hours for a 15
micrometer particle to settle and 8 minutes for a 60 micrometer particle to settle from an eight-
foot ceiling height. Therefore, as long as fogger product labels include a statement restricting
entry for at least 2 hours, post-application inhalation exposure to pesticide aerosols should be
negligible. If there is no reentry time restriction on the product label, the ORE assessor should
recommend that the Registration Division (RD) ensure the appropriate restrictions/directions are
added to the label.

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After pesticide residues from a fogger deposit onto the indoor floor surface, there is the potential
for volatilization of those residues into the air. Therefore, an assessment for exposure to
pesticide vapors should be conducted according to algorithm #2 below; Exposure to pesticide
vapors.

7.2.1.2 Indoor Spray Applications

Indoor spray applications fall into two categories: (1) space sprays (e.g., flying insect killers),
and (2) surface-directed sprays (e.g., broadcast applications made with a manually-pressurized
handwand).

For space sprays, it is assumed that there may be post-application inhalation exposure to
pesticide aerosols that are still airborne after application. It should be noted that some space
spray labels have directions similar to those for indoor foggers, where the user is instructed to
leave the room for a period of time and to ventilate the room prior to re-entry. Labels include
statements such as: "Direct the spray towards the ceiling and upper corners of the room. Keep
areas closed for at least 1/2 hour. Do not remain in treated area. Ventilate area thoroughly
before re-entry." In those cases, post-application exposure to pesticide aerosols is expected to be
negligible considering the re-entry restriction and the ventilation requirement. However, if the
label does not contain such directions or requirements, then a post-application inhalation
assessment for exposure to pesticide aerosols (algorithm #1 below) should be conducted. Similar
to foggers, once the pesticide residues settle out of the air from the space spray application and
deposit onto the indoor floor surface, there is the potential for volatilization of those residues into
the air. Therefore, an assessment for exposure to pesticide vapors should be conducted
according to algorithm #2 below; Exposure to pesticide vapors.

For surface-directed spray applications, it is assumed that there may be post-application
inhalation exposure to pesticide vapors emitted after an application to an indoor surface has been
made. Therefore, an assessment for exposure to pesticide vapors should be conducted according
to algorithm #2 below; Exposure to pesticide vapors.

Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Algorithms

The two post-application inhalation exposure algorithms outlined in this section are:

(1)	Exposure to pesticide aerosols, and

(2)	Exposure to pesticide vapors.

(1) Exposure to pesticide aerosols

In order to assess post-application inhalation exposure to pesticide aerosols from instantaneous
release/aerosol applications (e.g., flying insect killers), the initial air concentration must first be
calculated. If chemical-specific data are available, the initial air concentration is the air
concentration at time 0 (assuming that individuals could be exposed to the air concentration

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immediately after application). If data are not available, then the initial air concentration can be
calculated using the following formula:

C0 = AR * CF1	(7.3)

where:

"3

Co = initial air concentration (mg/m );

AR = application rate (lbs ai/m3); and
CF1 = conversion factor (454,000 mg/lb).

If an application rate is given on the label in terms of unit area, this should be used. The
following equation can be used to calculate the application rate if it's not provided:

AI*Vproduct*Dproduct*CF\*CF2 (7.4)
AK —	

Vroom

where:

"3

AR = application rate (lbs ai/m );

A.I. = percent active ingredient in product (% ai);

V product = volume of product in 1 can (mL);

D product = density of product (g/mL);

CF1 = conversion factor (1,000 mg/g);

CF2 = conversion factor (2.2x10"6 lb/mg); and

"3

Vroom = volume of room (m ).

If the POD is based on the RfC methodology, then the calculated air concentration can be
compared directly to the reference concentration. However, if the POD is a No-Observed-
Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) or Lowest-Ob served-Adverse-Effect-Lev el (LOAEL),
inhalation potential doses must be calculated in order to compare to the appropriate POD.

The Instantaneous Release Box Model for aerosols can be used to calculate exposure for this
type of application scenario. The basis for this scenario is that post-application inhalation
exposure occurs from the airborne aerosols released after an aerosol application. The well-mixed
box (WMB) model was used to develop the exposure equation for the instantaneous
release/aerosol post-application inhalation scenario.

The WMB model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions:

(1)	fresh air (having no pesticide concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate
(based on the number of air changes per hour),

(2)	a turbulent internal airflow thoroughly mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-laden air
resulting in a uniform pesticide air concentration within the box, and

(3)	the perfectly mixed air exits the box at the same constant airflow rate (i.e., the inflow rate
equals the outflow rate).

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Thus, the indoor area where the aerosol is being applied is assumed to be in an enclosed box,
which is a reasonable assumption for a walled, indoor space. This scenario assumes
instantaneous spray release (i.e., the total amount of aerosol released is modeled to occur
instantaneously).

The evacuation of the aerosol from the box depends on airflow. For an indoor scenario, the
airflow is the product of the volume of the treated space and the number of air changes per hour,
ACH. The WMB model developed for this scenario models the pesticide air concentrations after
an instantaneous aerosol spray release. It should be noted that this calculation does not take
into account the settling of aerosol droplets. Only dissipation due to airflow into and out of
the box is modeled.

Post-application inhalation exposure for adults/children resulting from space sprays (e.g., flying
insect killers) can be calculated using the following equation (See Section D.3.5 of Appendix D
for equation description and derivation):

r * TP r

ฃ _ I q y/V * U_ e(~ACH*ET)

ACH L

(7.5)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

"3

C0 = initial concentration (mg/m );
IR = inhalation rate (m3/hr);
ACH = air changes per hour (hour"1); and
ET = exposure time (hr/day).

Absorbed inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

(7.6)

BW

where:

D

E

AF

BW

dose (mg/kg-day);
exposure (mg/day);

absorption factor (inhalation); and
body weight (kg).

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(2) Exposure to pesticide vapors

The basis for this scenario is that post-application inhalation exposure occurs from the emission
of pesticide vapors from a treated surface. The well-mixed box (WMB) model was used to
develop the exposure equation for assessing post-application inhalation exposure from vapor
emissions. The WMB model was used to model pesticide air concentrations within an enclosed,
fixed volume (i.e., a box) over time during the variable emission of a pesticide from a treated
surface.

The model incorporates a number of simplifying assumptions:

(1)	fresh air (having no pesticide concentration) enters the box at a constant airflow rate
(based on the number of air changes per hour),

(2)	a turbulent internal airflow thoroughly mixes the fresh air with the pesticide-laden air
resulting in a uniform pesticide air concentration within the box, and

(3)	the perfectly mixed air exits the box at the same constant airflow rate (i.e., the inflow rate
equals the outflow rate).

Thus, the indoor area where the pesticide is being applied is assumed to be in an enclosed box,
which is a reasonable assumption for a walled, indoor space. The removal of the pesticide from
the box depends on airflow. For an indoor scenario, the airflow is the product of the volume of
the treated space and the number of air changes per hour, ACH. The WMB model developed for
this scenario models the pesticide air concentrations after a surface-directed spray application or
after residues have settled onto the floor surface from a fogger or space spray application. Only
dissipation due to airflow into and out of the box is modeled.

Post-application inhalation exposure to vapors for adults/children resulting from indoor spray
applications can be calculated using the following equation (See Section D.3.6 of Appendix D for
equation description and derivation):

where:

ฃ _ ^ ^ label *

ACH * F

1-

' (ACH * e k*ET)-(k

* e-ACH*ET ^

ACH-k

(7.7)

E
IR

Miabel

V

* room

ACH
k

ET

: exposure (mg/day);

: inhalation rate (m3/hr);

: mass of active ingredient applied, determined from product label (mg);
: volume of room (m3);

: air exchanges per hour (1/hr);

: first order decay rate (1/hr); and
: exposure time (hr).

In the above equation, a mass of pesticide is applied to a surface and the emission of the
pesticide from the surface is assumed to decline over time due to dissipation of the pesticide (i.e.,
emission from the treated surface and removal due to the air exchange rate). The mass of active
ingredient applied can be calculated using the following formula:

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Mlabel = AR * A * CF1	(7.8)

where:

Miabei = mass of active ingredient applied, determined from product label (mg);
AR = application rate (e.g., lb ai/ft2, lb ai/gal);

A = area treated or amount handled (e.g., ft2/day, gal/day); and
CF1 = conversion factor (4.54xl05 mg/lb).

The exposure equation models an emission rate that decreases over time, which is based on a
first-order decay rate constant (k). Evans (1994) proposed calculating such a decay rate based on
work done by Chinn (1981). Chinn developed the following relationship between the volatility,
or saturation concentration (Csat), of a chemical and the time required for 90% of the chemical to
evaporate (EvapT):

EvapT=10l73698-(x9546^1(jcJ	(7.9)

where:

EvapT = evaporation time (sec); and

C

sat

= saturation concentration (mg/m ).

Evans proposed the following equation to calculate the decay rate (or dissipation rate) that
defines the change in the emission rate based on the evaporation time described by Chinn:

where:

E =

ln(lO)*CFl
EvapT

(7.10)

k

CF1
EvapT

first order decay rate (1/hr),
conversion factor (sec/hr), and
evaporation time (sec).

**Saturation concentration verification**

In the vapor emission assessment, post-application inhalation exposure occurs from the release
of vapors following a surface treatment indoors. The concentration of pesticide in the air is
modeled over time to calculate exposure. The maximum concentration allowed in the air
should be the saturation concentration, calculated as a function of the pesticide's molecular
weight and vapor pressure. The equation used to model the air concentration is not bound
by the saturation concentration; therefore, the reviewer must perform a check to make
sure the exposures being calculated are valid.

The exposure equation above is based on the mass of pesticide applied, not the concentration of
the pesticide in the air; therefore, the reviewer must check that the input for mass applied (Miabei)
is predicting an air concentration less than or equal to the saturation concentration. The
following equation can be used to calculate the theoretical mass applied that would result in an
air concentration that reaches the saturation concentration for a pesticide (MCsat):

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MCsat = 	

k

Csat * (ACH - kyv

(7.11)

Mcsat should be compared to Miabei.

•	If Miabei > Mcsat Miabei will predict an air concentration higher than the saturation
concentration. Use MCsat in the exposure calculation.

•	If Miabei < Mcsat, Miabei will not predict an air concentration higher than the saturation
concentration. Use Miabei in the exposure calculation.

Once the post-application inhalation exposure is calculated, the inhalation dose normalized to
body weight is calculated as:

AF = absorption factor (inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

If not enough information is available to assess post-application inhalation exposure to pesticide
vapors from indoor sprays using the approach described above, a screening level assessment can
be performed using the saturation concentration (See Section D.3.7 of Appendix D).

7.2.1.3 Termiticide Applications (Foundation and Soil Injection)

The basis for this scenario is that post-application inhalation exposure occurs while occupying
living spaces within a residence during and after a termiticide treatment. This scenario is
specific to foundation and soil injection termiticide treatments as it assumes that only a
percentage of the pesticide applied penetrates into a home and is available for inhalation
exposure. The scenario is considered a long-term scenario. When possible, chemical-specific air
monitoring data should be used to calculate an air concentration; however, if data are not
available, MCCEM can be used.

Inputs for MCCEM for calculating air concentrations following termiticide applications are as
follows:

House: Select House Code "GN001" which represents a house with two zones (the bedroom
and the rest of the house), and an air exchange rate of 0.18/hr to represent summer conditions.

p_E* AF
BW

(7.12)

where:

D = dose (mg/kg-day);
E = exposure (mg/day);

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Run Time: Input the length of the model run as 364 days to represent a long-term exposure
duration and reporting interval of 1 day steps.

Emissions: The type of emission representative of termiticides is the Chinn-type or long-term
emission (e.g., a termiticide treatment is completed, and the pesticide off-gasses from the treated
surfaces for several weeks). As described above for surface-directed sprays, the off-gassing
emission rate is calculated based on an empirical relationship between evaporation time, vapor
pressure, and molecular weight (Chinn, 1981). An additional assumption for foundation/soil
injection termiticides is that only 5% of the applied chemical penetrates the home and is
available for post-application inhalation exposure. The equations necessary to calculate an
emission rate for the model are presented below.

Calculation of Emission Rate for Termiticides

1.	Calculate the mass of active ingredient applied in grams during a single application event.

2.	Calculate the mass of chemical that penetrates the home (m).

• Assume 5% penetration into home from treatment area. This is based on the experience
and professional judgment of the OPP staff based on the review of company-submitted

3. Calculate the Chinn evaporation time using the following formula based on the relationship
between a chemical's molecular weight and vapor pressure and the time for evaporation (Chinn,
1981):

data.

CET =	——	

(MW * VP)0'9546

(7.13)

where:

CET
MW
VP

Chinn evaporation time (hr);

molecular weight of pesticide active ingredient (g/mol); and
vapor pressure (mmHg).

4. Calculate the emission rate (g/hr) using the following formula:

(7.14)

where:

ER
M

CET

emission rate (g/hr);

mass of chemical that penetrates house; and
Chinn evaporation time (hr).

Example:

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Application rate = 5 lb ai/gal

"3

Vapor pressure of 5x10" mmHg
Molecular weight of 500 g/mol

Amount applied = 5 lb ai/gal * 100 gal/day = 500 lb ai/day * 454 g/lb = 227,000 g ai/day
Amount penetrates home = 227,000 g * 0.05 = 11,350 g

CET = 145/((500 * (5x10"3))0-9546) = 60.5 hours

and

ER = 11,350/60.5 = 188 grams/hour

This emission rate should be input into the model as a constant rate with an end time of 364 days.

Sinks/Activities/Dose/Monte Carlo: Not used for high-end assessments.

Options: Choose to run a single-chamber model. Other options should stay as defaults.

After all of the inputs have been entered into the model, the assessor should run the model and
save the output files for review purposes. The concentration applicable to long-term termiticide
applications is the average daily concentration (ADC). This value should be used in the dose
equation below.

Post-application inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

_ ADC * IR* ET * AF	(7.15)

~	BW

where:

D = dose (mg/kg-day);

"3

ADC = average daily concentration (mg/m );

IR = inhalation rate (m3/hr);

ET = exposure time (hr);

AF = absorption factor (inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Post-application Inhalation Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application inhalation exposure assessments are provided in Table
7-3 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions, ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values, and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

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l iihk* n-S: Indoor l.n\ ironinc'iKs - Recommended Posl-iippliciKion lnh;il;ilion l.xposinv l-'iiclor Point





I'lMiniiik's



Algorithm
Noliiiion

llxposuiv l";iclor
(units)

I'oinl I.N(ini;ik'(s)

Generic Variables Used in Calculating Post-application Inhalation Exposure

IR

Inhalation rate

Adult

0.64

(m3/hour)

Children 1 < 2 years old

0.33

ACH

Air changes per hour
(hr1)

0.45

BW

Body weight

Adult

80

(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

Vr0om

Volume of room
(m3)

33

Variables Specific to Post-application Inhalation Exposure to Pesticide Aerosols

C0

Initial air concentration

Calculated; concentration at



(mg/m3)

time "0"

AR

Application rate
(lb ai/ ft3)

Product-specific

A.I.

Percent ai in product

(%)

Product-specific

Vproduct

Volume of product
(mL)

Product-specific

-^product

Product density

Water-based products

1

(g/mL)

Solvent-based products

0.8

ET

Exposure time
(hr/day)

2

Variables Specific to Post-application Inhalation Exposure to Pesticide Vapors

Csat

Saturation concentration

Calculated



(mg/m)

VP

Vapor pressure
(mmHg)

Chemical-specific

MW

Molecular weight
(g/mol)

Chemical-specific

R

Gas constant

0.0821

(L-atm/mol-K)

T

Temperature of the air
(kelvin, K)

298

Miabel

Mass of active ingredient applied
(mg)

Product-specific

k

First order decay rate

Calculated

ET

Exposure time

Adult

16

(hr/day)

Children 1 < 2 years old

18

The following provides a general discussion for each post-application inhalation exposure factor
and derivation of recommended distributions and point estimates for use in exposure assessment.
Note that recommended body weight and inhalation rate distributions are included under
Sections 2.1 and 2.2, respectively, since they are not specific to any particular exposure
scenarios.

Inhalation Rate (IR)

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See Section 2.2 for discussion of inhalation rates. The recommended point estimates for use
in post-application inhalation exposure assessments are 0.64 m3/hr for adults and 0.33
m /hr for children 1 < 2 years old.

Air Changes per Hour (ACH)

Air changes per hour is the rate that air within an indoor environment is replaced by outdoor air.
An empirical distribution for typical house air changes per hour from the Exposure Factors
Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 19-24) should be used for post-application
inhalation assessment. The distribution is provided in Table 7-4. These values are representative
of all seasons and all regions. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application
inhalation exposure assessments is 0.45 ACH.

1 "sihie "M: Air ( h unties per Hour i.\( II)

Sliiiislie

AC "11 (1/linn r)

10th percentile

0.18

50th percentile

0.45

90 th percentile

1.26

AM(SD)

0.63 (0.65)

GM (SD)

0.46 (2.25)

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (SD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

Volume of a Room (Vroom)

The volume of a room is based on typical dimensions of residential rooms from Exposure
Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 19-11). For a 12 foot by 12 foot room,

-2

with an 8 foot high ceiling, the typical volume is 33 m .

Saturation Concentration (Cm)

The saturation concentration is a chemical's theoretical maximum air concentration. It
represents what would occur if a large amount of chemical were spilled in a non-ventilated room
and allowed to evaporate until equilibrium is reached. Calculating post-application inhalation
exposure and risk using the saturation concentration should be considered a health protective
approach.

Vapor Pressure (VP)

The vapor pressure is a chemical-specific value in units of mmHg.

Molecular weight (MW)

The molecular weight is a chemical-specific value in units of g/mol.

Gas constant (R)

A constant with units of L-atm/mol-K.

Temperature (T)

The temperature of the air in units of Kelvin (K).

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Mass of active ingredient applied (Miabd)

The mass of active ingredient applied can be determined from the application rate and the
amount handled or area treated assumed for a residential handler (e.g., lb ai/gallon * gallons = lb
applied).

First Order Decay Rate (k)

The decay rate, k, defines the change in the emission rate from the treated surface. As proposed
by Evans (1994), the decay rate constant is based on the 90% drying time. The 90% drying
time, in turn, is calculated based on the evaporation time and volatility of the chemical using

13

equations from Chinn (1981)

Exposure Time (ET)

For space sprays (e.g., flying insect killers), it is assumed that after application, the aerosol
droplets will settle out of the air and will be dispersed due to air exchange within the house;
therefore, based on information regarding particle size and settling time, a point estimate of 2
hours is used in the SOP.

For vapor emissions from indoor applications and termiticides, it is assumed that the vapors can
continue to emit over time; therefore, exposure time is related to time spent in a residence.
Empirical distributions for adults and children are provided in the Exposure Factors Handbook
2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Adults — Tables 16-16 and 16-26; Children - Tables 16-15 and
16-25). The distribution for exposure time for adults and for children 1 < 2 years old is provided
in Table 7-5. The recommended point estimates for use in post-application inhalation
exposure assessments are 16 hours for adults and 18 hours for children 1 < 2 years old.

l iihk* 7-5: llxnosuiv Time' (I I . hours)

Sliilislic

Atlu lis

1 lo <2 jesirs

5th percentile

9

11

25th percentile

13

15

50th percentile

15

18

75 th percentile

19

21

90th percentile

23

24

95th percentile

24

24

AM(SD)

16(5)

18 (SD not listed)

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

13 Based on information in Guo (2002; Part 2), one method to estimate first order decay rate constants was proposed by Evans (1994). Evans
proposed estimating the decay rate constant (k) for solvent emissions (i.e., total volatile organic compounds) from coating materials (i.e., solvent
based paint) based on the 90% drying time of the solvent (to.9). This relationship is represented by the following equation: k = (lnlO) /109. The
90% drying time of a chemical can be calculated based on the volatility (or saturation concentration) of a chemical using the following equation:
logio t0.9 = 7.3698 - 0.9546 logi0C„. This relationship was determined by Chinn (1981) by measuring the time for 90% evaporation of a number
of chemicals and graphing that against the volatility of those chemicals.

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Air Concentration (( '„)

The initial concentration is based upon instantaneous release of diluted product and complete
mixing into an enclosed space.

Application Rate (AR)

The application rate is the amount of spray applied. The application rate can be determined from
product specific factors that are listed on the label.

Percent A.I. in product (A.I.)

The percent of active ingredient (ai) in the product is a product-specific value and should be
stated on the label.

Volume of product (Vproduct)

The volume of product (mL/can) is a product-specific value and should be stated on the label.
Product Density (Dproduct)

The density should represent the product being assessed. If the product is water-based, the
assessor should use the density of water (1.0 g/mL). If the product is solvent-based, the assessor
should use 0.8 g/mL, an average based on an informal survey of various organic solvents
described in CRC (Lide, 1981).

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would refine post-application inhalation exposure assessments for indoor
pesticide applications include:

•	Air concentration data collected after space spray and surface-directed applications, both
immediately after and over time. Measurements should include differentiation between
aerosols, vapors and dusts/resuspension.

•	For surface-directed spray applications, air concentration data for various types of
application methods, including broadcast, perimeter and crack and crevice.

•	More information on fogger particle sizes and settling time.

•	Resuspension of pesticide particles after initial application and potential for inhalation
exposure.

•	More information on the percent of the applied chemical that penetrates a house
following a termiticide application.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Air concentration

•	The indoor post-application inhalation SOP makes the health protective assumption that
all of the applied pesticide is in the air available for inhalation exposure, and then that all
of the applied pesticide settles onto the floor and is available for dermal exposure. In
addition, dissipation of pesticides indoors is not taken into account for post-application
inhalation exposure.

•	The well-mixed box model for the instantaneous release/aerosol scenario does not take

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into account the settling of aerosol droplets. Only dissipation due to airflow into and out
of the box is modeled. In addition, sinks and resuspension activities are not accounted
for in the WMB model calculations.

Vapor emission decay rate constant

• The vapor emission from surface sprays model includes an input for a decay rate
constant, k, based on work by Chinn (1981) examining the relationship between the
volatility, or saturation concentration, of a chemical and the time required for 90% of the
chemical to evaporate. Chinn's experiments represent evaporation from a glass plate of
pure substances under conditions of mechanical ventilation. Substances in mixtures may
behave differently. In addition, the indoor environment features numerous surfaces to
which pesticides can partition, possibly leading to slower evaporation. Despite these
limitations, the data are considered useful for estimation of decay rate because all of the
required inputs are easily obtainable (e.g., molecular weight, vapor pressure and
temperature).

7.2.2 Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment

Post-application dermal exposure can result from pesticide residue transfer to the skin of
individuals who contact previously treated indoor surfaces (e.g., carpets, floors, furniture,
mattresses and other surfaces) during activities such as recreation, housework or other occupant
activities. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old
have been chosen as the index lifestages to assess based on behavioral characteristics and the
strengths and limitations of the available data. The indoor post-application dermal SOP is
divided into 2 sections: dermal exposure resulting from application to hard surfaces and carpets
(Section 7.2.2.1) and dermal exposure resulting from application to mattresses (e.g., bedbug
treatment) {Section 7.2.2.2).

7.2.2.1 Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm (hard surfaces and

Post-application dermal exposure is expected to result from contact with treated indoor surfaces,
which, for the purposes of this SOP, are separated into two categories: hard surfaces (e.g., floors)
and carpets. Post-application dermal exposure resulting from contact with treated indoor
surfaces is dependent on three exposure factors: transferable residue (TR), transfer coefficient
(TC), and exposure time (ET). The algorithm to calculate exposure is as follows:

carpets)

E = TR * CF1 * TC * ET

(7.16)

where:

E

TR
TC

exposure (mg/day);

indoor surface transferable residue (|ig/cm2);
transfer coefficient (cm /hr);

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ET = exposure time (hr/day); and
CF1 = conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig).

If chemical-specific TR data are available, this is preferred and should be used to calculate
exposure. However, if chemical-specific TR data are not available, then TR can be calculated
using the following formula:

TR = DepR * Fai	(7.17)

where:

2

TR = indoor surface transferable residue (|ig/cm );

2

DepR = deposited residue (ng/cm ), based on (in order of preference):

(1)	Chemical-specific residue deposition data (ng/cm ),

(2)	Application rate (lb ai/area), or

(3)	Default residue based on type of application (ng/cm ); and

Fai = fraction of ai available for transfer from carpet or hard surface (unitless).

Absorbed dermal dose, normalized to body weight, are calculated as:

d_E*AF	(7.18)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor; and
BW = body weight (kg).

Post-application dermal exposure following applications indoors is generally considered short-
term in duration, but is dependent on the use pattern of the specific product being assessed and
the dissipation/degradation properties of the active ingredient. Refinement of this dose estimate
to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by
accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue
dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term
assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar
refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions (hard
surfaces and carpets)

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments for hard surfaces (e.g.,
floors) and carpets are provided in Table 7-6 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific
input parameter is described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key
assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of
limitations that should be addressed when characterizing exposure.

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Tiihlc "7-(>: Indoor l-'n\ iron men Is (Ihirri Siirl';iccs ;iihI Ciirpcls) - Recommended Doriiuil l-lxposure l';ic(or

Point I.Nlini;ik'N

Algorithm
Noiiiiion

I'1\|)omiiv l";iclor
(ฆฆnils)

Poim l'.sliniiile(s)

TR

Transferable residue
((j.g/cm2)

(1)	Chemical-specific transferable
residue data OR

(2)	Estimated: DepR * F,n

DepR

Deposited residue
((j.g/cm2)

(1)	Chemical-specific residue
deposition data,

(2)	Estimated based on application
rate, or

(3)	Estimated based on default
residue related to type of application

Fai

Fraction of DepR as TR
following application

Carpets

0.06a

Hard surfaces

0.08a

TC

Transfer Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Adult

6,800

Children 1 < 2 years old

1,800

ET

Exposure Time (hrs/day)

Adults

Carpets

8

Hard
Surfaces

2

Children 1 < 2
years old

Carpets

4

Hard
Surfaces

2

BW

Body weight (kg)

Adult

80

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

a.	These values are screening level point estimates to be used when chemical-specific data are not available. Data are available for

certain chemicals; see text and associated tables for chemical-specific data for pyrethrin, permethrin, PBO, chlorpyrifos, and
deltamethrin.

Transferable Residue (TR)

Following an application, pesticide residue, which remains on indoor surfaces, can be contacted
by an individual and removed. The residue available for transfer is referred to as transferable
residue (TR) and is assumed to be the most significant source for dermal exposure in this
scenario. If chemical-specific transferable residue data are available for a specific chemical, this
is preferred and should be used for the estimation of exposure. The assessor should take into
consideration the application rate used in the chemical-specific study and how it compares to the
application rate of the proposed use; adjustments should be made, if necessary. If data are not
available, the TR can be calculated as a fraction (Fa;) of the deposited residue (DepR).

Deposited Residue (DepR)

The deposited residue is the residue that is deposited onto indoor surfaces following an
application. It can be based on (1) chemical-specific deposition data (i.e., actual measured
residue data), (2) the application rate of the product (e.g., assume that everything that is applied
is deposited onto the indoor surface), or (3) default values based on the type of application (e.g.,
broadcast, crack and crevice, etc). These options should be prioritized as follows, based on the
data available for a particular chemical:

1.	Chemical-specific deposition data are preferred, if available.

2.	If chemical-specific deposition data are not available, then the deposited residue should
be estimated based on the label-specified application rate.

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3. If neither chemical-specific data nor an application rate is available, default deposited
residues should be used based on the type of application.

Figure 7-1 provides a summary of these three options and also shows the approaches for the
different types of application methods [e.g., broadcast, perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse
application), perimeter/spot/bedbug (pinstream application), and crack and crevice], which are
discussed in more detail below.

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Figure 7-1: Summary of approaches for calculating the deposited residue for use in the dermal post-

application exposure calculation.

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Approach 1 for calculating deposited residue:

(1) Chemical-specific deposition data — use residue measurements collected from a study.

For some chemicals, a study may be available in which the pesticide was applied to a room and
residue data were collected from the floor using deposition coupons. It should be noted that in
October of 2007, the Agency revised the data requirements that pertain to conventional
pesticides. As part of these revisions, indoor surface residue studies were classified as required
under 40 CFR 158, subpart K (158.1070; post-application exposure data requirements table).

Deposition studies provide not only the magnitude of the deposited residue in a room, but also
the distribution of residue in a room. The distribution of residue in a room will differ depending
on the type of application made (i.e., broadcast, perimeter, or crack and crevice). For example, it
is expected that residues will be evenly distributed throughout a room after a broadcast
application, whereas after a perimeter application, residues will be higher near the outer edges of
a room than in the center of a room. Both the magnitude and distribution of residues in a room
will impact a person's exposure.

An indoor deposition study should collect residue data after an application for a particular
pesticide is made. As with chemical-specific transferable residue data, the assessor should take
into consideration the application rate used in the chemical-specific study and how it compares to
the application rate of the proposed use; adjustments should be made, if necessary. The assessor
should also take into consideration the application method used in the study and make sure that it
is representative of the proposed use being assessed.

Once the data are analyzed, the following deposited residue values should be calculated using the
available data. A discussion of these values is provided below.

(la) Broadcast (liquid and fogger formulations'): Use the average residue of all the coupons in the
study room.

DepR = Average of residues measured on all coupons in room

(lb) Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Coarse application'): Use a weighted average residue of 70%

of the residue in the untreated area of the room and 30% of the residue in the treated area of the
room.

DepR = (70% * average residue untreated area) + (30% * average residue treated area)

(lc) Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Pin Stream application): Use a weighted average residue of 70% of the
residue in the untreated area of the room and 30% of the residue in the treated area of the room.

DepR = (70% * average residue untreated area) + (30% * average residue treated area)

(Id) Crack and crevice: Use a weighted average residue of 90% of the residue in the untreated area
of the room and 10% of the residue in the treated area of the room.

DepR = (90% * average residue untreated area) + (10% * average residue treated area)

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After a broadcast application, the residues in a room should be evenly distributed throughout the
room. Therefore, the deposited residue value for use in the exposure assessment should be
calculated as the average residue for the entire treated area. Perimeter and crack and crevice
applications typically focus on the outer edges of rooms (e.g., along baseboards) and, therefore,
result in a distribution of residues with higher levels along the outer edges of a room ("treated
area") compared to the center of a room ("untreated area") (Selim, 2008 and U.S. EPA, 1993). It
is assumed that a person spends more time in the center of a room than along the outer edges
and, thus, is exposed less often to higher levels of residues in the treated area compared to lower
levels of residues in the untreated area. An assumption as to how much time a person would
come in contact with treated versus untreated areas of the room is used to adjust the estimate of
deposited residue. Based on this assumption, a weighted residue value is calculated.

For perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse and pin stream) applications, it is assumed that a person
would come in contact with treated areas 30% of the time and untreated areas 70% of the time
(see diagram below). This is based on preliminary information for surface contact probabilities
(Brinkman et al., 1999; SHEDS-Multimedia). The average deposited residue for the treated area
and untreated area should be calculated separately. Then, the deposited residue for the whole
room should be calculated as the sum of 70% of the average deposited residue for the untreated
area of the room and 30% of the average deposited residue for the treated area of the room (see
equation below).

DepR = (70% * average residue untreated area) + (30% * average residue treated area)

For crack and crevice applications, a similar approach is taken; however, it is assumed that a
person would come in contact with treated areas 10% of the time and untreated areas 90% of the
time (see diagram below). Again, this is based on preliminary information for surface contact
probabilities (Brinkman et al., 1999; SHEDS-Multimedia). The average deposited residue for
the treated area and untreated area should be calculated separately. Then, the deposited residue
for the whole room should be calculated as the sum of 90% of the average deposited residue for
the untreated area of the room and 10% of the average deposited residue for the treated area of
the room (see equation below).

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90% of untreated area

10% of treated area

DepR = (90% * average residue untreated area) + (10% * average residue treated area)

Approach 2 for calculating deposited residue:

(2) Application Rate — use rate provided on label and convert to ng/cm .

.9

When the application rate is in terms of mass active ingredient per area (e.g., lb ai/ft ), the
deposited residue can be estimated using the application rate (assuming everything that is applied
is deposited onto the floor of the room). A unit conversion can be performed in order to obtain a
residue value in terms of ng/cm .

If the label provides an application rate, the recommended deposited residue values are provided
below.

(2a) Broadcast (liquid and fogger fonnulations): Use the application rate on the label.

DepR = Application rate (|ag/cm2)

(2b) Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Coarse application): Use 50% of the application rate on the label.

DepR = 50% * Broadcast-equivalent Application rate

(2c) Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Pin Stream application): Use 50% of the application rate on the label.

DepR = 50% * Broadcast-equivalent Application rate

(2d) Crack and crevice: Use 10% of the application rate on the label.

DepR = 10% * Broadcast-equivalent Application rate

It is assumed that broadcast applications (liquid and fogger formulations) evenly distribute the
pesticide across the floor of a room; therefore, the deposited residue for the whole room is
assumed to be equivalent to the application rate. For fogger formulations, the application rate is
not always provided in terms of mass active ingredient per area, but can be calculated from the
amount of active ingredient (ai) in the fogger, the volume that the fogger is intended to treat and
an assumed ceiling height of 8 feet. If, for example, a six ounce fogger containing 1% ai is used
in a 33 cubic meter (1165 cubic foot) room with an eight foot ceiling, the surface residue would
be calculated as follows:

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Indoor Environments

Step 1 - Calculate amount of ai applied in jug.

ai applied (|ag) = (fogger weight (ounces) * (percent ai/100) * 454,000,000 p-g/lb) /16 ounces/lb = 1,700,000 |.ig
Step 2 - Calculate Area Treated in cm2.

Area Treated (cm2) = 1165 ft 78 ft ceiling = 146 ft2 * 929 cm2/ft2 = 135,000 cm2

Step 3 - Calculate fig/cm2.

1,700,000 jag/135,000 cm2 = 12.6 |ag/cm2

For perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse and pinstream) and crack and crevice applications, it is
assumed that the pesticide product will not be evenly distributed across the room, but will be
directed towards the outer edges of the room. As noted above, for these types of applications,
both the magnitude and distribution of residues in a room impact a person's exposure. If it is
assumed that broadcast applications result in an average deposited residue for a room that is
equivalent to the application rate, then for perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse and pinstream) and
crack and crevice applications, the average deposited residue for a room is expected to be a
percentage of the application rate. These percentages were estimated using available residue
deposition data from Agency submitted studies and literature studies. For more information on
the calculations and further analysis, refer to Section D.5 of Appendix D.

For perimeter/spot/bedbug (coarse and pinstream) applications, it is assumed that the deposited
residue is equivalent to 50% of the application rate (Selim, 2008, U.S. EPA, 1993). For more
information and further analysis, refer to Section D.5 of Appendix D.

For crack and crevice applications, it is assumed that the deposited residue is equivalent to 10%
of the application rate (Selim, 2008). For more information and further analysis, refer to Section
D. 5 of Appendix D.

Approach 3 for calculating deposited residue:

(3) Default values: use default residue values based on type of application.

If chemical-specific deposition data are not available and no application rate is provided on the
product label, then default deposited residue values should be used based on the type of
application to be made. The default values provided below are based on an analysis of available
residue deposition data from Agency submitted studies and literature studies.

A summary of the recommended values for default residues for broadcast, perimeter and crack
and crevice applications is provided in Table 7-7 and a discussion of these values is provided
below.

1 iihlc "7-"7: Recommended Delimit Residue C oncen I r:i I ions |};ised on T\ik' olฐ Application

T\ |)c of Application

IVrcenl Spr;i\

Residue concen(r;ilion

Broadcast3

Liquids

0.5%

15

Foggers

5.4

Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug (Coarse application)b

N/A

4.5

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1 iihlc "7-"7: Recommended Delimit Residue C oncen I r:i I ions |};ised on T\pc ol' \pplic;ilion

T\ |)c of Application

Percent Spr;i\

Residue concent nil ion

(|j.
-------
Indoor Environments

specific data. Fraction transferred values are provided for both carpets and hard surfaces since
the type of surface can influence the fraction of deposited residue that can be transferred.

The values for fraction of residue transferred from carpets and hard surfaces are based on
information provided from two sources, which examine transferability of a variety of chemicals
from both surfaces.

1)	Beamer et. al (2009): performed an extensive analysis of numerous transfer efficiency
studies which covered various methods (including the cloth roller, drag sled, PUF roller,
and bare hand press), surfaces (hard surfaces/sheet vinyl and carpets) and various
chemicals (chlorpyrifos, pyrethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO)).

Sources included: Camann, 1996; Fortune, 1997; Krieger, 2000; Ross, 1991; Clothier,
2000.

2)	Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF): examined transferability for bare hand-
presses on carpets and vinyl/hard surfaces for deltamethrin, permethrin, PBO and
pyrethrin.

Complete datasets (using data from all available sources) were compiled for five chemicals:
pyrethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin. These datasets
were analyzed and the results are provided in Table 7-8 and Table 7-9, for carpets and hard
surfaces, respectively. For the chemicals in Table 7-8 and Table 7-9, that have chemical-
specific data available, the arithmetic means should be used in post-application dermal
exposure assessments.

For chemicals not included in those tables, chemical-specific data are preferred, but if not
available, a screening level value is recommended based on the available data. For chemicals
that do not have chemical-specific data available, the recommended screening level point
estimates for use in post-application dermal exposure assessments are 0.06 for carpets and
0.08 for hard surfaces.

For further information on the fraction transferred factor, see Section D. 6 of Appendix D.

l ;ihk' "'-X: ( lu'iniciil-snccilic l r;ic(ion tr;iiisl'errod i for ( ;in>e(s

Sliiiislic

l'\ ivlhrin

PcniK'lhi'in

PBO

( hlorp> ril'os

Dolliiinolhriii

50 pei'cenule

0 0"'

0 0"'

0 ()"'

0.01

0.01

75th percentile

0.04

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.02

90th percentile

0.05

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.02

95th percentile

0.07

0.03

0.05

0.03

0.03

99th percentile

0.11

0.04

0.07

0.05

0.04

99.9th percentile

0.19

0.05

0.10

0.08

0.05

AM(SD)

0.03 (0.12)

0.02 (0.06)

0.02 (0.08)

0.02 (0.06)

0.01 (0.05)

GM (GSD)

0.02 (2.00)

0.02 (1.38)

0.02 (1.70)

0.01 (1.72)

0.01 (1.56)

Range

0.002 - 0.086

0.010-0.032

0.007 - 0.065

0.003 - 0.045

0.005 - 0.020

N

91

14

105

155

10

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

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l ;il)lo "7-'>: ( lu'inic;il-N|K'cific l-'nicliun Ii*;iiislVrre(l lor lliirri Surl'iicos

SialNic

lJ\ ivilimi

IVrmcllirin

\'\'A)

('hkirp\ I I I lls

Dcllamclliriii

50 percentile

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.06

0.04

75 th percentile

0.08

0.03

0.05

0.13

0.06

90th percentile

0.14

0.05

0.10

0.28

0.08

95th percentile

0.20

0.07

0.15

0.45

0.10

99th percentile

0.37

0.11

0.32

1.08

0.15

99.9th percentile

0.75

0.19

0.76

2.85

0.24

Arithmetic mean

0.07 (0.42)

0.03 (0.12)

0.05 (0.42)

0.13 (1.73)

0.05 (0.18)

Geometric Mean

0.04 (2.49)

0.02 (2.06)

0.02 (3.03)

0.06 (3.57)

0.04 (1.80)

Range

0.002 - 0.449

0.006 - 0.049

0.004-0.571

0.005 -0.601

0.017-0.124

N

60

14

74

24

10

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

Transfer Coefficient (TC)

The transfer coefficient (TC) provides a measure of surface-to-skin residue transfer and is
derived from concurrent measurements of exposure and surface residue. Specifically, the TC is
the ratio of exposure rate, measured in mass of chemical per time (i.e., ng/hr), to residue,
measured in mass of chemical per surface area (i.e., |ag/cm ).

Table 7-10 provides the distribution for the transfer coefficient factor for indoor surfaces.

T.ihle 7-IO: Tnmsler cuiTI'k'icnls ( 1 ( : ciir/hr)

Si;iiisiic

Ariull

Childron 1 < 2 u';irs old

50th percentile

4,700

1,300

75th percentile

7,800

2,100

95th percentile

17,000

4,600

99th percentile

28,000

7,600

99.9th percentile

50,000

14,000

AM (SD)

6,800 (8,200)

1,800 (2,200)

GM (GSD)

4,700 (2.16)

1,300(2.16)

Range

1,200 - 49,000

330- 13,000

a. A 73% reduction in the adult transfer coefficient is recommended because of the differences of body surface areas between adults and

children (1 < 2 years old).

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

There are no studies available that measure both exposure and surface residue while subjects are
performing typical indoor activities. Therefore, the transfer coefficients used for indoor
scenarios are derived from information provided in three different studies: (1) two studies which
measured exposure and surface residues while subjects performed a Jazzercise™ routine
(Krieger, 2000 and Selim, 2004) and (2) a study which measured biomonitoring doses while
adults performed scripted activities for 4 hours on carpet (Vaccaro, 1991).

In the Krieger and Selim studies, a Jazzercise™ routine was performed to achieve maximum
contact of the entire body with a surface using low impact aerobic movements. All body
surfaces (dorsal, ventral, and lateral) contacted the treated surface. The potential dermal

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exposure was measured by using whole-body dosimetry. The dosimeters were expected to
normalize differences in surface contact and to increase the total sample area relative to patches.
The assumption is that the dosimeter represents the skin and that the dose retained by the
dosimeter is equivalent to dermal exposure.

In the Vaccaro study, adult males, dressed in bathing suits only, performed different activities
over a 4-hour activity period. These activities included: sitting-playing with blocks, on hands
and knees crawling, walking on carpet, laying on back, and laying on abdomen. Although
activity was minimal during the last 2 activities, considerable surface area was in contact with
the carpets during these times.

Using information from these studies on residue transfer, exposure and dose provides an
estimated transfer coefficient for indoor activities. It is assumed that the shorter duration of high
contact activity (i.e., Jazzercise™) can be used to estimate exposure during longer durations of
low contact activity. For more information and full analysis of the transfer coefficient factor, see
Section D. 7.3 of Appendix D.

For adults, the recommended TC point estimate for post-application dermal exposure
assessments is 6,800 cm2/hr.

The transfer coefficient for children 1 < 2 years old is calculated based on an adjustment of the
adult transfer coefficient for differences in body surface area outlined in Section 2.3. A factor of
0.27 (i.e., a 73% TC reduction) is used for this lifestage. For children 1 < 2 years old, the
recommended TC point estimate for post-application dermal exposure assessments is 1,800
cm2/hr.

Exposure Time (ET)

An empirical distribution based on values from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition
(U.S. EPA, 2011; Adults — Tables 16-16 and 16-26; Children - Tables 16-15 and 16-25) should
be used for indoor post-application dermal assessments. The distributions for exposure time for
adults and for children 1 < 2 years old are provided in Table 7-11.

A study which provides information specific to time spent on different types of surfaces indoors
is not available. The Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition provides information on total
time spent in a residence and time spent in various rooms within a residence. In order to develop
inputs for exposure time on carpets and hard surfaces, two assumptions were made: (1) kitchens
and bathrooms would represent time spent on hard surfaces and (2) time spent in a residence,
less time spent sleeping and napping, would represent time spent on carpets.

For adults, the recommended ET point estimates for post-application dermal exposure
assessments are 8 and 2 hours on carpets and hard surfaces, respectively.

For children 1 < 2 years old, the recommended ET point estimate for post-application
dermal exposure assessments are 4 and 2 hours on carpets and hard surfaces, respectively.

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Tsihle n-\ 1: r.xnosure Time (I I : hours)

Siiiiisiic

Ciirpel

ll;i rd surl'iiees

Adult

Children 1 < 2 jesirs
old

Adull

Children 1 < 2
h'iii's old

5th percentile

4

2

0.25

0

25th percentile

6

4

1

1

50th percentile

7

5

1

2

75th percentile

10

5

3

3

90 th percentile

12

6

4

3

95th percentile

12

6

6

4

AM(SD)

8(3)

4 (-")

2(2)

2(~a)

a. The Exposure Factor Handbook did not provide these values for children.
AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

7.2.2.2 Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm (mattresses)

Post-application dermal exposure can occur as a result of pesticide applications to mattresses,
such as those directed for the control of bedbugs. Exposure to treated mattresses is dependent on
a number of exposure factors. The algorithm to calculate absorbed dose is as follows:

ej	n 19^

D = DR* —— *F*F*PF*AF* CF\	v' '

BW

where:

D

Dermal dose (mg/kg-day);

DR

Deposited residue (mg/cm2);

SA/BW =

Surface area / Body Weight Ratio (cm2/kg);

F

Fraction of body that contacts residue;

CF1

Conversion factor (mg/|.ig):

AF

Absorption factor;

Fal

fraction of ai available for transfer from treated mattress; and

PF

Protection factor to account for the presence of a single layer of fabric (e.g. bed sheet)



between the treated material and individual.

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions (mattresses)

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments for mattresses are
provided in Table 7-12 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

1 "sihie "7-12: Indoor l'.n\ ironmenls (111 ;idresses) - Keeom mended Derniid r.xnosure l-';ielor I'oinl llsliniiiles

Algorithm
Noliiiion

llxposiire l";ielor
(iinils)

I'oinl l'.sliniiile(s)

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1 "sihie "7-12: Indoor l.n\ ironnienls (in illnesses) - Recommended l)ei in;d l.xnosnre l-;ie(or Point l.s(ini;i(es

Algorithm
Noliilion

l.\|)osiire l-iieloi-
(ฆฆnils)

Poiiil l'.sliniiile(s)

DR

Deposited residue
((j.g/cm2)

(1) Calculated based on information provided on
label
OR

(2) based on default residue values

SA/BW

Surface area / Body Weight
Ratio
(cm2/kg)

Adult

280

Children 1 < 2
years old

640

F

Fraction of body that contacts residue

0.5

Fal

Fraction of DR available for transfer

0.06

PF

Protection Factor

0.5

Deposited Residue (DR)

Following an application to a mattress, pesticide residue deposited onto the surface of the
mattress could be contacted by an individual and removed. This residue can be estimated based
on information on the product label and high end assumptions or by using default residue values.

If an application rate is provided on the label assumptions can be made in terms of the size of
the mattress and the amount of product applied. It is assumed that an adult or child sleeps on a
twin-sized mattress, since it is believed that this scenario would result in the greatest body
surface area to treated surface area ratio and, therefore, the highest exposure. The following
assumptions can be made to determine a deposited residue:

Percent of mattress treated:

•	If the product label includes use directions that indicate the product should be applied to
"tufts, seams, folds and edges" of the mattress, a reasonable assumption is that this
equates to 20% of the total surface area. This value should be adjusted according to the
specific instructions on the label (i.e., if the label use directions indicate application to the
entire mattress, the assumption should be 100% of the total surface area).

Volume of product applied to mattress:

•	A typical twin-sized mattress has dimensions of 39" x 75"14, resulting in a total surface

2	2

area of approximately 3,000 in or 19,000 cm .

•	To calculate the total treated surface area:

Total treated surface area (cm2) = Percent of mattress treated (%) * total surface area (19,000 cm2)

•	Unless specific information is provided on the product label, assume that a reasonable
estimate for amount of product used for a twin mattress application is 5 gallons of
solution for 1000 square feet (0.005 gal/ft2).

•	To calculate the volume of product applied (gallons) to the mattress:

14 http://www.mattresssizes.info/

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Volume of product applied (gal) = Total treated surface area (cm2) * 0.005 gal/ft2 *conversion factor (1.08E-03 ft2/cm2)

Using the calculated volume of product applied along with the application rate on the label (in
terms of pounds active ingredient per gallon), calculate the pounds active ingredient applied:

Pounds active ingredient applied (lb ai) = Volume of product applied (gallons) * application rate (lb ai/gal)

To estimate the deposited residue for a treated mattress, it is assumed that the pounds of active
ingredient applied are applied to the entire surface area of the mattress:

Deposited residue (|_ig/cm2) = Pounds of active ingredient applied (lb ai) / total surface area (19,000 cm2) * 4.5E+08 |ig/lb

If an application rate is not provided on the label the default residue value provided in the Post-
application Dermal Exposure section for hard surfaces and carpets for Perimeter/Spot/Bedbug
(Coarse application) can be used (4.5 |j,g/cm ).

Surface area /Body Weight Ratio (SA /BW)

The surface area to body weight ratio is 280 cm2/kg for adults and 640 cm2/kg for children
1 < 2 years old. These values represent the mean of the distributions from the U.S. EPA
Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (2011; Table 7-15).

Fraction of body that contacts residue (F)

It is assumed that only half of the body is in contact with the mattress at any one time (0.5).
Fraction of Residue Available For Transfer (Fai)

The fraction of residue available for transfer from mattresses is assumed to be similar to that for
carpets (0.06).

Protection Factor (PF)

A protection factor is included to account for the presence of a single layer of fabric (e.g., bed
sheet) between the treated material and the individual (0.5).

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would refine post-application dermal exposure assessments for indoor pesticide
applications include:

•	Transferable residue data for a wider variety of chemicals and formulations.

•	Further research into the various transfer efficiency methods and linkage to the transfer
coefficient factor.

•	Distinction between broadcast, perimeter and crack and crevice applications including
surface contact probabilities to differentiate exposure potential based on application
methods.

•	Exposure data representative of participants doing "typical" activities indoors (on both
hard surfaces as well as carpets), along with measurements of surface residue that enable
calculation of a dermal transfer coefficient.

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•	For longer-term assessments, chemical-specific information on removal/degradation
processes that would allow for better characterization of potential exposure. In the indoor
environment, dissipation due to chemical processes (e.g., sunlight) is not expected for
most chemicals, although this is chemical dependent; however, there are removal
processes that can decrease the amount of residue found. Some factors that can influence
a chemical's persistence in the indoor environment include: loss of solvent inerts (which
maintain the pesticide in a transferable thin film solution), absorption of the pesticide into
the carpet fiber and matting, chemical or electrostatic binding of the pesticide onto the
carpet fiber surface, physical removal due to human activity (such as vacuuming), and
degradation of the pesticide into non-detectable products.

•	Amount of time spent indoors on various surfaces.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Residue

•	Reviewers should recognize that factors such as vacuuming, transfer to clothing, re-
suspension and impaction into carpet can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides
on indoor surfaces when conducting dermal post-application exposure assessments.

•	Reviewers should characterize the use of the default residue values for deposited residue
(DepR). These defaults are used when no other chemical- or product-specific
information is available.

Transfer Coefficient

•	Because there are no studies available that measure both exposure and surface residue
while subjects are performing typical indoor activities, the indoor transfer coefficient was
derived from information provided in three different studies (two Jazzercise™ studies
and a biomonitoring study where participants performed "typical" indoor activities). This
makes use of the best available data and provides reasonable exposure estimate by
utilizing high contact activities and low contact activities in two separate situations.

Fraction Transferred

•	In instances where chemical-specific data are not available, estimates of the fraction of
residue available for transfer are used genetically based on existing data for a wide
variety of chemicals. Use of this data generically, including using high-end estimates,
may overestimate exposure for some chemicals, but because of the limited data available,
there is the possibility of underestimating availability of residues for other chemicals.
Additionally, assessors need to be cognizant of using data collected from various
methods and linking to a transfer coefficient derived from one specific method.

Exposure Time

•	Information on the amount of time spent on carpets and hard surfaces, specifically, is not
available. Distributions were available for time spent inside a residence, time spent
sleeping, time spent in kitchens, and time spent in bathrooms. The values for different
percentiles of each distribution were either added together or subtracted to represent the
correct exposure time for a particular surface (e.g., time spent on carpet = time spent in a
residence - time spent sleeping) - a reasonable approach given the limitations of the data.

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7.2.3 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-
to-Mouth

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the dose for children 1 < 2 years old from
incidental ingestion of pesticide residues from previously treated indoor areas. This scenario
assumes that pesticide residues are transferred to the skin of children playing on treated indoor
surfaces and are subsequently ingested as a result of hand-to-mouth transfer.

Incidental oral exposures resulting from treated mattresses (e.g., treatment for bedbugs) should
only be assessed if there are no other indoor uses. Incidental oral exposures from indoor hard
surface or carpet applications are considered to be protective of mattress applications for the
following reasons: (1) typically a lower application rate is allowed for the mattress application
compared to indoor hard surface/carpet applications, (2) a protection factor of 0.5 is assumed for
the mattress exposures due to the presence of a bed sheet over the mattress, and (3) the
replenishment interval for hand-to-mouth activity is assumed to be less while a child is sleeping
than while they are awake.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

E =

HR * (Fm * SAh ) * (ET * N _ Replen) * 1 - (l - SE) N _ Replen

Freq _ HtM

(7.20)

where:

and

E	= exposure (mg/day);

HR	= hand residue loading (mg/cm2);

Fm	= fraction hand surface area mouthed / event (fraction/event);

ET	= exposure time (hr/day);

SAh	= surface area of one hand (cm );

N Replen	= number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);

SE	= saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and

FreqHtM	= number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

RR _ Fai hands * DE

SAh* 2

(7.21)

where:

HR	= hand residue loading (mg/cm );

Faihands	= fraction ai on hands compared to total surface residue from jazzercise

study (unitless);

DE	= dermal exposure (mg); and

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Indoor Environments

2

SAh	= typical surface area of one hand (cm ).

and

Dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

d = _E_	(7.22)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application hand-to-mouth exposure following indoor applications is generally considered
short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term
multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 7-13 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in
more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

l iihlc "7-13: Indoor Mii\ ironinoiils - Kccommciuk-ri Iliiiul-lo-Moiilh llxnosmv l";ic(or Point l.s(iiii;i(cs

Algorithm
Noliilion

r.xpoMiiv l";iclor
( ii nils)

Point l.s(iiii;ik'(N)

f Slhands

Fraction of ai on hands from jazzercise study
(unitless)

0.15

DE

Dermal exposure calculated in Section 7.2.2
(mg)

Calculated

HR

Residue available on the hands
(mg/cm2)

Calculated

SAh

Surface area of one hand ,,
^cm2^ Children 1 < 2 years old

150

AR

Application rate
(mass active ingredient per unit area)

Maximum labeled rate

Fm

Fraction of hand mouthed per event
(fraction/event)

0.13

NReplen

Replenishment intervals per hour
(intervals/hr)

4

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l iihlc "7-13: Indoor Mii\ ironinoiils - Kccommciuk-ri Iliiiul-lo-Moiilh llxnosmv l";ic(or Point l.s(iiii;i(cs

Algorithm
Noliilion

r.xpoMiiv l";iclor
( ii nils)

I'oinl l.s(iiii;ik'(N)

ET

Exposure time
(hours per day)

Children 1 < 2
years old

Carpets

4

Hard Surfaces

2

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(fraction)

0.48

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events
per hour
(events/hr)

Children 1 < 2 years old

20

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

Hand Residue (HR)

Hand residue is linked to dermal exposure and it is assumed that the fraction of residue on the
hands is equal to the fraction of the residue on the hands from the jazzercise studies used to
develop the indoor transfer coefficient.

Fraction of ai on hands from jazzercise study (Fai hands)

The fraction of active ingredient available on the hands was based on the jazzercise studies used
to calculate the indoor transfer coefficient (Krieger, 2000 and Selim, 2004). This value was
determined by taking the average residue measured on the hands (gloves) and comparing that
value to the average residue on the entire body. This analysis resulted in a value of 0.15.

Fraction ofHand Mouthed per Event (Fm)

See Section 2.4 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of hand mouthed. The recommended
point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral exposure assessments is 0.13.

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old was based on values from the Exposure
Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 7-2). This value is 150 cm2 for one
hand.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral
exposure assessments is 0.48.

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Exposure Time (ET)

An empirical distribution based on values from Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S.
EPA, 2011; Tables 16-15 and 16-25) should be used for indoor post-application hand-to-mouth
assessments. The distribution for exposure time for children 1 < 2 years old is provided in Table
7-14 A study which provides information specific to time spent on different types of surfaces
indoors is not available for children; therefore, information in the Exposure Factors Handbook
2011 Edition was used which includes total time spent in a residence and time spent in various
rooms within a residence. In order to develop inputs for exposure time on carpets and hard
surfaces, two assumptions were made: (1) kitchens and bathrooms would represent time spent
on hard surfaces and (2) time spent in a residence, less time spent sleeping and napping, would
represent time spent on carpets.

For children 1 < 2 years old, the recommended ET point estimates for post-application
incidental oral exposure assessments are 4 and 2 hours on carpets and hard surfaces,
respectively.

I'iihlo "7-l4: l-Anosure Time (I-1T: hours) for Children 1 <2 \e;irsold

Sliilislic

Ciirpel

ll;i rd surfiices

5th percentile

2

0

25th percentile

4

1

50th percentile

5

2

75th percentile

5

3

90 th percentile

6

3

95th percentile

6

4

AM(SD)

4 (-")

2(~a)

a. The Exposure Factor Handbook (U.S. EPA, 2011) did not provide these values for children.
AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Hand-to-Mouth Events per Hour (Freq HtM)

Frequency of hand-to-mouth events is an important variable for hand-to-mouth post-application
exposure assessments. The estimates for frequency of hand-to-mouth events in indoor
environments are based on the Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis. Table 7-15 provides distributions
and point estimates of hand to mouth events for use in residential pesticide exposure assessment
and Appendix D.9.2 provides additional analysis.

The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral exposure
assessments is 20 events/hr.

Tsihie "'-15:

l-'renueno of ll;ind-lo-Moiilh l'.\en(s (e\en(s/hr)

S(;ilislic

Children 1 < 2 \e;irs old



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Tiihlc "7-15: l-'ivniicno of ll;ind-lo-Moiiih I-', ten Is (o\i'ii(s/hr)

Slnlislic

Children 1 < 2 \c;u s old

5th percentile

0

25th percentile

6

50th percentile

14

75th percentile

27

95th percentile

63

AM(SD)

20 (20)

GM (GSD)

a

Range

a

N

245

Weibull distribution - Scale: 18.79 and Shape: 0.91
AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)
a Not provided

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would refine post-application incidental oral hand-to-mouth exposure
assessments for indoor pesticide applications include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often products are applied indoor) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals.

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating

indoor surfaces with pesticides;
o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Daily activity patterns specific to hand-to-mouth activities indoors (e.g.,
replenishment interval, hand-to-surface contacts).

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Residue

•	Reviewers should recognize that factors such as vacuuming, transfer to clothing, re-
suspension and impaction into carpet can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides
on indoor surfaces when conducting dermal post-application exposure assessments.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva

•	Though based on limited data, the determination of the fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva from the hand is considered reasonable.

7.2.4 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-
to-Mouth

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the dose for children 1 < 2 years old from
incidental ingestion of pesticide residues from previously treated indoor surfaces. This scenario
assumes that pesticide residues are transferred to a child's toy and are subsequently ingested as a
result of object-to-mouth transfer.

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Post-application Object-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from object-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

E =

OR * CFl * SAMa * (ET *N _Replen)*\ 1 - (l - SE)

Freq _ OtM
} N _Replen

(7.23)

where:

E	=	exposure (mg/day);

OR	=	chemical residue loading on an object (ng/cm );

CFl	=	weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/(ig);

SAM0	=	area of the object surface that is mouthed (cm2/event);

ET	=	exposure time (hr/day);

N Replen	=	number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);

SE	=	saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and

FreqOtM	=	number of object-to-mouth contact events per hour (events/hour).

and

OR = DepR * F0	(7.24)

where:

2

OR = chemical residue loading on the object (ng/cm );

DepR = deposited residue ([j,g/cm2); and

Fo = fraction of residue transferred to an object (unitless).

Oral dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

E	(7.25)

D = -
BW

where:

D = dose (mg/kg-day);
E = exposure (mg/day); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Post-application object-to-mouth exposure following indoor applications is generally considered
short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term
multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and

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activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Post-application Object-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application object-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 7-16 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in
more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

l iihlo "7-l(>: Indoor l.n\ ironnunlN - Rcconinu'inkd ObjocMo-Moiilh l.\

xisiiit l';ic(or Point I'lsiiniiiios

Algorithm
Noliilion

l.\|)osuiv l";ic(or
(units)

Point l.s(ini;ik'(s)

AR

Application rate
(mass active ingredient per unit area)

Maximum labeled rate

F0

Fraction of residue

Carpets

0.06a

transferred to an object

Hard surfaces

0.08a

SAM0

Surface area of object mouthed
(cm2/event)

10

NReplen

Replenishment intervals per hour
(intervals/hour)

4

SE

Saliva extraction factor

0.48

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Children 1 <
2 years old

Carpets

4

Hard Surfaces

2

Freq_OtM

Object-to-mouth events
per hour
(events/hour)

Children 1 < 2 years old

14

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

a.	These values are screening level point estimates to be used when chemical-specific data are not available. Data are available for

certain chemicals; see text and associated tables for chemical-specific data for pyrethrin, permethrin, PBO, chlorpyrifos, and
deltamethrin.

Fraction of Residue to an Object (Fq)

Following an application, some pesticide residue remains on indoor surfaces. Some of this
residue may be transferred to a child's toy and subsequently ingested via object-to-mouth
activities. For this SOP, it is assumed that the residue that could be transferred to the object is
the same as what is available for dermal transfer. As a result, the fraction of residue available for
transfer assumed for dermal exposure for both carpets and hard surfaces (see discussion above in
Section 7.2.2 for more detail) should be used as a conservative estimate for the fraction of
residue transferred to an object.

For carpets and hard surfaces, the recommended point estimates for use in post-
application incidental oral exposure assessments are 0.06 and 0.08, respectively.

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Indoor Environments

Surface Area of Object Mouthed (SAM0)

See Section 2.5 of this SOP for discussion of surface area of object mouthed. The
recommended value for use in exposure assessments is 10 cm2/event.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral
exposure assessments is 0.48.

Exposure Time (ET)

An empirical distribution based on values from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition
(U.S. EPA, 2011; Tables 16-15 and 16-25) should be used for indoor post-application object-to-
mouth assessments. The distribution for exposure time for children 1 < 2 years old is provided
in Table 7-17. A study which provides information specific to time spent on different types of
surfaces indoors is not available for children; therefore, information in the Exposure Factors
Handbook 2011 Edition was used which includes total time spent in a residence and time spent
in various rooms within a residence. In order to develop inputs for exposure time on carpets and
hard surfaces, two assumptions were made: (1) kitchens and bathrooms would represent time
spent on hard surfaces and (2) time spent in a residence, less time spent sleeping and napping,
would represent time spent on carpets.

For children 1 < 2 years old, the recommended point estimates for use in post-application
incidental oral exposure assessments are 4 and 2 hours on carpets and hard surfaces,
respectively.

"I'iihlo "7-1 "'i I-aimisuiv Time i l-'.T: hours) for Children 1 <2 \e;irsold

Siiiiisiic

( iirpel

1 l;i rd suii'iices

5th percentile

2

0

25th percentile

4

1

50th percentile

5

2

75th percentile

5

3

90 th percentile

6

3

95th percentile

6

4

AM(SD)

4 (-")

2(~a)

a. The Exposure Factor Handbook (U.S. EPA, 2011) did not provide these values for children.
AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Object-to-Mouth Events per Hour (Freq OtM)

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Indoor Environments

Frequency of object-to-mouth events is an important variable for object-to-mouth post-
application exposure assessments. The estimates for frequency of object-to-mouth events in
indoor environments are based on the Xue et al. (2010) meta-analysis. Table 7-18 provides
distributions and point estimates of object-to-mouth events for use in residential pesticide
exposure assessment.

The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral exposure
assessments is 14 events/hr.

Tsihlc "MX: I-'iv(|ik*iio of Oh.

ecMo-.Moiiih r.\en(s (o\on(s/hr)

Sinlislic

Children 1 < 2 \c;ii's old

5th percentile

2

25th percentile

7

50th percentile

12

75th percentile

19

95th percentile

34

AM(SD)

14 (10)

GM (GSD)

a

Range

a

N

137

Weibull distribution - Scale: 15.5 and Shape: 1.4
AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)
a Not provided

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would refine post-application incidental oral object-to-mouth exposure

assessments for indoor pesticide applications include:

•	Application intervals (i.e., how often chemicals are applied indoors) - either chemical-
specific or generic intervals.

•	Survey information (preferably longitudinal) detailing:

o General pesticide use to obtain, on a per capita basis, the probability of treating
indoor surfaces with pesticides;

o Product-specific application rates to obtain the likelihood that the maximum rate
is used; and,

o Daily activity patterns specific to object-to-mouth activities indoors (e.g., typical
surface area of object that is mouthed).

•	Data on the amount of residue transferred from treated indoor surfaces to both hard and
soft children's toys.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Residue

•	Reviewers should recognize that factors such as vacuuming, transfer to clothing, re-
suspension and impaction into carpet can greatly impact the dissipation rate of pesticides
on indoor surfaces when conducting dermal post-application exposure assessments. The
assumption that the entire available indoor transferable residue is transferred to the object
should be considered very conservative.

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Indoor Environments

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva

• Though based on limited data, the determination of the fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva from the hand is considered reasonable.

7.2.5 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Dust
Ingestion

House dust is a heterogeneous mixture of various particles with varying sizes, shapes, and
densities. The basic composition of house dust varies throughout a home as well as between
homes, across seasons, and across regions. In the indoor environment, it is known that pesticides
can partition into house dust and persist for periods of time, but assessing exposure to house dust
from a particular application of a pesticide product is difficult for several reasons.

In order to do an assessment of incidental oral ingestion exposure to house dust, information on
the pesticide concentration in dust is needed. There is uncertainty surrounding the ability to
estimate pesticide concentrations in dust from a single application. Pesticide concentrations in
house dust reported in the literature are not typically related to a single application event.
Pesticide residues in house dust can originate from either recent or historical applications and
from either indoor or outdoor sources; therefore, available measurements of dust concentrations
in house dust are unlikely to be representative of concentrations resulting from a particular
application.

Additionally, for measured concentrations in dust, there is difficulty in ensuring that the
sampling method utilized would be able to collect dust material that would be available for
human exposure. Most vacuum methods employed for the collection of household dust collect
the material from all depths of the carpet; whereas, incidental oral exposure to house dust would
primarily be to dust located on the surface of the carpet.

At this point in time, knowledge of dust ingestion patterns is somewhat limited due to the fact
that only a few researchers have attempted to quantify dust ingestion patterns in children. Values
are available in the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (EFH, 2011); however, the dust
ingestion recommendations include treated soil from the outdoor environment tracked into the
indoor setting, indoor settled dust and air-suspended particulate matter that is inhaled and
swallowed. The EFH notes that the confidence rating for the dust ingestion recommendation is
low due to limitations in the studies available.

A SOP for assessing incidental oral exposure to indoor house dust is not being proposed at this
time due to the issues discussed above; however, HED believes that the current method of hand-
to-mouth exposure assessment for indoor pesticide residues is protective of exposure to indoor
house dust. The current approach accounts for exposure to residues immediately after
application, which are assumed to be available in much higher concentrations than
concentrations found in house dust. Therefore, this approach is considered a conservative
measure of incidental oral exposure to a pesticide after application indoors and would be
protective of exposure to any partitioning of the pesticide into house dust.

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Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would useful for understanding the potential for exposure to house dust would
include:

•	Identifying best practices for house dust collection; and

•	Collection of longitudinal measurements of surface residues and house dust
concentrations after a pesticide application.

7.2.6 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risks resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that they can
occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across different
routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully characterize
the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and estimates. Risks
should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure exceeds the level of concern
because this allows for better risk characterization for risk managers. The following issues
should be considered when combining scenarios for the residential indoor SOP:

•	There are a number of non-dietary ingestion exposure scenarios that could potentially be
combined with the dermal exposure scenario. These non-dietary ingestion scenarios
should be considered inter-related and it is likely that they occur interspersed amongst
each other across time. For example, a child may place his hand in his mouth "X"
number of times as well as place an object in his mouth "Y" number of times during a
certain period of time. The potential combinations of co-occurrence of the hand-to-
mouth/object-to-mouth scenarios across a particular period of time are limitless.
Combining both of these scenarios with the dermal exposure scenario would be overly-
conservative because of the conservative nature of each individual assessment. Based on
this discussion, it is recommended that the dermal and hand-to-mouth scenarios be
combined for short-term exposure durations and this combination should be considered a
protective estimate of children's exposure to pesticides used on indoor surfaces.

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Treated Pets

Section 8 Treated Pets

This section provides the methods for estimating potential exposure that individuals may receive
from dermal, inhalation and/or hand-to-mouth exposure resulting from the treatment of pets with
a pesticide product. Products in this marketplace include liquid concentrates (dips, shampoos
and sponges), liquid ready-to-use (RTU) formulations (aerosol cans, collars, spot-ons and trigger
pump sprayers) and solid RTU formulations (dusts and powders). Exposure from treated pets is
anticipated to occur through dermal and inhalation routes when handling or applying the
treatment (adults). Further, exposure is anticipated to occur from the dermal (adults and
children) and hand-to-mouth routes (children only) from contact with treated pets.

This SOP updates the algorithms and inputs previously used to estimate handler and post-
application dermal and post-application hand-to-mouth exposure. While the SOP builds on
methods previously developed by the Agency, it relies mainly upon review of data submitted to
EPA in support of specific pet pesticide product registrations. The submitted data were used to
estimate potential exposure from 1) the application of pet pesticide treatments and 2) post-
application activity with treated pets. The Agency also used data from open literature when
available, though few sources were identified.

The exposure assessor should check the label language for directions on pet use. Look for
statements describing or limiting the use of the product (e.g., some dust/powder products
marketed for use indoors also allow for use on pets). These statements may be on the front panel
of the label associated with the brand or trade name or in the use-directions section of the
labeling. Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) classification indicates that the product cannot be
bought or applied by pet owners and, therefore, a residential handler exposure assessment is not
applicable. However, because pets often return to residential sites following professional
treatments, a residential post-application exposure assessment is required. Label language such
as such as "for use by veterinarians or veterinary assistants only" or "only available from
veterinarians" is considered unenforceable and does not preclude use in residential settings. In
this case, therefore, both a residential handler and post-application exposure assessment is
required.

The following definitions of common pet product formulations should be applied for use of the
Treated Pet SOP:

Liquid Formulations -

An aerosol product is a can formulation packaged under pressure for the dispersion of pesticide
to the hair coat of the treated animal.

A pet collar is a product formulated to be worn around the neck of a treated pet. Collars are
designed so that the pesticide is impregnated into the material of the collar and acts by slowly
releasing over the product active lifetime onto the hair coat of the pet.

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Treated Pets

A dig is a product that is applied to pets via dipping or immersion in a concentrated liquid
solution.

A shampoo is a product formulation that is applied to the wetted coat of the animal to be lathered
or shampooed into the hair coat of the treated pet.

A spot-on is a product formulated for application to pets via tube or vial to one or more small,
localized areas on the body of the animal. The products work by means of spreading from the
application site over the dermal surface of the treated pet.

A trigger pump sprayer is a product formulated to be distributed onto the hair coat of the treated
animal by means of pump spray applicator.

Solid Product Formulations -

Dust and powder formulations are RTU products applied to the treated pet by means of direct
application to the hair coat of the animal.

8.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

As described in Section 1.3.3, handler exposure refers to an adult individual exposed during
mixing, loading, and applying of a pesticide. The Agency assumes that dermal and inhalation
pesticide handler exposure can occur while applying pesticides to pets. This SOP provides unit
exposures for each formulation/application equipment combination that are relevant to
calculating handler exposure to pet pesticide products in the absence of chemical-specific
handler data.

The unit exposures in this section are based on a review of 6 studies of varying formulations
which provided information on the amount of active ingredient applied and resulting exposure to
the handler. Formulations for which data have been identified include dips, dusts, trigger-pump
spray, shampoo and spot-on. No formulation-specific data were identified for pet collar, powder
or aerosol spray formulations; however, surrogate unit exposures that closely approximate these
types of exposures have been recommended for the assessment of these formulations. More
information can be found in Section C. 1 of Appendix C.

Label information is important for selecting appropriate data inputs for the handler exposure
assessment. The maximum application rate specified on the label should be used. Additional
information provided by the label such as use directions, application-specific animal weight
ranges and re-treatment intervals should be considered as a part of the exposure assessment.

Prior to the development of a handler exposure assessment for a pet treatment scenario, the
assessor should review the pesticide label to determine whether the scenario is appropriate based
upon the pesticide formulation and usage characteristics of the product. Specific labeling
considerations for pet treatment products are as follows:

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Treated Pets

•	Determine whether the labeling contains directions for use on pets.

•	Identify from product labeling the formulation of the pet pesticide.

•	Determine maximum rate(s) of application for differing ranges of animal weight.

•	For formulations of pet pesticides which specify application rate as it corresponds to
animal weight (i.e., spot-ons), labeled weight ranges should be used to determine
application rate. The weight range which corresponds to the greatest amount of active
ingredient applied should be used for the assessment of handler exposure. Many
application methods of pet products (i.e., dips, shampoos and aerosol/trigger-pump
sprays) do not specify application rate as it corresponds to pet weight ranges. When not
specified it should be assumed that 1/2 of the contents of the can or bottle of product is
applied per animal treated based on best professional judgment. The majority of pet
collar formulations are registered as a single collar for use on all animal weight ranges
with directions to fit the collar to the treated animal and trim off the excess length.
Because the trimmed length and corresponding active ingredient loss cannot be
determined, the maximum application rate of the collar as labeled should be assumed for
assessment of applicator risk.

•	Only adults (individuals 16 years and older) are assumed to handle/apply pesticides to
pets.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

Daily dermal and inhalation exposure (mg/day) for residential pesticide handlers, for a given
formulation-application method combination, is estimated by multiplying the formula-
application method-specific unit exposure by an estimate of the amount of active ingredient
handled in a day, using the equation below:

E = UE * AR * A	(8.1)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

UE = unit exposure (mg/lb ai);

AR = application rate (lb ai/pet); and
A = number of animals treated per day.

Absorbed dermal and/or inhalation dose normalized to body weight is calculated as:

ZT * A 17

D=	(8.2)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF = absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and
BW = body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for applications to pets is generally considered short-term in duration.
Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term, multi-day exposure

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Treated Pets

profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and
1.3.3 such as the product-specific application regimen.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 8-1. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

1 "sihie X-l: Pel Tresi(men(s - Recommended I nil Kxposiirc (inii/ll) ;ii) Point Msiiniiiies

l-'onun hi (ion

l.(|ii i p men 1/
Application
Mel hod

Derniiil

Inhiiliilion

Appendix Page
Reference

Point l-'sliniiile

Point I'.siiniiile

Liquid-
Concentrate

Dip

100

0.027

C-71

Sponge

1,600

0.21

C-75

Ready-to-Use
(RTU) -
Liquid

Trigger-pump
sprayers

820

3.3

C-113

Shampoo

2,000

0.29

C-124

Spot-on

120

Inhalation exposure is
considered negligible.

C-130

Collar

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure data for
spot-on applications recommended as surrogate data.

Aerosol Can

No exposure data available for this application scenario. Exposure data for
trigger sprayer applications recommended as surrogate data.

Dusts/Powder

Shaker Can

4,300

18

C-36

Unit Exposures

As described in Section 1.3.3, the unit exposure is the ratio of exposure and the amount of active
ingredient handled for a given formulation/application method combination, with units of mass
exposure per mass active ingredient handled (e.g., mg exposure/lb ai handled). The
recommended point estimates shown in Table 8-1 represent the arithmetic mean. Data
summaries for all UE inputs can be found in Section C.l of Appendix C.

Number of Animals Treated

It is assumed that residential handlers of pet treatment products will treat 2 animals per
application (N). This estimate is based upon information available from The Humane Society
of the United States15 which references data from the American Pet Products Manufacturers
Association (APPA) 2011-2012 National Pet Owners Survey that reports pet owners have an
average of 1.7 dogs and 2.2 cats.

15 http://www.humanesocietv.org/issues/pet overpopulation/facts/pet ownership statistics.html

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Treated Pets

8.2 Post-application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from conducting physical activities such as petting or
otherwise interacting with pets following pesticide applications. While exposure may occur for
people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old are considered the index lifestage for this
exposure scenario based on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and limitations of
available data. An analysis of index lifestages for the Treated Pet section can be found in
Appendix A.

It is assumed that individuals contact previously treated pets on the same day the pesticide
treatment is applied. Therefore, the assessment of post-application exposure must be
representative of the day of application residues (i.e., Day 0). However, the assessment can be
refined to reflect exposure over longer periods of time (e.g., several months) if post-application
exposure (transferable residue) data, toxicological endpoint, or activity information is available
to allow for such calculations.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three individual
post-application scenarios resulting from exposure to pesticides that have been used to treat pets:

•	Section 8.2.1 - Post-application inhalation exposures;

•	Section 8.2.2 - Post-application dermal exposures; and

•	Section 8.2.3 - Non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth activity.

8.2.1	Post-application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

Post-application inhalation exposure is generally not assessed for pets and should be handled on
a case-by-case basis. The combination of low vapor pressure for chemicals typically used as
active ingredients in pet pesticide products and the small amounts of pesticide applied to pets is
expected to result in negligible inhalation exposure.

8.2.2	Post-application Dermal Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides a revised standard method for estimating potential dermal pesticide exposure
among adults and/or children that contact pets previously treated with pesticide products. The
method for determining post-application dermal exposure is based on the relationship between
the amount of pesticide applied and contact activities. It was developed to incorporate chemical-
specific data; however, standard values and assumptions are included that can be used in the
absence of data as described below in the sub-Section, Post-application Dermal Exposure
Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions.

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Treated Pets

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm

The following method is used to calculate dermal exposures that are attributable to an adult or
child contacting a treated companion pet:

E = TC * TR* ET	(8.3)

where:

E	= exposure (mg/day);

TC	= transfer coefficient (cm2/hr);

TR	= transferable residue (mg/cm ); and

ET	= exposure time (hours/day).

where:

AR * F

TR =	^aR	^

SA

TR	= transferable residue (mg/cm2);

AR	= application rate or amount applied to animal (mg);

Far	= fraction of the application rate available as transferable residue; and

SA	= surface area of the pet (cm2).

Absorbed dermal dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

J7 * A 17

D=	(8.5)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

As described previously, post-application exposure must include an estimated dose based on day
of application residues (i.e., Day 0). However, due to temperate climates in some parts of the
country, the potential exists for pet pest pressures and resulting treatment to extend beyond a
short-term duration (i.e., to intermediate- and long-term). Post-application exposure estimates
can be refined to reflect a multi-day exposure profile by accounting for the various factors
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4 such as dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals
(i.e., monthly, bi-monthly), and activity patterns. A description of the methodology
recommended for refinement of longer term post-application exposure to treated pets can be
found in Appendix D.

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Treated Pets

Post-application Dermal Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments are provided in Table
8-2 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in more
detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to derive
recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed when
characterizing exposure.

Tiil>lcX-2: Kcsiricnlhil Posl-;ipplic;ilion Scenario- Pol 1 iviiliiionl SOP lkrm;il llxposmv I iicKm s:

Recommended Point l.s(iiii;i(cs

Algorithm
Noliilion

llxposmv l-iicloi-
I nils

Poinl l.sliiiiiik'N

AR

Application rale

(mg)

Labeled Rale for Lach Weighi Range
Specified (Small, Medium, Large)

SA

Surface Area of Animal
(cm2)

Small Cat, Dog

Cat - 1,500
Dog - 3,000

Medium Cat, Dog

Cat-2,500
Dog - 7,000

Large Cat, Dog

Cat-4,000
Dog - 11,000

Far

Fraction of AR Available for Transfer

0.02

TC

Transfer Coefficient -
Liquids
(cm2/hr)

Adult

5,200

Children 1 < 2 years old

1,400

Transfer Coefficient -
Solids
(cm2/hr)

Adult

140,000

Children 1 < 2 years old

38,000

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Adult

0.77

Children 1 < 2 years old

1.0

BW

Body weight
(kg)

Adult

80

Children 1 < 2 years old

11

Transfer Coefficient (TC)

Post-application dermal exposure can be predicted using estimates for residue transfer to
individuals contacting treated pets during certain activities and exposure times. Exposure rates
resulting from residue transfer associated with a given formulation and activity is an empirical
value, known as the transfer coefficient (TC). For the purpose of determining exposure to
treated pets, TC can be defined as animal surface area contact per unit time (cm /hr). It is the
ratio of exposure rate, measured in mass of chemical per time (e.g., |ig/hr), to residue, measured
in mass of active ingredient per surface area of the animal (e.g., |ig/cm ).

The transfer coefficients used for pet exposure were derived from two studies representing
application and grooming activities with dogs, one using a carbaryl shampoo product (Mester,
1998) and the other using a carbaryl dust product (Merricks, 1997); these are used to represent

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Treated Pets

TCs for liquid and solid formulations, respectively. Data were gathered while human volunteers
applied pet pesticide products to various dogs of differing sizes and fur lengths. The information
identified best approximates the exposures that could occur from interactions with treated pets
because these studies included the direct measurement of exposures to applicators or pet
groomers. Since these individuals directly handled pesticide products and had direct contact
with treated pets, it is expected that their resulting exposures are a reasonable approximation of
upper bound estimates of contact with a treated animal. In the absence of direct exposure data
for this scenario (e.g., homeowner activity with a treated pet), the Agency assumes that the
application and grooming activities are likely to result in a protective estimate of exposure than
just the evaluation of petting, hugging or sleeping with a pet.

Because TCs were established from studies using adult volunteers, they have been scaled to
adjust for assessment of children 1 < 2 years old exposure as outlined in Section 2.3 using a
factor of 0.27 (i.e., a 73% reduction in the adult TC).

2	2

A TC of 5,200 cm /hr for adults and 1,400 cm /hr for children (based on the arithmetic mean) is
recommended for addressing all durations of post-application exposure for all liquid
formulations (or formulations that behave as liquids) including RTU liquid formulations (i.e.,
aerosol/trigger sprays, dips, pet collars, shampoos and spot-ons). Table 8-3 provides a statistical
summary of dermal exposure TCs derived for liquid formulations. A transfer coefficient of

2	2

140,000 cm /hr for adults and 38,000 cm /hr for children (based on the arithmetic mean) is
recommended for assessing post-application exposure for RTU solid formulations (i.e., dust and
powder). Table 8-4 provides a statistical summary of dermal exposure TCs derived for solid
formulations. A description of these studies and statistical derivations can be found in Section
D. 7.4 of Appendix D.

Tsi hie X-3: Deriiuil l-lxnosiire Tmiisler CoelTieienls - l.imiid l-'o nun l;i I ions

Sliiiislie

Transfer ( oelTieienl (enr/lin ' h

l.iiiiiids (Dins. Shiimnoos. Aerosol/'Trigger Snr;i\s. Colliirs ;iihI Snol-Ons)



Children 1 < 2 \esirs old

Adnll

50th Percentile

980

3,600

75th Percentile

1,700

6,400

95th Percentile

3,900

15,000

99th Percentile

7,000

26,000

AM(SD)

1,400 (1,400)

5,200 (5,300)

GM (GSD)

980 (2.3)

3,600 (2.3)

Range

NAฐ

522-12,846

N

NA0

16

a.	Representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, and no gloves

b.	Dermal liquid formulation TC based on a lognormal distribution fit with data from MRID 46658401

(See Section D. 7.4 of Appendix D).



c. NA = Not applicable. Child values were derived by scaling adult data.



Tiihle X-4: Deriiuil l-lxnosure Tr;insl'er CoelTieienls -

Solid l-'oriniiliilions

Shiiislie

rriinsler ( oelTieienl (em'/lin

Solids (Dusls/Powriers)



Children 1 < 2 \esirs old

Adnll

50th Percentile

31,000

120,000

75th Percentile

47,000

170,000

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Treated Pets

Tiihk* K-4: l)crm;il r.xnnsuiv I'mnslcr ( oiTfick'nls -

Solid l-'onunl;i 1 ions

Si;iiislic

11'iinslVr ( oclTicicni (cur/hi )

95th Percentile

84,000

310,000

99th Percentile

130,000

470,000

AM(SD)

38,000 (25,000)

140,000 (92,000)

GM (GSD)

31,000 (1.8)

120,000 (1.8)

Range

NA0

28,754-318,503

N

NA0

20

a.	Representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, and no gloves

b.	Dermal solid formulation TC based on a lognormal distribution fit with data from MRID 44439901

(See Section D. 7.4 of Appendix D).

c. NA = Not applicable. Child values were derived by scaling adult data.

Transferable Residue (TR)

Transferable residue (TR) is a measure of the concentration of pesticide active ingredient per
surface area of the treated pet that is anticipated to transfer to the exposed person. The
concentration of pesticide residue per surface area of animal is determined by normalizing the
maximum amount of residue deposited on the pet from a single treatment to the surface area
(SA) of the treated animal and multiplying by the fraction of application rate (Far) anticipated to
transfer from the hair coat of the treated animal to the exposed individual. The following
selection criteria should be used to determine TR.

1)	Use the measure of TR by means of a chemical-specific exposure study (e.g., pet wipe
study), if submitted. Notably, the Agency recently revised the data requirements that
pertain to conventional pesticides. As part of these revisions, residue studies were
classified as required for residential uses under 40 CFR 158, subpart K (158.1070; post-
application exposure data requirements table).

2)	In the absence of a chemical-specific study, the fraction of the application rate (Far)
should be used.

Fraction Application Rate (F Ui)

If chemical specific TR measurements are not available, then a standard value for the fraction of
active ingredient available (Far) for transfer is used. In this SOP, a screening level Far was
recommended based on the review of 8 pet residue transfer, or "petting," studies (9 data sets
total) submitted to the Agency. Measurements of residue transfer were derived by taking the
ratio of the amount of active ingredient on a bare or gloved hand (on the day of highest observed
transfer) to the amount of active ingredient applied. Five residue transfer studies were performed
by means of volunteers "petting" or "stroking" animals treated with a known amount of active
ingredient. Three additional residue transfer studies were conducted using a gloved mannequin
hand. For each study the amount of residue transferred to the hands was determined. Far studies
varied in the number, location and intensity of petting/stroking actions. All 8 pet residue transfer
studies were reviewed for ethical conduct and no barriers were identified in law or regulation for
their being relied upon by the Agency. Appendix D. 6.2 provides more detailed analysis.

Based on the available pet residue transfer studies, the recommended screening level FAr point
estimate for use in post-application dermal exposure assessment is 0.02 (equivalent to 2%).

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Treated Pets

Exposure Time (ET)

The exposure time (ET) for adults and children were derived from Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (as
presented in 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook Table 15-77). Animal care is defined in the 1997
Exposure Factors Handbook as "care of household pets including activities with pets, playing
with the dog, walking the dog and caring for pets of relatives, and friends." The data identified
the time spent with an animal while performing household activities as recorded in 24 hour
diaries by study volunteers. While the activities defined do not necessarily represent the time
volunteers were actively engaged in constant contact with the animal as is implicit in the post-
application dermal and incidental oral algorithms, the data are the most accurate representation
of time spent with pets available and, therefore, it is assumed that contact is continual throughout
the timed activity. The distribution for exposure time for children 1 < 2 years old is provided in
Table 8-5 and adults in Table 8-6. The recommended point estimate for use in post-
application dermal exposure assessments, 1.0, represents approximately the arithmetic mean.
A description of the input and study can be found in Section D. 7.4 Appendix D.

1 "sihie K-5: D;iil\ l.xnosurc' l ime (111) willi Pels (Children 1 < 2 \e;irs old)

Sliiiislie

l ime (hours)

5th percentile

0.05

25th percentile

0.5

50th percentile

1.0

75th percentile

1.5

90 th percentile

2.3

95th percentile

2.3

AM(SD)

1.0 (0.74)

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Data presented for children 1 < 4 years old from Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (as presented in the 1997 Exposure
Factors Handbook).



T;ihleX-(>: l);iil\ l-Anosiire l ime (!ฆ'.T) willi Pels (Adulls)

Sliiiislie

Time (hours)

5th percentile

0.05

25th percentile

0.17

50th percentile

0.5

75th percentile

1.0

90 th percentile

1.8

95th percentile

2.5

AM (SD)

0.77(1.1)

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

Data presented for adults 18-64 years old from Tsang and Klepeis, 1996 (as presented in the 1997 Exposure
Factors Handbook).

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Treated Pets

Application Rate (AR)

The pesticide label should be used to determine the amount of active ingredient used during each
treatment. The maximum application rates allowed by labels are always considered in risk
assessments. For pet pesticide formulations which specify application rate in relation to animal
weight (i.e., spot-ons), a rate should be quantified for small, medium and large weight
classifications as assigned by the Agency. The weight ranges are as follow:

•	Cats - Small (up to 5 lbs), Medium (6 to 12 lbs), Large (13 lbs and up).

•	Dogs - Small (up to 20 pounds), Medium (21 to 50 lbs) and Large (51 lbs and up).

Many application methods of pet pesticides (i.e., dips, shampoos and aerosol/trigger sprays) are
not specific about application rate in relation to pet weight. If not specified, then it should be
assumed that 1/2 of the contents of the can or bottle of product is applied to the pet based on
professional judgment. The majority of pet collar formulations are registered as a single collar
for use on all animal weight ranges with directions to fit the collar to the treated animal and trim
off the excess length. Because the trimmed length and corresponding active ingredient loss
cannot be determined, the maximum application rate of the collar as labeled should be assumed
for assessment of post-application risk.

Surface Area (SA)

Animal surface area (SA) is determined by inputting animal weight (lbs) into an algorithm
(12.3*((animal body weight (lbs)*454)A0.65)) as referenced from U.S. EPA (1993) Wildlife
Exposure Factors Handbook. Representative surface areas have been calculated for the assigned
cat and dog weight ranges. The surface areas for assessment are as follows:

•	Cats - Small (1500 cm2), Medium (2500 cm2) and Large (4000 cm2).

•	Dogs - Small (3000 cm2), Medium (7000 cm2) and Large (11000 cm2).

Future Research/Data Needs

Areas of research and data needs for the assessment of post-application dermal exposure from
treated pets include:

•	Product survey data could be useful in refinement of the Agency's current, high-end
assumptions for use patterns of particular pet pesticide application methods.

•	Studies conducted to determine residue transfer occurring from actual adult and child
activities with treated pets could provide a more realistic estimate of transfer (TC)

•	Activity durations and pet contacts (either video or reported recordings) would help the
Agency to refine its exposure time assumption.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Information on the amount of product applied to the animal for particular application
methods (e.g., aerosol and trigger sprays, powders/dusts and shampoos) is largely
unavailable. Due to the lack of specific product labeling and the lack of data to inform
typical application method use patterns, the Agency assumes that V2 of the can or bottle
can be applied for each animal based on best professional judgment. This estimate is

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Treated Pets

considered a high-end assumption resulting in a health-protective exposure estimate.

•	The Agency did not identify any studies which were conducted to capture the range of
exposures which could occur as a result of normal residential interactions with a treated
pet. While studies were conducted to determine the fraction of the application rate
transferred from the treated pet to an exposed person, these data are limited in that they
used scripted activity patterns (i.e., petting) and only measured exposure to the hands of
the study participants. Thus, these studies are limited for assessing exposure from actual
activities to the whole body of people contacting treated pets. As a result of these
limitations, EPA recommended the use of applicator and groomer studies that are
assumed to represent vigorous contact with an animal. These activities are likely to result
in higher, more consistent and reliable contact factors than petting, hugging or sleeping
with a pet and, therefore, were used to derive a TC assumed to be health-protective.

•	The exposure time (ET) assumed by the Agency represents daily contact associated with
pet care (i.e., feeding, playing, walking, etc.). The NCEA data include the entirety of
time spent daily, including high, as well as low contact activities. Therefore, the Agency
believes that the recommended point estimates for children and adults (1.0 and 0.77 hours
per day of continual exposure, respectively) in conjunction with high-end TCs derived
from groomer studies, represents a health-protective estimate of adult and child exposure
to a treated pet. Furthermore, the study was the only identified by the Agency which
specifically monitored human activity duration, as well as contact with pets and is
therefore the best available source of data.

8.2.3 Post-application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-

This SOP provides a standard method for estimating the potential dose from incidental ingestion
of pesticide residues from previously treated pets. Considering the strengths and limitations of
available data and behavioral characteristics of potentially exposed lifestages, exposure for
children is calculated in this scenario. This scenario assumes that pesticide residues are
transferred to the skin of children contacting treated pets and are subsequently ingested as a
result of hand-to-mouth transfer.

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

to-Mouth

Freq _HtM

where:

E

HR

SAh

Fm

ET

= exposure (mg/day);

= hand residue loading (mg/cm2);

= surface area of one child hand (cm );

= fraction hand surface area mouthed /event (fraction/event);
= exposure time (hr/day);

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Treated Pets

and

N Replen = number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
SE	= saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and

Freq HtM = number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

J7aj * DF

HR= /m"a	(8.7)

SAh * 2

where:

2

HR	= hand residue loading (mg/cm );

DE	= dermal exposure (mg);

Faihands	= fraction of a.i. on hands compared to total residue from dermal transfer

coefficient study (unitless); and
SAh	= surface area of one child hand (cm ).

Oral dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

Z> = —	(8.8)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application hand-to-mouth exposure assessments are provided in
Table 8-7 below. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described in
more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used to
derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Table X-"7: Pol 1 iviiliiicnls- Keeom mended Ihinri-lo-.Moiiih llxnosuiv l";ie(or Point

Algorithm
Nuliilion

r.\|)osiiiv l";ielor
( ii nils)

Poinl l.s(iiii;iK'(s)

Fai hands

Fraction of a.i. on hands from transfer coefficient
studies (unitless)

Solid = 0.37
Liquid = 0.040

Fm

Fraction hand surface area mouthed /event
(fraction/event)

0.13

NReplen

Replenishment intervals per hour
(intervals/hr)

4

ET

Exposure time
(hours/day)

Children 1 < 2 years
old

1.0

SE

Saliva extraction factor

0.48

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events per
hour
(events/hr)

Children 1 < 2 years
old

Mean = 20

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Treated Pets

Table X-"7: Pol 1 iviiliiicnls- Keeom mended Ihinri-lo-.Moiiih llxposmv l";ie(or Point

SAh

Typical surface area of one
child hand
(cm2)

Children 1 < 2 years
old

150

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years
old

11.4

Fraction Active Ingredient on the Hands (Faihands)

The fraction of active ingredient available on the hands was based on the two dermal pet transfer
coefficient studies that represent application and grooming activities with dogs and used to
derive dermal TCs. One study used a carbaryl shampoo product (Mester, 1998) and the other a
carbaryl dust product (Merricks, 1997). These values were determined for liquid and solid
formulations, respectively, by taking the average fraction of active ingredient on the hands and
comparing that value to the average fraction of active ingredient on the entire body. This
analysis resulted in values of 4% for liquid formulations and 37% for solid formulations.

Hand Residue Loading (HR)

Link hand loading to dermal exposure and assume the percent on the hands is equal to the
percent of the residue on the hands from dermal transfer coefficient studies.

Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed (F^)

See Section 2.4 for discussion of fraction hand surface area mouthed. The recommended FM
value for use in post-application non-dietary ingestion exposure assessments, 0.13,

represents approximately the arithmetic mean.

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old of 150 cm , for one hand, was based on
values from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011).

Exposure Time (ET)

The exposure time (ET) for children exposed to pesticide treated pets is assumed to be the same
as described in Section 8.2.2 for post-application dermal exposure. The recommended point
estimate for use in post-application non-dietary ingestion exposure assessment 1.0

represents approximately the arithmetic mean.

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended value for use in post-application non-dietary ingestion
exposure assessments, 0.48, represents approximately the arithmetic mean.

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Treated Pets

Hand-to-Mouth Events per Hour (Freq HtM)

Frequency of hand-to-mouth events is an important variable for post-application non-dietary
ingestion exposure assessments. However, there are currently no data available that specifically
address the number of hand-to-mouth events that occur relative to the amount of time a child
spends with a pet. As a result, the estimates for frequency of hand-to-mouth events in indoor
environments from the Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis were used as a surrogate. The indoor data
were selected, even though child exposure to treated pets can occur either indoors or outdoors,
because the indoor data result in a greater frequency of contacts. Therefore, using these data are
the most conservative and thus the most health protective estimate of exposure. The pet SOP
uses hand-to-mouth frequency data for the children 1 < 2 years old lifestage. Table 8-8 provides
distributions and point estimates of hand to mouth events for use in residential pesticide exposure
assessment and Appendix D. 10.1. The recommended point estimate for use in post-
application non-dietary exposure assessments, 20, represents the arithmetic mean for children
1 < 2 years old.

I'iihlo S-S: I-'ivuikwio of lliiii(l-l(i-Mouih l'\oiils (o\eiils/hr)

Siiiiisiic

( hildivn 1 < 2 M-iirs old

5th percentile

0

25th percentile

6

50th percentile

14

75th percentile

27

95th percentile

63

AM(SD)

20 (20)

GM (GSD)

a

Range

a

N

245

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)
1 Not provided

Future Research/Data Needs

Information that would help refine the incidental ingestion scenario includes

•	Additional videography data could be collected focusing on the number of hand-to-mouth
events which occur in relationship to the amount of time a child spends with a pet.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	While not specific to child activity with treated pets, the inputs used for incidental oral
exposure estimates from contact with pets are reasonable. The inputs identified for the
estimation of child incidental ingestion of pesticides from exposure to a treated pet reflect
general activity and behavior patterns exhibited by children and are unlikely to vary
based on the object being contacted (i.e., frequency of hand to mouth events per hour and
the surface area of the hand mouthed).

•	The Agency currently assumes that children are exposed to a treated pet for 1.0 hours per
day based on a study conducted to analyze the behaviors of adults and children in
residential, household settings. As described in Section 8.2.2, the Agency believes that
this represents a health-protective estimate of child exposure to a treated pet since it is
based upon assumptions of continual contact and is paired with high-end TCs from

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Treated Pets

applicator and groomer studies.

8.2.4 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risks resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that they can
occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across different
routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully characterize
the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and estimates. Risks
should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure exceeds the level of concern
because this allows for better risk characterization for risk managers.

It is likely that children could be exposed to a treated pet via post-application dermal and non-
dietary ingestion (hand-to-mouth) routes and that these scenarios could occur simultaneously.
Therefore, these exposure scenarios should be combined when toxicological effects are the same
across these routes of exposure.

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Impregnated Materials

Section 9 Impregnated Materials

This section provides methodologies for assessing pesticide exposures from pesticide
impregnated materials, including textiles (e.g. clothing, mattress linings, upholstery, etc.),
carpets, flooring, and plastic materials. The exposure assessment methodologies provide a
general approach and conceptual framework for evaluating a broad range of impregnated
materials. Therefore, it is recommended that exposure assessors evaluate whether the methods
outlined in this section represent the specific type of impregnated materials under assessment and
review exposure assessment methodologies established by the World Health Organization's
International Programme on Chemical Safety for treated bednets and other appropriate
regulatory agencies (WHO/IPCS, 2004).

When assessing pesticide exposure from impregnated materials, the primary exposure routes that
may need to be addressed include post-application dermal absorption and non-dietary ingestion.
Exposure from these routes may result in pesticide exposures in the general population.

However, some population groups, such as military personnel, outdoor workers, and children,
may display activity patterns that have the potential to result in higher levels of exposure (e.g.,
military personnel and outdoor workers who wear impregnated clothing for extended periods of
time, children who display hand-to-mouth activity), which may need to be addressed more
explicitly when performing exposure assessments.

Before developing an exposure assessment for an impregnated material, the appropriate exposure
scenarios should be identified using information on the product's pesticide label. Specific label
information that should be considered is described below.

•	Impregnated Materials with Pesticidal Claims: Some impregnated materials contain
conventional pesticides and have a pesticide label. The labels of such products make
claims about pest control, such as "repels fleas and ticks" or "repels flying insects."

These labels contain information on the active ingredient and should be used when
performing exposure assessments using the methods described in this chapter.

•	Impregnated Materials with No Pesticidal Claims: Many impregnated materials (e.g.,
mattress covers, shower curtains, paper, and adhesives) contain biocide pesticides and do
not require a pesticide label. The pesticide in these products is present as a biocide,
which is added during the manufacturing process. Biocides are more routinely assessed
by OPP's Antimicrobial Division (OPP/AD) and are not addressed in this chapter.

•	Limiting and Descriptive Statements: It should be assumed that impregnated products
may be used in non-occupational settings, unless otherwise indicated on the label.
Examples of labels that may appear on products that are intended for non-occupational
settings include:

o Insect repellent apparel;

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Impregnated Materials

o For treatment of nets, tents, sleeping bags; and
o For fabric product on and around beds.

9.1 Handler Exposure Assessment

For impregnated materials treated with non-biocide pesticides (e.g. insecticides and repellents),
exposure during the manufacturing process is not typically assessed by EPA.16 There are some
situations following the treatment process, however, where individuals may contact large
volumes of impregnated material. The handling of impregnated materials following the
treatment process is addressed in the post-application dermal exposure scenario described in
Section 9.2.3.

9.2 Post-Application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from contacting impregnated materials, such as wearing
pesticide impregnated clothing and hand- or object-to-mouth behavior. Depending on the
application of the impregnated material, potential exposed populations include both adults and
children. While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old
are considered the index lifestages based on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and
limitations of available data.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for four post-
application scenarios resulting from pesticide impregnated materials:

•	Section 9.2.1 - inhalation exposures;

•	Section 9.2.3 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposures;

•	Section 9.2.4 - children 1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via object-to-mouth
activity; and

•	Section 9.2.5 - children 1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth activity.

9.2.1 Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

In most cases inhalation exposure from impregnated materials is expected to be negligible, since
many pesticides that are used in impregnated materials have relatively low vapor pressures. As a
result, inhalation exposure is not expected to result in appreciable exposure when compared with
dermal and non-dietary ingestion exposure, and is not explicitly addressed in these SOPs.

9.2.2 Post-Application Surface Residue Concentration

When assessing dermal and non-dietary ingestion scenarios, the product label and registrant
should be consulted to obtain information on the surface residue concentration in terms of active

16 Safety issues associated with potential chemical exposure during the manufacturing process are more typically
addressed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, but may also be addressed in the occupational
pesticide exposure assessment.

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Impregnated Materials

2

ingredient (a.i.) that is present on the surface area of the impregnated material (e.g. mg a.i./ cm ).
In some cases, however, information on surface residue concentration may only be available in
terms of percent a.i. in terms of total product mass (e.g. Fraction of a.i. in treated material). In
these cases, surface residue concentration can be estimated by finding the product of the weight
fraction of a.i. in treated material and the material's weight:surface area density (See Table 9-1),
as illustrated in the equation below.

SR=WF*MD	(9.1)

where:

SR = Surface residue concentration (mg a.i./cm );

WF = Weight fraction of a.i. in treated material (% a.i. w/w); and

MD = Material weight:surface area density (mg material/cm ).

Tsihlr'-M: Krcommrmlrri nrighl-lo-surfsirr sirr.i \;ilurs for srlrclrd l';il)iics/m;i(ci i;ils

Miiloriiil

Miiloriiil \\ right :Surf:irr Arrst

Sourer

textiles





Cotton3

20 mg/cm2

Unpublished Henkel data from HERA
(2005)

Light Cotton/Synthetic Mixa

10 mg/cm2

Unpublished Proctor & Gamble data
from HERA (2005)

Heavy Cotton/Synthetic Mix

24 mg/cm2

Nylon/cotton battle dress uniform data
published in Snodgrass (1987)

All Synthetics

1 mg/cm2

Unpublished Proctor & Gamble data
from HERA (2005)

Carpets





Household Carpels

120 mg/cnr

USAF (2003)

Hard Surfaces and Plastics





Plastic Polymers

100 mg/cm2

OPP/AD information on a polyethylene
highchair

Vinyl Flooring

390 mg/cm2

OPP/AD information on the density
(1300 mg/cm3) and thickness (0.3 cm)
of polyvinyl chloride tiling

1 Comparable weight: surface area ratio values are also reported for cotton and cotton/synthetic sheets analyzed in a
submitted study (Rudenko, L. (2000), EPA MRID 45256001).

Regardless of how residue concentration is reported, the value used in post-application exposure
assessments should always be based on the maximum concentration reported on a product's
label. This approach may overestimate potential exposure since the concentration of pesticide
residue is expected to decrease over time due to laundering (textiles only) and dissipation over
time. With regard to textiles, for example, it has been demonstrated that 20-30 percent of
pesticide can be removed after first laundering (Snodgrass, 1992) and as high as 90 percent of
pesticide residue is removed after twenty launderings (Faulde et al., 2003). 7 Similarly, some
pesticide residue in impregnated materials, including both textiles and hard surfaces (e.g.
flooring, linings, and plastics), may dissipate through decay and weathering over time. Since
laundering and dissipation are not specifically incorporated, or otherwise accounted for, in the
post-application exposure assessment methods, the approach used to estimate surface residue

17 These percent changes were approximated from a graphical chart presented in Faulde et al. (2003).

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Impregnated Materials

concentration is believed to be health protective because it is assumed that no pesticide residue is
lost due to laundering or dissipation and individuals are always exposed to the maximum
concentration listed on the label.

9.2.3 Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides methods for estimating adult and children 1 < 2 years old post-application
dermal exposure. In contrast to the SOPs for other exposure scenarios, the method for
determining post-application dermal dose is based on the amount of pesticide that may be
transferred to the skin during continuous contact with an impregnated material, such as wearing
impregnated clothing or sleeping on a bed with an impregnated mattress liner.

Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm

Post-application dermal exposure is calculated as follows:

E=SR*SA/BW*FBody*TE*PF	(9.2)

where:

E	= Daily exposure rate (mg/kg-day);

SR = Surface residue concentration (mg/cm );

SA/BW = total body surface area to body weight ratio (cm2/kg);

FBody = clothing-dependent fraction of body exposed (fraction exposed);

TE = Daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency (fraction/day); and

PF = Protection factor to account for the presence of a single layer of fabric (e.g.

clothing, bed sheet, etc.) between the impregnated material and individual
(unitless).

Absorbed dermal dose, normalized to body weight, is then calculated as:

D=E* AF	(9.3)

where:

D	= Dose rate (mg/kg-day);

E	= Daily exposure rate (mg/kg-day); and

AF = Dermal absorption factor.

Post-application dermal exposure from impregnated materials is generally considered short-term
in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and activity
patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are
deemed necessary, such as in cases where the impregnated material may be routinely replaced or
re-treated, or used on a continuous basis, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the
exposure profile are recommended.

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Impregnated Materials

Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessments of impregnated
materials are provided in Table 9-2. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter
is described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

I'iihk* *>-2: Siiniin;ir\ of reeoniniended \nines lor post-;ipplie;ilion derni;il exposure ;issessmen(.

Algorithm
Solution

l.xposure l;ie(or(l nils)

Ki'CommciHk'ri
Input Yiilues

SR

Residue Coiiceiiiralion (nig a.i.. cm )

Label

WF

Percent A.I. by Weight (% w/w)

Label

MD

Material weight: surface area density
(mg/cm2)

Textile: Cotton

20

Textile: Light
Cotton/Synthetic Mix

10

Textile: Heavy
Cotton/Synthetic Mix

24

Textile: All Synthetics

1

Household Carpets

120

Plastic Polymers

100

Vinyl Flooring

390

SA/BW

total body surface area to body weight
ratio (cm2/kg)

Adult

280

Children 1 to < 2 years old

640

F"liody

Fraction of body exposed

Pants, Jacket, or Shirts

0.50

Total Body Coverage

1.0

Mattresses, Carpets, or
Flooring

0.50

Handlers

0.11

TE

Daily Material-to-Skin Transfer
Efficiency (fraction/day)

Textiles or Carpeting

0.06

Flooring or Hard Surfaces

0.08

PF

Protection Factor

Protective layer present
(Mattresses)

0.50

Protective layer not present

1.0

Surface Residue Concentration (SR)

Surface residue concentration is the concentration of pesticide residue on the surface of an
impregnated material. Product-specific information, such as weight fraction of a.i., should be
used to estimate the residue concentration. This information may be found on labels or other
information provided by the registrant/manufacturer. After obtaining this information, the
surface residue concentration can be estimated using the methods described in Section 9.2.2.

Fraction of Body Exposed (F)

Fraction of body that contacts residue should be representative of the parts of the body that are
expected to frequently contact the impregnated material. Table 9-3 provides the recommended
inputs for assessing exposures from impregnated textiles, including jackets/shirts, total body
coverage, and garment workers who may handle large volumes of clothing during their workday,
and exposures from impregnated carpets, flooring, and hard surfaces. The recommended values
are based on the surface area of different parts of the body and judgment about the fraction of the
body that could potentially be exposed to different garments and surfaces. An impregnated shirt

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Impregnated Materials

or pants, for example, contacts roughly half of the body. Similarly, it is assumed that no more
than half of the body contacts a mattress, carpet, or flooring. This assumption recognizes that the
entire surface of the body has the potential to contact an impregnated surface. It is believed to be
a reasonable assumption because it is unlikely that more half the body can contact a surface at a
given time (e.g. roughly half of the body is in contact with a mattress when sleeping).

1 "sihie ''-3: Recommended inniil \ nines lor IV;ic(ion of hod\ snrfnee sire.i lh;il conl;ic(s residue.

l'.\|iosiii e Scen;iriป (s)

Kepresenl:ili\e limit l\ir(

l-'i'iielion of liodt

Pants, Jacket, or Shirts

50 percent of total body

0.50

Mattresses, Carpets, or Flooring

50 percent of total body

0.50

Total Body Coverage

Complete upper and lower torso

1.0

Handlers

Hands and Forearmsa

0.11

a Derived using percent of body surface area exposed for hands and forearms from Table 6- 7.

Daily Material-to-Skin Transfer Efficiency (TE)

Daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency is the percent of pesticide residue that is transferred
from an impregnated material to an individual's skin during a one-day period. There is currently
only limited data available to characterize the daily material-to-skin pesticide transfer efficiency
for impregnated materials. In the absence of application-specific data, the amount of material-to-
skin transfer can be determined using a worst-case screening where it is assumed that all of the
a.i. that is available on the surface of an impregnated material is transferred to the skin.

For refinement a lower fraction of residue is assume transferred, based on data on the fraction of
a.i. that is available for transfer after carpet or hard surface pesticide treatment. Based on this
approach, daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency values have been estimated using more recent
data on the fraction of a.i. that is available for transfer from carpets and hard surfaces, which is
described in the indoor exposure assessment SOPs provided in Section 7.2.2 of the Indoor
Environments Section. Based on the data, the recommended values for textiles/carpets and
hard surfaces are 0.06 and 0.08 per day, respectively.

T.ihle ^-4: Recommended d:iil\ m;i(cri;il-lo-skin (ninsfcr cfficicncv \ nines for textiles ;ind luird snrfnccs.

Miileriiil

l);iil\ Miileriiil-ln-Skin Transfer l-lfficicno

Textiles or Carpeting

0.06/day

Flooring or Hard Surfaces

0.08/day

While this approach has its limitations, it is expected to overestimate dermal exposure to
impregnated materials. This is because the default material-to-skin transfer efficiency rates are
based on data from carpets and hard surfaces that have had a pesticide applied to their external
surface only. A lower fraction of pesticide is expected to be available for transfer because the
pesticide compound is impregnated to the material and believed to have a lower potential for
transfer. Additionally, the limited data that are available suggest that the material-to-skin transfer
rate may more typically be an order of magnitude lower than the recommended values.
Specifically, data that are available to characterize material-to-skin transfer efficiency from
impregnated materials are described in more detail below.

• Permethrin-Treated Clothing: Snodgrass (1992) characterized the material-to-skin
transfer rate for permethrin-treated battle-dress uniforms (BDUs). In this study, which

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Impregnated Materials

was subsequently incorporated into the National Research Council's assessment of
permethrin-impregnated BDUs (National Research Council, 1994), radiolabeled (14C)
permethrin-treated fabric patches were applied to the backs of 22 male New Zealand
white rabbits in four treatment groups based on environment (temperate vs. subtropical)
and fabric type (cotton vs. 50:50 nylon/cotton blend). After seven days, the average
percent migration to skin for each treatment group was estimated using the recovery of
14C from excreta and skin. Based on this approach, the overall fraction of a.i transferred
per day was 0.005 and ranged from an average ฑ standard deviation of 0.004 ฑ 0.09
fraction a.i. transferred per day in the subtropical/NYCO group to 0.0065 ฑ 0.10 fraction
of a.i. transferred per day in the subtropical/cotton treatment group.

• TBTM-Treated Carpets: In a leaching study (MRID 45746802), tri-n-butyltin maleate
(TBTM)-treated carpets swatches were immersed in alkaline and acidic simulated sweat
solutions to determine the maximum amount of TBTM that may leach from treated
carpets in 2-hour and 24-hour periods. In the study, the highest percent leaching was
observed in saline and alkaline (pH 9.2) simulated sweat solutions and the overall
average leaching during the 24-hour period (9.0%) was approximately 1.8 times greater
than the overall average leaching during the 2-hour period (5.1%). However, the
continuous 24-hour immersion method used in the study is likely to overestimate
exposure from dermal contact with an impregnated material, since it represents the
amount of residue that leaches from a material when placed in solution (Evans, 2005).

Tiihlc '>-5: Summ;u\\ sliilislics for 24-hour ni;i(ci i;il-(o-skiii iriinsfcr r;i(cs for Impiviiiiiik'd (lolhinii
(Siiodiiniss. iiiid M;illrcsscs/lic(l(linu (MKII) 4525(>!!OI).

Source

1 IVillllKMII

Croup

ii

24-hour iiiiiloriiil-lo-skiu miiislcr efficiency
(IV;ic(ioii/d;i\)

Mciin ฑ SI)

Pcrccnlilc

Kiin^c

50"'

-7-ih



95"'

Permethrin BDUs
(Snodgrass, 1992)

All Groups

18

0.005ฑ
0.006

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.003 -
0.008

TBTM Carpets
(MRID 45746802)

2-Hour

12

0.05ฑ 0.02

0.05

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.02-0.10

24-Hour

12

0.09 ฑ0.04

0.09

0.11

0.14

0.15

0.05-0.15

When compared to the limited available transfer data, the recommended generic inputs result in
conservative estimates of exposure. The range of 24-hour transfer efficiency values from
Snodgrass (1992), for example, ranged from 0.003 - 0.008 fraction a.i. transferred per day and

18

are around an order of magnitude lower than values recommended in Table 9-4. Therefore, in
the absence of chemical-specific data, it is believed that the recommended approach provides a
conservative estimate of transfer efficiency.19

Exposure assessors should note that the recommended default values may not be appropriate for
all type of impregnated materials. If it is determined that the default values may not be

18	The study on TBTM-treated carpets found an average 24-hour leaching fraction of 9.0%. As previously indicated,
however, the study was an extraction study which is likely to overestimate exposure from dermal contact (Evans,
2005).

19	While it is emphasized that the available data are not sufficient to derive a generic transfer fraction for all possible
chemicals, it is also acknowledged that it may be appropriate to derive transfer efficiency values from the
summarized data sources when assessing materials impregnated with permethrin.

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Impregnated Materials

appropriate and underestimate exposure, additional data may need to be requested to refine the
estimate of the transfer efficiency value.

Body Weight and Surface Area

The exposure algorithm uses surface area (SA) and body weight (BW) as a ratio instead of as
two separate factors. The recommended point estimate ratio for adults is 280 cm /kg and
640 cm2/kg for children 1 < 2, from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition, Table 7-15
(U.S. EPA, 2011).

Protection Factor (PF)

Bed sheets and other fabrics can act as a protective barrier when placed between an impregnated
surface and an exposed individual's skin. The protection factor, therefore, accounts for a
decrease in pesticide residue transfer that is expected when bed sheets or other protective barriers
are present. In these cases, the recommended input value is 0.50- meaning that it is assumed that
only 50% of the available pesticide residue is transferred from the material to the potentially
exposed individual's skin. This default value is based on the PHED protection factor for a single
layer of clothing and is also used by OPP/AD when conducting biocide exposure assessments
involving mattresses. In cases other than mattresses, it should generally be assumed that no
protective barrier is present. When no protective barrier is present, the recommended input value
is 1.0.

Future Research/Data Needs

•	There is currently only limited data available to characterize the daily material-to-skin
pesticide transfer efficiency for impregnated materials. While recommended methods are
believed to provide health-protective estimates of exposure, additional research is needed
to more fully characterize the dermal transfer of pesticide residue from impregnated
materials.

•	Survey data on the use patterns of impregnated materials could also help further
characterize exposure.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Due to insufficient exposure data on impregnated materials, the exposure assessment
scenarios presented in this chapter are based on data on externally treated surfaces that
may not be completely representative of impregnated materials. As a consequence, the
methods rely on conservative assumptions that cannot be completely characterized
quantitatively. These assumptions include: 1) laundering and dissipation are not
accounted for in the algorithm, so it is assumed that individuals are continually exposed
to the maximum surface residue concentration; and 2) daily material-to-skin transfer
efficiency was characterized using data on residue transfer from treated surfaces, rather
than impregnated materials.

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Impregnated Materials

9.2.4 Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Object-
to-Mouth (Textiles Only)

This SOP provides the methods for assessing non-dietary object-to-mouth ingestion of pesticide
residues from impregnated materials by children. In general, object-to-mouth exposure
assessments should be used to assess non-dietary exposure to impregnated textiles (e.g. clothing
and other impregnated fabrics), but not other impregnated materials, such as carpeting and
flooring, which are less likely to be mouthed.

Non-Dietary Object-to-Mouth Ingestion Algorithm

Exposure from object-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multi media):

E = OR * CF\ * SAMa * (ET *N _Replen)*\ 1 - (l

where:

SAMo
ET

N_Replen

SE

FreqOtM

E

OR

CF1

= exposure (mg/day);

9

= chemical residue loading on an object ((J,g/cm );

= weight unit conversion factor (0.001 mg/|ig);

= area of the object surface that is mouthed (cm /event);

= exposure time (hr/day);

= number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
= saliva extraction factor (i.e., mouthing removal efficiency); and
= number of object-to-mouth contact events per hour (events/hour).

and

OR = SR *F0

(9.5)

where:

OR
SR

Fo

2

chemical residue loading on the object ((J,g/cm );

surface residue ([j,g/cm2); and

fraction of residue available on the object (unitless).

Non-dietary oral dose, normalized to body weight, is then calculated as:

(9.6)

BW

where:

D

E

AF
BW

dose rate (mg/kg-day);
exposure (mg/day);
oral absorption factor; and
body weight (kg).

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Impregnated Materials

Post-application object-to-mouth exposure from impregnated materials is generally considered
short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term
multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Non-Dietary Object-to-Mouth Exposure Assessment Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for non-dietary object-to-mouth ingestion exposure assessments are
provided in Table 9-6. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described
in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used
to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

T;ihle 'M>: Siimm;ir\ of reeommended \nines lor non-diel;ir\ objeeMo-inoiidi ingestion exposure

iissessinenl.

Alliorilhin
\o(;i(ion

l.xposure l";ie(ปr
( ii nils)

Keeom mended
Yiilne

SR

Residue Concentration
(lig/cm2)

Maximum
labeled rate

WF

Percent A.I. by Weight (WF)
(% w/w)

Maximum
labeled rate

MD

Material weight: surface area density
(mg/cm2)

Cotton

20

Light Cotton/Synthetic Mix

10

Heavy Cotton/Synthetic Mix

24

All Synthetics

1

F0

Fraction of AR as OR following application

Carpets

0.06

Hard surfaces

0.08

SAM0

Surface area of object mouthed per event
(cm2/event)

10

NReplen

Replenishment intervals per hour
(intervals/hour)

4

SE

Saliva extraction factor

0.48

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Indoor Environments
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

4

Outdoor Environments
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

1.5

Freq_OtM

Object-to-mouth events per hour (events/
hour)

Indoor Environments
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

14

Outdoor Environments
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

8.8

BW

Body Weight (kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

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Impregnated Materials

Surface Residue Concentration (SR)

Surface residue concentration is the concentration of pesticide residue on the surface of an
impregnated material. Product-specific information, such as weight fraction of a.i., should be
used to estimate the residue concentration. This information may be found on labels or other
information provided by the manufacturer. After obtaining this information, the surface residue
concentration can be estimated using the methods described in Section 9.2.2.

Fraction of Residue Available on the Object (Fq)

For this SOP, it is assumed that the residue that could be transferred to the object is the same as
what is available for dermal transfer. As a result, the fraction of residue available for transfer
assumed for dermal exposure for both carpets and hard surfaces should be used, which is
provided in Section 7.2.2.

Surface area of object mouthed (SAMo)

Surface area of object mouthed (SAMo) is the area of an impregnated object that may contact a
child's mouth during mouthing behavior. SAM0 is a universal exposure factor that is described
in more detail in Section 2.5. The recommended value for use in exposure assessments is 10
cm2/event.

Replenishment interval (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral
exposure assessments is 0.48.

Exposure Time (FT)

Exposure time is the amount of time that a child is an environment where they may contact a
surface containing an impregnated material. There is currently no data available to characterize
the amount of time that children spend in indoor and outdoor environments where they may
contact impregnated materials. In the absence of scenario-specific data, recommended exposure
time value for exposures that may occur in indoor environments is based on the children 1 < 2
years old exposure time values discussed in Section 7.2.4 of the Indoor Environment SOPs.
Similarly, the recommended exposure time for outdoor environments is based on the children 1 <
2 years old exposure time values discussed in Section 3.2.4 of the Lawn/Turf SOP.

Object-to-Mouth Events (Freq OtM)

Frequency of object-to-mouth events is the number of mouthing events that occur per hour.

There is currently no data available that specifically address the number of object-to-mouth
events that occur relative to the amount of time a child is in contact with an impregnated
material. As a result, the estimate for frequency of object-to-mouth events in outdoor

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Impregnated Materials

environments is based on the Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis of object-to-mouth behavior that
has previously been summarized in Section 3.2.4 of the Lawns/Turf SOPs. Similarly, the
estimate for frequency of object-to-mouth events in indoor environments is based on the Xue et
al. (2010) meta-analysis of object-to-mouth behavior that is summarized in Section 7.2.4 of the
Indoor Environment SOPs.

Future Research/Data Needs

Future research priorities should include:

•	Developing a database of studies which characterize pesticide transfer from impregnated
materials to skin and objects that could mouthed by toddlers. An important focus should
be on charactering the transfer of pesticide residue from impregnated materials following
mouthing behavior by young children and toddlers. Collecting this transfer data is
important because mouthing behavior and saliva extraction is believed to be the most
important drivers of non-dietary ingestion from object-to-mouth exposure.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Due to insufficient exposure data on impregnated materials, the exposure assessment
scenarios presented in this chapter are based on data on externally treated surfaces that
may not be completely representative of impregnated materials. As a consequence, the
methods rely on conservative assumptions that cannot be completely characterized
quantitatively. These assumptions include: 1) laundering and dissipation are not
accounted for in the algorithm, so it is assumed that individuals are always exposed to the
maximum surface residue concentration; and 2) daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency
was characterized using data on residue transfer from treated surfaces, rather than
impregnated materials.

9.2.5 Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure: Hand-to-Mouth
(Carpets, Flooring, and Hard Surfaces Only)

This SOP provides the methods for assessing non-dietary hand-to-mouth ingestion of pesticide
residues from impregnated materials by toddlers. In general, hand-to-mouth exposure
assessment should be performed when assessing impregnated carpets, flooring, and hard
surfaces, since infants may routinely contact these objects with their hands.

Non-Dietary Hand-to-Mouth Ingestion Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

E =

HR * (Fm * SAh ) * (ET * N _ Replen) * 1 - (l - SE) N _Replen

Freq _ HtM

(9.7)

where:

E

HR

Fm

= exposure (mg/day);

= hand residue loading (mg/cm2);

= fraction hand surface area mouthed / event (fraction/event);

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Impregnated Materials

2

SAh	= surface area of one hand (cm );

ET	= exposure time (hr/day);

N Replen = number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
SE	= saliva extraction factor (ie, mouthing removal efficiency); and

FreqHtM = number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

In this algorithm, hand residue concentration is calculated as:

HR = SR*Fh	(9.8)

where:

HR	= hand residue concentration (mg/cm );

SR	= surface residue ([j,g/cm2); and

Fh	= fraction ai transferred to hands.

After calculating exposure, oral dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

r, E

D =		(9.9)

BW	V 7

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application hand-to-mouth exposure from impregnated materials is generally considered
short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term
multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in
Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific re-treatment intervals, and
activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime
exposures) are deemed necessary, such as in cases where the impregnated material may be
routinely replaced or re-treated, similar refinements to more accurately reflect the exposure
profile are recommended.

Non-Dietary Hand-to-Mouth Exposure Assessment Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for non-dietary hand-to-mouth ingestion exposure assessments are
provided in Table 9-7. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described
in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used
to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

I'iihlo V-"7: Siimniiin of rccoiinm-mlcd \nines lor non-dioliin liiind-lo-moiiih iniioslinn exposure

ilSSOSSIlH'lK.

Algorithm
Noliiliun

llxposiiiv l";ic(or
( ii nils)

Point l.s(iin;ik'(s)

SR

Surface Residue Concentration (mg a.i. /cm2)

Product-Specific

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Impregnated Materials

Tsihle i)-n: Siimniiin of reeom mended \ nines lor non-diel;ir\ h;ind-(o-iiiou(h ingestion expo suit

iissessiiienl.





Label

WF

Percent A.I. by Weight (WF) (% w/w)



MD

Material weight: surface area
density
(mg/cm2)

Cotton

20

Light Cotton/ Synthetic Mix

10

Heavy Cotton/ Synthetic Mix

24

All Synthetics

1

Fh

Fraction ai transferred to hands

Carpets

0.06

Hard Surfaces

0.08

Fm

Fraction of hand mouthed per event (fraction/event)

0.13

SAh

Typical surface area of one toddler hand (cm2)

150

N Replen

Replenishment intervals (intervals/hr)

4

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Children 1 <
2 years old

Carpets

4

Hard Surfaces

2

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(fraction)

0.48

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events per hour
(events/hour)

Children 1 < 2 years old

20

BW

Body Weight (kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

Surface Residue Concentration (SR)

Surface residue concentration is the concentration of pesticide residue on the surface of an
impregnated material. Product-specific information, such as weight fraction of a.i., should be
used to estimate the residue concentration. This information may be found on labels or other
information provided by the manufacturer. After obtaining this information, the surface residue
concentration can be estimated using the methods described in Section 9.2.2.

Fraction ai transferred to hands (FH)

For this SOP, it is assumed that the residue that could be transferred to the object is the same as
what is available for dermal transfer. As a result, the fraction of residue available for transfer
assumed for dermal exposure for both carpets and hard surfaces should be used, which are
provided in Section 7.2.2 of the Indoor Environments Section.

Fraction ofHand Mouthed per Event (Fm)

See Section 2.4 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of hand mouthed. The recommended
point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral exposure assessments is 0.13.

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old was based on values from the Exposure
Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 7-2). This value is 150 cm2 for one
hand.

Replenishment Intervals per Hour (N Replen)

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Impregnated Materials

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Exposure Time (ET)

Exposure time is the amount of time that a child is an environment where they may contact a
surface containing an impregnated material. There is currently no data available to characterize
the amount of time that children spend in environments where they may contact impregnated
materials. In the absence of scenario-specific data, recommended exposure time values are
based on Section 7.2.4 of the Indoor Environment SOPs. For children 1 < 2 years old on
carpets and hard surfaces, the recommended ET point estimates for post-application
incidental oral exposure assessments are 4 and 2 hours, respectively.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral
exposure assessments is 0.48.

Hand-to-mouth events (Freq HtM)

Frequency of hand-to-mouth events refers to the number of hand-to-mouth events per hour.

There is currently no data available to characterize children's hand-to-mouth behavior that is
associated with impregnated materials. In the absence of scenario-specific data, recommended
frequency of hand-to-mouth events is based on Section 7.2.4 of the Indoor Environment SOPs.
The estimates for frequency of hand-to-mouth events in indoor environments from the Xue et al.
(2007) meta-analysis were used as a surrogate. The recommended point estimate for use in
post-application incidental oral exposure assessments is 20 events/hr.

Future Research/Data Needs

Future research priorities should include:

•	Developing a database of studies which characterize pesticide transfer from impregnated
materials to skin and objects that could mouthed by toddlers. An important focus should
be on charactering the transfer of pesticide residue from impregnated materials following
mouthing behavior by young children and toddlers. Collecting this transfer data are
important because mouthing behavior and saliva extraction is believed to be the most
important drivers of non-dietary ingestion from object-to-mouth exposure.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Due to insufficient exposure data on impregnated materials, the exposure assessment
scenarios presented in this chapter are based on data on externally treated surfaces that
may not be completely representative of impregnated materials. As a consequence, the
methods rely on conservative assumptions that cannot be completely characterized
quantitatively. These assumptions include: 1) laundering and dissipation are not
accounted for in the algorithm, so it is assumed that individuals are always exposed to the
maximum surface residue concentration; and 2) daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency

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Impregnated Materials

was characterized using data on residue transfer from treated surfaces, rather than
impregnated materials.

9.2.6 Combining Post-application Scenarios

Risks resulting from different exposure scenarios are combined when it is likely that they can
occur simultaneously based on the use pattern and when the toxicological effects across different
routes of exposure are the same. When combining scenarios, it is important to fully characterize
the potential for co-occurrence as well as characterizing the risk inputs and estimates. Risks
should be combined even if any one scenario or route of exposure exceeds the level of concern
because this allows for better risk characterization for risk managers.

For impregnated materials, there is potential for exposure from both dermal and non-dietary
ingestion exposure assessment pathways. When assessing impregnated textiles, including
impregnated clothing and other textiles, exposure assessments should only combine dermal and
non-dietary object-to-mouth ingestion exposure pathways. Similarly, when assessing
impregnated surfaces, including carpets and flooring, exposure assessments should only combine
dermal and non-dietary hand-to-mouth ingestion exposure pathways.

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Section 10 Treated Paints & Preservatives

This chapter provides the standard operating procedures (SOPs) for assessing pesticide
exposures from pesticide-treated paints and wood preservatives. The sources of pesticide
exposure that are addressed in this chapter include pesticide-treated paints and wood
preservatives and materials containing pesticide-treated paints and preservatives. Exposure
assessment scenarios that are addressed in this chapter include residential handler exposure
during mixing and application activities, post-application dermal and non-dietary incidental

20

ingestion exposure, and potential inhalation of volatile pesticide compounds.

Before the development of an exposure assessment of a paint/preservative, the appropriate
exposure scenarios should be identified using information on the product's pesticide label.
Specific label information that should be considered is described below.

•	Paints/Preservatives with Pesticide Claims: Paints/preservatives may be treated with
conventional pesticides and contain a pesticide label that makes claims, such as "kills
mildew," "prevents wood rot," or "kills algae." These labels contain information on the
active ingredient and should be used when performing exposure assessments using the
methods described in this chapter.

•	Paints/Preservatives without Pesticide Claims: Many paints/preservatives do not have
a pesticide label on their container and their labels do not make claims about pest control.
The pesticide in these paints/preservatives is present as a biocide, which is added during
the manufacturing process. Biocides are more routinely assessed by OPP's Antimicrobial
Division (OPP/AD) and are not addressed in this chapter.

•	Limiting and Descriptive Statements: Assume that a pesticide-containing
paint/preservative is used in residential settings and/or applied by homeowners, unless
specific label language indicates otherwise. Examples include labels that specify
paints/preservatives for commercial use only (e.g., warehouses, shipyards, etc.).
Additionally, "Restricted Use Pesticide" classification indicates that the product cannot
be bought or applied by homeowners (i.e., no residential handler exposure/risk
assessment required), but it may be applied by commercial applicators to residential sites;
therefore, a post-application risk assessment may be required.

10.1 Residential Handler Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides the standard methods for assessing dermal and inhalation exposures that can
result from mixing and applying treated paints and preservatives by residential handlers. There

20 In the past, exposure assessment procedures have been provided for ingestion of paint chips. There procedures
are no longer provided, since it is believed that children would have to ingest an unreasonably high quantity of
pesticide-containing paint chips to have an exposure that represents an unacceptable risk.

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Treated Paints & Preservatives

are currently limited exposure data on treated paint and preservative activities, so it is assumed
that they are similar to other handler activities as described below:

•	Aerosol spray cans handler activities are represented by pesticide aerosol data;

•	Paints brush handler activities are represented by paint brush data;

•	Roller painting handler activities are represented by paint roller data;

•	Painting/staining with a manually-pressurized sprayer handler activities are represented
by mixer/loader/applicator manually-pressurized sprayer data; and

•	Painting/staining with an airless sprayer handler activities are represented by
mixer/loader/applicator airless sprayer data.

When assessing risks associated with dermal exposure, the methods described in the remainder
of this section are recommended. Since this approach relies on surrogate data, it is
recommended that it should only be used in the absence of, or as a supplement to adequate
existing chemical-specific data.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm

Residue concentration is most commonly reported as percent a.i. in terms of total
paint/preservative mass (e.g. Weight fraction of a.i. in treated paint/preservative). In these cases,
residue concentration can be estimated and subsequently used to determine the potential daily
dose rate, as shown below.

AR=V*p*WF*CFl	(10.1)

where:

AR
V
P

WF
CF1

where:

E

UE
AR

N

= Mass of active ingredient applied per paint can (lbs a.i./can);

= Volume of paint contained in each can (mL/can);

= Paint density (g/mL);

= Weight fraction of a.i. in treated paint/preservative (% a.i. w/w); and

"3

= Gram-to-pound conversion factor (2.2*10" lbs/g).

E=UE* AR*N	(10.2)

= Daily exposure rate (mg/day);

= unit exposure (mg/lb a.i. applied);

= Mass of active ingredient applied per paint can (lbs a.i./can); and
= number of cans paint used per exposure day (cans/day).

After calculating exposure, absorbed dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

^ E*AF

D =		(10.3)

BW

where:

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D	= Dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= Exposure (mg/day);

AF	= absorption factor (dermal and/or inhalation); and

BW	= Body weight (kg).

Handler exposure for paint or wood preservative applications is generally considered short-term
in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day
exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the various factors outlined in Sections
1.3.2 and 1.3.3 such as the product-specific application regimen. If longer-term assessments
(i.e., intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, similar refinements
to more accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Dermal and Inhalation Handler Exposure Algorithm Inputs and Assumptions

Recommended values for handler exposure (inhalation and dermal) assessments are provided in
Table 10-1 and Table 10-2. Following these tables, each scenario-specific input parameter is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

Tsihle 10-1: Piiinis ;ind Stuiiis — Recommended I nil I-aiximiiv (m^/lh ;ii) Dislrihu(ions ;ind Point Ksiiin;iic*s

l-'o riiiu hi lion

l-'(|ii ipmoiit/
Application Mel hod

Doi'iiiiil I nil

l'l\pOMII'C

Iiihiiliilion I nil
l'l\pOMII'C

Appendix Page
Reference

Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Aerosol can

370

3.0

C-134

Paints and Stains

Airless Sprayer

160

0.56

C-42

Brush

450

0.20

C-48

Manually-pressurized
sprayer

63

0.018

C-48

Roller

No exposure data available for this application scenario.
Exposure data for brush applications of paints/stains
recommended as surrogate data.

l iihle 10-2: P;iin(s ;ind Sliiins- Recommended Ihindlcr ll\posiire l";ic(ors Distributions ;ind Point

llsliniiiles

lixposiire l-'iiclor (I nils)

Recommended Value

Application Rate mass ai per unit area

Maximum labeled rate

Amount of active ingredient (AR) (lbs a.i./can)

Maximum labeled rate

Number of cans applied per day (N)

Aerosol Spray Cans

3 twelve-ounce cans

Paints with Brush

2 one-gallon cans

Roller Painting

2 one-gallon cans

Manually-pressurized sprayer

3 one-gallon cans

Airless sprayer

3 five-gallon cans

Body Weight (BW) (kg)

Adult

80

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Unit Exposure (UE)

Unit exposure values for paints/preservatives are summarized in Appendix B. As indicated, there
are some exposure data on painting with a brush or roller, but limited exposure data on
paint/preservative exposure scenarios involving aerosols, manually-pressurized sprayers, and
airless sprayers. In these cases, data for conventional pesticide application activities are assumed
to be reasonable surrogates of exposure.

Amount of Active Ingredient (AR)

The amount of a.i. applied per paint/preservative container should be determined using label
information on the maximum concentration of a.i. that is mixed with a paint/preservative. In
some cases, this information may not be directly reported on the label. When this information is
not directly available, however, data on the volume of paint per container, specific gravity of
paint/preservative solution, and weight fraction of a.i. in paint/preservative can be used to
estimate the amount of active ingredient applied per container

Number of Paint Cans (N)

The number of paint cans is the amount of paint that is handled during a residential application.
The recommended input values for each handler exposure scenario are based on data presented
in U.S. EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook (2011) and summarized in Table 10-3.

Tiihlc 10-3: Ueeommended number of •Dillon input \nines I'm' p;iinl ;iihI wood preser\;i(i\e exposure

seennrios.

r.xposure Seennrio

Piiinl ( iins Number

.Juslifk'iilion

Aerosol Spray Cans

3 twelve-ounce cans

Upper-percentile assumption for the amount handled
is 3 cans (12 ounces each) used per event (the 90th
percentile amount of spray paint used per event is
36.11 oz/use (U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook
,2011, Table 17-18).

Paints with Brush

2 one-gallon cans

90th percentile value of 8 gallons of latex paint used
per year divided by the mean frequency of 4 painting
events per year (U.S. EPA Exposure Factors
Handbook, 2011, Table 17-6).

Roller Painting

2 one-gallon cans

90th percentile value of 8 gallons of latex paint used
per year divided by the mean frequency of 4 painting
events per year (U.S. EPA's Exposure Factors
Handbook, 2011, Table 17-6).

Manually-pressurized sprayer
painting/staining

3 one-gallon cans

Professional judgment assuming that more products
would be used with a manually-pressurized sprayer
than with a roller or brush, but less than that used
with a high pressure sprayer.

Airless sprayer
painting/staining

3 five-gallon cans

A homeowner is assumed to use three 5-gallon cans
of ready-to-use product or of finished spray prepared
from a concentrated product and water. This is based
on a coverage rate of 200 ft2/gallon and a house size
with a surface area of 2,800 ft2.

Future Research/Data Needs

Iinformation that could refine the handler exposure assessment methods include:
• General use information on treated paints;

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Treated Paints & Preservatives

•	Frequency of treated paint/preservative applications;

•	Location of treated paint/preservatives in residential environments; and

•	Typical surface of area of treated areas.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

Unit Exposures

•	The exposure data underlying unit exposures are considered reasonable for the purposes
of establishing distributions and estimating exposure. The data are from actual
applications using standardized exposure sampling methodologies and laboratory
analyses.

•	The underlying assumption of the use of exposure data as unit exposures -
proportionality between the amount of active ingredient handled and exposure - is
uncertain, though potentially conservative. However, as a prediction mechanism, it is
considered practical and useful for the purposes of handler exposure assessment in a
regulatory context. It provides a straightforward handler exposure calculation method
and enables risk mitigation in the form of formulation comparison and decreased
application rates.

•	The extent to which an individual's exposure (expressed via unit exposures) varies day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

Amount of active ingredient handled

•	Information on the amount of product/formulation (thus, active ingredient) handled per
application is largely unavailable. The approach used is believed to provide conservative
estimates of exposure because the amount of paint/preservative handled is based on
information on the use of non-treated painted that is more commonly used. The
recommended point estimates are, therefore, intended to be conservative to ensure an
appropriately health protective exposure estimate.

•	The extent to which the amount an individual will handle per application varies from day-
to-day or application-to-application is unknown; therefore, the assumption that there is no
variation when assessing longer-term exposure durations is considered conservative.

10.2 Post-Application Exposure Assessment

Post-application exposure can result from contacting surfaces that have been painted with treated
paint or wood preservative. Potential exposed populations include both adults and children.
While exposure may occur for people of all ages, adults and children 1 < 2 years old are
considered index lifestages based on behavioral characteristics and the strengths and limitations
of available data.

This section addresses standard methods for estimating exposure and dose for three individual
post-application scenarios resulting from exposure to pesticide-containing paints, stains, or wood
preservatives:

•	Section 10.2.1 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old dermal exposures;

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•	Section 10.2.2 - children 1 < 2 years old non-dietary ingestion via hand-to-mouth
activity; and

•	Section 10.2.3 - adult/children 1 < 2 years old inhalation exposures.
10.2.1 Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment

This SOP provides the standard methods for assessing dermal exposure scenarios following the
application of pesticide-treated paint or wood preservatives on indoor and outdoor surfaces, such
as home walls, outdoor decks, and play-sets. The exposure assessment methods presented in this
section are based primarily on the approach developed for an exposure assessment of children
who contact chromated copper arsenate treated playsets using the EPA/ORD Stochastic Human
Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for the Wood Preservative Scenario (SHEDS-WOOD)
(U.S. EPA, 2005).

Post-Application Dermal Exposure Algorithm

The algorithm to calculate post-application dermal exposure is calculated as follows:

E=SR*SA/BW*FBody*TE*PF	(10.4)

where:

E	= Daily exposure rate (mg/kg-day);

SR = Surface residue concentration (mg/cm2);

SA/BW = total body surface area to body weight ratio (cm /kg);

FBody = Fraction of total body skin surface area that is unclothed (unitless); and

TE = Daily material-to-skin transfer efficiency (fraction/day).

Absorbed dermal dose, normalized to body weight, is then calculated as:

D=E* AF	(10.5)

where:

D = Dose rate (mg/kg-day);

E = Daily Exposure (mg/kg-day); and
AF = Dermal absorption factor.

Post-application dermal exposure from paints or wood preservatives containing pesticides is
generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-
term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, such as in cases where the impregnated
material may be routinely replaced or re-treated, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

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Post-Application Dermal Exposure Assessment Assumptions and
Recommendations

A summary table of the recommended values for post-application dermal exposure assessment of
paints/preservatives is provided in Table 10-4. Following this summary table, each scenario-
specific input parameter, excluding the universal body surface area and bodyweight inputs, is
described in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data
sources used to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should
be addressed when characterizing exposure.

Tsihle 10-4: Siimniiin of recommended \ nines for nosl-smnlicsilion (k-rmsil sihsornlion.

Algorithm
Nolsilion

l.\|)osuiv l-'sicloril nils)

KocomiiKMidod Input
\ 'sillies

SR

Surface Residue Concentration (mg a.i. /cm2)

Maximum Labeled Rate

WF

Percent A.I. by Weight (% w/w)

Label

fbody

Fraction of body that contacts residue

0.31

TE

Material-to-skin transfer efficiency (fraction/day)

0.14

SA/BW

total body surface area to
body weight ratio (cm2/kg)

Adult

280

Children 1 < 2 years old

640

Surface Residue Concentration (SR)

Surface residue concentration is the concentration of pesticide residue on the surface of a
painted/treated surface. Whenever possible, product-specific information should be used to
estimate the surface residue concentration. This information may be found on labels or other
information provided by the manufacturer.

Material-to-Skin Transfer Efficiency (TE)

Surface-to-skin transfer efficiency is the fraction of pesticide residue that is transferred from a
painted/treated surface to the skin. Whenever possible, product -specific information should be
used to estimate the surface-to-skin transfer efficiency. In the absence of product-specific
information, the recommended transfer efficiency is based on warm weather data on the transfer
of arsenic from chromated copper arsenate treated wood (American Chemistry Council, 2003).
This data was incorporated into the SHEDS-CCA assessment and used to obtain a lognormal
distribution with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.143 and 2.33,
respectively.

Fraction of Total Body Exposed (Fbody)

This term refers to the fraction of the body that is unclothed. The recommended default value for
this input was derived using information presented previously in Table 6-7. Specifically, the
recommended input value of 0.31 represents the fraction of surface area of the torso and arms,
lower thighs, shins, feet, hands, and neck. This value is believed to be representative of the
fraction of the body that may be exposed in warm weather.

Future Research/Data Needs

Specific information that could help refine the exposure assessment methods include:

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•	Additional research/ data on the transfer of non-preservative pesticide additives, as
available data are limited to transfer of arsenic from chromated copper arsenate.

•	Information on how treated paints/preservatives are used by residential home owners
could help improve the exposure assessment methods.

•	General use information on treated paints;

•	Frequency of treated paint/preservative applications;

•	Location of treated paint/preservatives in residential environments; and

•	Typical surface of area of treated areas.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Many of the methods presented in this section are based on the approach used to assess
chromated copper arsenate treated playsets. Therefore, an important limitation of the
exposure assessment methods presented is that they are based on a single chemical that is
used a wood preservative, rather than conventional pesticide (e.g. insecticide, herbicide,
fungicide, etc.).

10.2.2 Post-Application Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure Assessment: Hand-
to-Mouth

This SOP provides the dose estimation methods for assessing incidental ingestion from hand-to-
mouth behavior following contact with treated paint/preservative surfaces.

Non-Dietary Hand-to-Mouth Ingestion Exposure Algorithm

Exposure from hand-to-mouth activity is calculated as follows (based on algorithm utilized in
SHEDS-Multimedia):

E

where:

E

HR

Fm
SAh
ET

N_Replen
SE

FreqHtM

In this algorithm, hand residue concentration is calculated as:

HR = SR * TE	(10.7)

where:

HR * (Fm * SAh ) * (ET * N _ Replen) * [ 1 - (l - SE) N _Replen

= exposure (mg/day);

= hand residue loading (mg/cm );

= fraction hand surface area mouthed / event (fraction/event);
= surface area of one hand (cm2);

= exposure time (hr/day);

= number of replenishment intervals per hour (intervals/hour);
= saliva extraction factor (ie, mouthing removal efficiency); and
= number of hand-to-mouth contacts events per hour (events/hour).

(10.6)

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Treated Paints & Preservatives

2

HR	= hand residue concentration (mg/cm );

SR	= surface residue ([j,g/cm2); and

TE	= transfer Efficiency.

After calculating exposure, oral dose, normalized to body weight, is calculated as:

r, E

D=		(10.8)

BW

where:

D	= dose (mg/kg-day);

E	= exposure (mg/day); and

BW	= body weight (kg).

Post-application hand-to-mouth exposure from paints or wood preservatives containing
pesticides is generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to
reflect a more accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting
for the various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-
specific re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e.,
intermediate-, long-term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, such as in cases where the
impregnated material may be routinely replaced or re-treated, similar refinements to more
accurately reflect the exposure profile are recommended.

Non-dietary Hand-to-Mouth Ingestion Exposure Assessment Assumptions and
Recommendations

Recommended values for non-dietary hand-to-mouth ingestion exposure assessments are
provided in Table 10-5. Following this table, each scenario-specific input parameter is described
in more detail. This description includes a summary of i) key assumptions; ii) data sources used
to derive recommended input values; and iii) discussion of limitations that should be addressed
when characterizing exposure.

Table 10-5: Summary of recommended values for post-application hand-to-mouth incidental ingestion.

Algorithm
Notation

Exposure Factor
(units)

Point

Estimate(s)

SR

Surface Residue Concentration
(mg a.i. /cm2)

Maximum
Labeled Rate

TE

Material-to-skin transfer efficiency

0.14

Fm

Fraction of hand mouthed per event (fraction/event)

0.13

sah

Typical surface area of one hand, children 1 < 2 years old
(cm2)

150

NReplen

Replenishment intervals
(intervals/hr)

4

ET

Exposure Time
(hours per day)

Indoor Enviromnents (Children 1 < 2 years old)

4

Outdoor Enviromnents (Children 1 < 2 years old)

1.5

SE

Saliva extraction factor
(fraction)

0.48

Freq_HtM

Hand-to-mouth events
(events/hour)

Indoor Enviromnents
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

20

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l iihlc 10-5: Suiniiiiin of ivcommi'ink-ri \ nines for poM-;ipplk';ilion hiiiul-lo-iiioiiih inciricnliil iniicslion.





Outdoor Environments
(Children 1 < 2 years old)

13.9

BW

Body Weight
(kg)

Children 1 < 2 years old

11.4

Surface Residue Concentration (SR)

Surface residue concentration is the concentration of pesticide residue on the surface of an
impregnated material. Product-specific information, such as weight fraction of a.i., should be
used to estimate the residue concentration. This information may be found on labels or other
information provided by the manufacturer. After obtaining this information, the surface residue
concentration can be estimated using the methods described in Section 9.2.2.

Material-to-Skin Transfer Efficiency (TE)

Surface-to-skin transfer efficiency is the fraction of pesticide residue that is transferred from a
painted/treated surface to the skin. Whenever possible, product -specific information should be
used to estimate the surface-to-skin transfer efficiency. In the absence of product-specific
information, the recommended transfer efficiency is based on warm weather data on the transfer
of arsenic from chromated copper arsenate treated wood (American Chemistry Council, 2003).
This data was incorporated into the SHEDS-CCA assessment and used to obtain a lognormal
distribution with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.143 and 2.33,
respectively.

Fraction of Hand Mouthed per Event (F^)

See Section 2.4 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of hand mouthed. The recommended
point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral exposure assessments is 0.13.

Hand Surface Area (SAH)

The hand surface area for children 1 < 2 years old of 150 cm , for one hand, was based on
values from the Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S. EPA, 2011).

Replenishment Intervals (N Replen)

This SOP assumes an estimate of 4 replenishment intervals per hour (i.e., residues on the hand
will be replenished every 15 minutes). This value was selected as a conservative assumption
based on the use of 30 minutes in the SHEDS model to coincide with the CHAD diaries.

Exposure Time (ET)

Exposure time is the amount of time that a child is an environment where they may contact a
surface containing an impregnated material. There is currently no data available to characterize
the amount of time that children spend in environments where they may contact surfaces with
treated paints and preservatives. In the absence of scenario-specific data, recommended
exposure time value for exposures that may occur in indoor environments is based on the
children 1 < 2 years old exposure time values discussed in Section 7.2.4 of the Indoor
Environment SOPs. Similarly, the recommended exposure time for outdoor environments is

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based on the children 1 < 2 years old exposure time values discussed in Section 3.2.2 of the
Lawns/Turf SOPs.

Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva (SE)

See Section 2.6 of this SOP for discussion of the fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva
distribution. The recommended point estimate for use in post-application incidental oral
exposure assessments is 0.48.

Hand-to-mouth events per hour (Freq HtM)

Frequency of hand-to-mouth events refers to the number of hand-to-mouth events per hour.

There is currently no data available that specifically address the number of hand-to-mouth events
that occur relative to the amount of time a child is in contact surfaces containing treated
paints/preservatives. In the absence of scenario-specific data, the frequency of hand-to-mouth
events in indoor environments is based on Section 7.2.4 of the Indoor Environment SOPs, which
provides a summary of data from a meta-analysis performed by Xue et al. (2007). Similarly, the
frequency of hand-to-mouth events in outdoor environments is based on Section 3.2.3 of the
Lawns/Turf SOPs, which provides a summary of the outdoor hand-to-mouth data from the same
Xue et al. (2007) meta-analysis.

Future Research/Data Needs

Specific information that could help refine the exposure assessment methods include:

•	Additional research/ data on the transfer of non-preservative pesticide additives, as
available data are limited to transfer of arsenic from chromated copper arsenate.

•	Information on how treated paints/preservatives are used by residential home owners
could help improve the exposure assessment methods.

•	General use information on treated paints;

•	Frequency of treated paint/preservative applications;

•	Location of treated paint/preservatives in residential environments; and

•	Typical surface of area of treated areas.

Exposure Characterization and Data Quality

•	Many of the methods presented in this section are based on the approach used to assess
chromated copper arsenate treated playsets. Therefore, an important limitation of the
exposure assessment methods presented is that they are based on a single chemical that is
used a wood preservative, rather than conventional pesticide (e.g. insecticide, herbicide,
fungicide, etc.).

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10.2.3 Post-Application Inhalation Exposure Assessment

In many cases, inhalation exposure from impregnated paints is expected to be negligible, since
many non-preservative pesticides have low vapor pressures and would be designed to be
incorporated into the treated surface. When treated paints/wood preservatives contain more
volatile pesticide chemicals, however, it may be necessary to assess post-application inhalation
exposures. The recommended methodology is described in the remainder of this section.

Wall Paint Exposure Model

EPA's Wall Paint Exposure Model (WPEM) version 3.2 is used estimate post-application air
concentrations resulting from the use of paint preserved with volatile chemicals (2001). WPEM
was developed under a contract by Geomet Technologies for EPA OPPT to provide estimates of
potential air concentrations and consumer/worker exposures to chemicals emitted from wall
paint which is applied using a roller or a brush. WPEM uses mathematical models developed
from small chamber data to estimate the emissions of chemicals from oil-based (alkyd) and latex
wall paint. The emission data can then be combined with detailed use, workload and occupancy
data (e.g., amount of time spent in the painted room, etc,) to estimate exposure. Specific input
parameters include: the type of paint (latex or alkyd) being assessed, density of the paint (default
values available), and the chemical weight fraction, molecular weight, and vapor pressure.
Detailed information and the executable model can be downloaded from
http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/exposure/pubs/wpem.htm.

It should be noted that WPEM's emission models are based on a limited set of chemicals and an
associated range of molecular weights and vapor pressures. The models may not be valid for
chemicals outside of these ranges. The valid vapor pressure ranges are 0.4 to 18.7 torr (or
mmHg) for chemicals in alkyd paint and 0.002 to 0.2 torr (or mmHg) for chemicals in latex
paint.

For volatile chemicals, use WPEM and chemical specific data (i.e., vapor pressure and molecular
weight) to determine air concentrations. For the do-it-yourself residential painter, use the default
WPEM scenario "RESDIY" to estimate chemical specific air concentrations. This WPEM
default scenario assumes that a do-it-yourself painter is exposed to a chemical in paint while
applying one coat paint to the bedroom of a house. For a detailed description of the default
RESDIY scenario, see the WPEM User's Guide.

The model provides several dose measures (i.e., LADD, ADD), air concentration measures (i.e.,
peak, 15-min, 8hr), and a comma-separated (.csv) file as outputs. The comma-separated file
contains details on time-varying concentrations within the modeled building (i.e., cone in zone 1,
cone in zone 2) as well as concentrations to which the individual is exposed (i.e., Conc@person).
This file can be read directly into spreadsheet software (e.g., Excel) for calculating additional
summary statistics. The output data in comma-separated file should be used to estimate air
concentrations over time durations that are in comparable time-durations to the toxicity
endpoints. For the adult DIY painter, a 4-hr average air concentration (i.e., the time it takes to
paint the bedroom) should be used in the following equation used for calculating the absorbed
inhalation dose:

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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Treated Paints & Preservatives

r * JR*FT*AF
D =	(10.9)

BW

where:

D	= Potential Daily Dose (mg/kg-day);

"3

C	= 4-Hour Average Air concentration (mg a.i./m );

IR	= Inhalation rate (Standard Value= m /hour);

ET	= Exposure time (Standard Value= hours/day);

AF	= Absorption Factor; and

BW	= Bodyweight (kg).

For the adult and child bystander and post-application exposure scenario, use the default WPEM
scenario "RESADULT" to estimate chemical specific air concentrations. This WPEM default
scenario assumes that a resident located in the non-painted part of the house (i.e., zone 2) is
exposed to the chemical in the paint while a bedroom is painted with one coat of primer and one
coat of paint by a professional. This resident then moves in, out, and throughout the house
following the paint application. For a detailed description of the default RESADULT scenario,
see the WPEM User's Guide. The "RESCHILD"scenario should be used to assess child
exposure even though the application scenario is the same as in the adult assessment because
WPEM moves the person around in the home (i.e., in the painted room, in non-painted rooms,
and outdoors) based on activity patterns and the activity patterns for the child and adult are
different.

The output data in comma-separated file should be used to estimate air concentrations over time
durations that are in comparable time-durations to the toxicity endpoints. For the bystander/post-
application exposure the data in the "Conc@person" column of the output file should be used to
estimate 24-hr average and subsequently used in the following equation for calculating the post-
application absorbed inhalation dose is:

C * IR* FT* AF
D =	(10.10)

BW

where:

D	= Potential Daily Dose (mg/kg-day);

C	= 24-Hour Average Air concentration (mg a.i./m3);

"3

IR	= Inhalation rate (m /hour);

ET	= Exposure time (hours/day);

AF	= Absorption Factor; and

BW	= Bodyweight (kg).

Post-application inhalation exposure from paints or wood preservatives containing pesticides is
generally considered short-term in duration. Refinement of this dose estimate to reflect a more
accurate short-term multi-day exposure profile can be accomplished by accounting for the
various factors outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 1.3.4, such as residue dissipation, product-specific
re-treatment intervals, and activity patterns. If longer-term assessments (i.e., intermediate-, long-
term, or lifetime exposures) are deemed necessary, such as in cases where the impregnated

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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Treated Paints & Preservatives

material may be routinely replaced or re-treated, similar refinements to more accurately reflect
the exposure profile are recommended.

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References

Section 11 References

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Permethrin 50% (w/v) Spot-On. Lab Project Number: V 02-004. Unpublished study prepared
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Baugher, D.; Klonne, D.; Mihlan, G.; et. al. (2004) The ORETF Algorithm for Defining the
Relationship of Transferable Turf Residues to Post-Application Dermal Exposure. Project
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Brickel, P. (1997). Dislodgeable Residues of Fipronil Following Topical Application of
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Brinkman S., Gialamas A., Jones L., Edwards P., and Maynard E. (1999). Child Activity Patterns
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Camann, D. E., Majumadar, T. K., and Geno, P. (1989). Determination of Pesticide Removal
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U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Camann, D.; Harding, H.; Geno, P.; and Agrawl S. (1996). Comparison of Methods to
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Carroll, S. P. (2007b). Test of Coulston's Duranon Personal Insect Repellent. Laboratory Project
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Carroll, S. P. (2007c). Test of Dermaegis Lipodeet 302 Personal Insect Repellent. Laboratory
Project ID SCI-001-4. Unpublished study; Performing Laboratory: Carroll-Loye Biological
Research, Davis, CA 95616; 180 pp. EPA MRID 47322501.

Carroll, S. (2007d). Test of Personal Insect Repellents (Revised). Project Number: EMD/003.3
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Carroll, S. (2007e). Test of Personal Insect Repellents (Revised). Project Number: EMD 004.3
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Carroll, S. P. (2008a). Efficacy Test of Picaridin-based Personal Repellents with Mosquitoes
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47535201.

Carroll, S. P. (2008b). Efficacy Test of Picari din-based Personal Tick Repellents. Laboratory
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Chinn, K.S.K. (1981) A Simple Method for Predicting Chemical Agent Evaporation. September
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24(4): 560-565.

Clothier, J. (2000). Dermal Transfer Efficiency of Pesticides from New Vinyl Sheet Flooring to
Dry and Wetted Palms. (EPA/600/R00/029). United States Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, NC.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Consumer Specialty Products Association (CSPA). (2005). Pyrethrin Steering Committee/Joint
Venture and Piperonyl Butoxide Task Force II. Discussion Paper: Intermittent Aerosols,
Residential Mosquito Misters, and Dairy Barn Misters.

Cowell, J. and Johnson, D. (1999). Evaluation of Transferable Turf Residue Techniques:
Evaluation Study of Transferable Residue Techniques (OMDOOl) and Transferable Residue
Technique Modification Study: An Evaluation of Three Turf Sampling Techniques (OMD002).
October 7, 1999. Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force. EPA MRID 44972203.

Eastern Research Group. (1998). Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model Peer
Review Summary. EPA Contract No. 68-W6-0022.

Eastin, I.; Ganguly, I.; Shook, S.; Brackley, A. (2005). Material use in the US deck market: an
assessment of the market potential for Alaska yellow cedar. Working Paper 98. Seattle, WA:
Center for International Trade in Forest Products (CINTRAFOR), University of Washington,
College of Forest Resource: 87 p.

Evans, J. (2005). Tributyltin maleate (TBTM): Non-Dietary Residential Exposure
Considerations for Proposed Registration of Ultra-Freshฎ DM-50 as a New Indoor Use Pattern
for TBTM. DP Barcode 314711. Sent from Jeff Evans to Meta Bonner. March 30, 2005.

Evans, WC. (1994). Development of Continuous-application Source Terms and Analytical
Solution for One- and Two-Compartment System. In: Tichenor, B.A. (Ed.), Characterizing
sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects, ASTM STP 1287. American Society
of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 279-293.

Fan, C., Zhang J. (2001). Characterization of Emissions from Portable Household Combustion
Devices: Particle Size Distributions, Emission Rates and Factors, and Potential Exposures.
Atmospheric Environment 35: 1281-1290.

Faulde MK, Uedelhoven WM, and Robbins RG (2003). Contact Toxicity and Residual Activity
of Different Permethrin-Based Fabric Impregnation Methods for Aedes aegypti (Diptera:
Culicidae), Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), and Lepisma saccharina (Thysanura: Lepismatidae).
Journal of Medical Entomology, 40(6): 935-941.

Federal Register Notice. (1973) 38 FR 21685, 1973

Fenske, R.A.; Black, K.G.; Elkner, K.P.; Lee, C.; Methner, M.N.; Soto, R. (1990). Potential
Exposure and Health Risks of Infants Following Indoor Residential Pesticide Applications.
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Fortune, C. (1997). Round-Robin Testing of Methods for Collecting Dislodgeable Residues
from Carpets. (EPA/600/R97/107). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Fradin, M.S, and Day, J.F. (2002). Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents Against Mosquito
Bites. N Engl J Med, Vol. 347, No. 1.

Freeman, N. C., M. Jimenez, K. J. Reed, S. Gurunathan, R. D. Edwards, A. Roy, J. L. Adgate, E.
D. Pellizzari, J. Quackenboss, K. Sexton, and P. J. Lioy. (2001). Quantitative Analysis of
Children's Microactivity Patterns: The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study. Journal
of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, (2001) 11, 501 - 509.

Guo, Z. (2002) Review of indoor emission source models - part 2. Parameter estimation.
Environmental Pollution. 120: 551-564.

Gurunathan, S; Robson, M; Freeman, N; Buckley, B; Roy, A; Meyer, R; Bukowski, J; and Lioy,
P. (1998). Accumulation of Chlorpyrifos on Residential Surfaces and Toys Accessible to
Children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106:9-16.

Horse Stable Ventilation Publication. (2003) College of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Research and Cooperative Extension, Pennsylvania State University, 2003. Available online at:
http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/freepubs/pdfs/ub039.pdf

Horse Stable Ventilation. Eileen Fabian Wheeler. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. The
Pennsylvania State University. Available online at:

http://web.nfba.org/html/files/programs/Wheeler%20-%20Horse%20Barn%20Ventilation.pps

Hughes, D.L. (1997a). Dislodgeable Residues of Fipronil Following Application of Frontlineฎ
Spray Treatment to Dogs. Lab Project Number: 6848-100. Unpublished study prepared by
Covance Laboratory for Merial Limited. EPA MRID 44433306.

Hughes, D.L. (1997b). Dislodgeable Residues of Fipronil Following Application of Frontlineฎ
Spray Treatment to Cats. Lab Project Number: 6848-100. Unpublished study prepared by
Covance Laboratory for Merial Limited. EPA MRID 44433307.

Human & Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA). (2005). Human & Environmental Risk
Assessment on Ingredients of Household Cleaning Products.

Iwata, Y.; Knaak, J.B.; Spear, R.C.; Foster, R.J. (1977). Worker Reentry into Pesticide Treated
Crops. Procedure For The Determination of Dislodgeable Residues on Foliage, Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 18:649-655.

Johnson, D.; Thompson, R.; Butterfield, B. (1999). Outdoor Residential Pesticide Use and Usage
Survey and National Gardening Association Survey. Unpublished study prepared by Doane
Marketing Research, Inc. EPA MRID 46883825 (also EPA MRID 44972202).

Keenan, J. (2007). Potential Exposures of Children and Adults to Cypermethrin and other
Pyrethroid Insecticides Following Treatment and Control of Indoor Pests. (Doctoral
Dissertation, University of California, Riverside, June 2007).

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Klein, D (2002). Leaching of TBTM from Nylon Carpet Sample Treated with Ultra-Fresh DM-
50 Using Acidic, Neutral and Alkaline Artificial Sweat. MRID 45746802.

Klepeis NE, Nelson WC, Ott WR et al. (2001). The National Human Activity Pattern Survey
(NHAPS): A Resource for Assessing Exposure to Environmental Pollutants. Journal of Exposure
Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 11(3):231-252.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Bruce, E. (1999). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Scouting in Grapes (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number: ARF023:
ERS98011: 44835. Unpublished study prepared by ABC Laboratories, Inc., and Excel Research
Services, Inc. EPA MRID 45005910.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Prochaska, C. et al. (1999). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation
Exposure to Reentry Workers During Scouting in Cauliflower (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project
Number: 97-296: ARF012: 98-0005. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research LLC,
and Ricerca, Inc. EPA MRID 45005907.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Rotondaro, A. (1999). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Scouting in Cauliflower (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number:
ARF011: 97-295: 7443-98-0027-CR-001. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research
LLC, and Ricerca, Inc. EPA MRID 45005906.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Prochaska, C. et al. (1999). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation
Exposure to Reentry Workers During Scouting in Tobacco (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project
Number: ARF024: 98-327: ML98-0739-ART. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson
Research, LLC. and Morse Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 45005911.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Honeycutt, R. (1999). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure
to Reentry Workers During Scouting in Sweet Corn (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number:
ARF009: 97-708HE: 017-03. Unpublished study prepared by H.E.R.A.C., Inc., and Centre
Analytical Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 45005904.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Rotondaro, A. (1999) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Scouting in Dry Peas (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number: ARF021:
98-326: 7608-98-011 l-CR-001. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research LLC, and
Ricerca, Inc. EPA MRID 45005908.

Klonne, D.; Artz, S.; Rotondaro, A. (1999) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Scouting in Dry Peas (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number: ARF021:
98-326: 7608-98-011 l-CR-001. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research LLC, and
Ricerca, Inc. EPA MRID 45005905.

Klonne, D.; Bruce, E.; Artz, S. (1999) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Scouting in Sunflower (Chlorothalonil): Lab Project Number: ARF022:
44500: A048.007. Unpublished study prepared by ABC Laboratories, Inc. and Maxim
Technologies, Inc. EPA MRID 45005909.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Merricks, D. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Harvesting in Apples: (Malathion): Lab Project Number: ARF025:
3901: 44868. Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Incorporated and ABC Laboratories,
Inc. EPAMRID 45138202.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Belcher, T. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Hand Harvesting in Oranges: Lab Project Number: ARF028:
ERS99004: 10231. Unpublished study prepared by Excel Research Services, Inc. and Horizon
Laboratories, Inc. EPAMRID 45175101.

Klonne, D.; Merricks, D. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Reentry
Workers During Harvesting in Juice Oranges: Study Number ARF041: Lab Project Number:
ARF041: 3903. Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Incorporated and Morse
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Klonne, D.; Merricks, D.; Fuller, R. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Harvesting in Juice Grapefruit Study Number ARF042: Lab Project
Number: ARF042: 3904. Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Incorporated and Maxim
Technologies, Inc. EPA MRID 45432302.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Rotondaro, A. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure
to Reentry Workers During Chrysanthemum Pinching in a Greenhouse: Lab Project Number:
ARF039: 45647. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research, LLC. and ABC
Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 45344501.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Howell, C. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers during Pruning in Nursery Stock: Lab Project Number: ARF043: 45949: HL
10258. Unpublished study prepared by ABC Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 45469501.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Howell, C. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers during Harvesting in Nursery Stock: Lab Project Number: 45950: ARF044.
Unpublished study prepared by ABC Laboratories, Inc. EPA MRID 45469502

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Belcher, T. (2000) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Weeding in Cabbage: (Carbaryl): Lab Project Number: ARF037:
ERS99007: A048. 008. Unpublished study prepared by Excel Research services, Inc. and Maxim
Technologies, Inc. EPAMRID 45191701.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Rotondaro, A. (2001) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure
to Reentry Workers During Harvesting in Summer Squash: Lab Project Number: AFR049:
46083. Unpublished study prepared by Grayson Research LLC., and ABC Laboratories. EPA
MRID 45491902.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Merricks, D. (2001) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Tying in Tomatoes: Lab Project Number: 3905: HL10267: ARF051.
Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Inc. EPA MRID 45530103.

Klonne, D.; Fuller, R.; Belcher, T. (2001) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to
Reentry Workers During Harvesting in Wine Grapes: Lab Project Number: ARF048: ERS20019:
HL10259. Unpublished study prepared by Excel Research Service, Inc., and Horizon
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(2009). Questionnaire Assessment of Airway Disease Symptoms in Equine Barn Personnel.
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U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

McKeown, K. (2001). Determination of the Dislodgeability of Tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) from
the Fur of Dogs Following the Application of an Insecticide Powder, Pump Spray or Aerosol.
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Dust To Dogs By the Non-Professional. Lab Project Number: 1517. Unpublished study
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of RP-2 Liquid (21%) to Fruit Trees and Ornamental Plants : Lab Project Number: 1518.
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NAFTA - Dept. of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), California EPA, HSM-98014, April 24, 1998.

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Dermal Transfer of Surface Pesticide Residue Generated From Indoor Fogger Use: using the
CDFA roller methods. Chemosphere 22: 975 - 984.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

Rudenko, L. (2000). Supplemental Submission to the US Environmental Protection Agency:
Permethrin Rub-Off Trial from Astex Mattress Liners. Prepared for Protec Health International
Ltd. by The Life Sciences Consultancy, LLC. October 31, 2000. EPAMRID 45256001.

Selim, S. (2000a) Measurement of Transfer of Pyrethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide Residues from
Vinyl Flooring Treated with a Fogger Formulation. Unpublished study prepared by Non-Dietary
Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188605).

Selim, S. (2000b) Post-Application Deposition Measurements for Pyrethrins and Piperonyl
Butoxide Following Use of a Total Release Indoor Fogger. Unpublished study prepared by Non-
Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188602).

Selim, S. (2000c) Post Application Measurements for Deltamethrin Following Use of a Total
Release Fogger. Unpublished study prepared by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID
46609901).

Selim, S. (2002a) Determination of Pyrethrin (PY) and Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) Residue on
the Hand from Treated Vinyl Flooring Sections Following Hand Press on Untreated Surfaces.
Unpublished study prepared by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188614).

Selim, S. (2002b) Determination of Pyrethrin (PY) and Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) Residue on
the Hand following Hand Press on Treated and Untreated Carpet. Unpublished study prepared
by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188620).

Selim, S. (2003a) Measurement of Transfer of Permethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide Residues from
Vinyl and Carpet Flooring Treated with a Fogger Formulation Following a Single Hand Press.
Unpublished study prepared by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188625).

Selim, S. (2003b) Determination of Permethrin (PER) and Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) Residue on
the Hand Following Hand Press on Treated and Untreated Vinyl and Carpet. Unpublished study
prepared by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188628).

Selim, S. (2003c) Post-Application Deposition Measurements For Permethrin and Piperonyl
Butoxide Following Use of a Total Release Indoor Fogger. Unpublished study prepared by Non-
Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46188623).

Selim, S. (2004) Measurement of Transfer of Deltamethrin Residues from Vinyl and Carpet
flooring Treated with a Fogger Formulation Following a Single Hand Press. Unpublished study
prepared by Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force. (MRID 46297602).

Selim, S. (2008). Determination of Floor Residues of Esfenvalerate Following a Crack and
Crevice or Broadcast Application of EVERCIDEฎ Residual Ant and Roach Spray 27523.

MRID: 47547701

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

SHEDS-Multimedia: ORD/NERL's Model to Estimate Aggregate and Cumulative Exposures to
Chemicals. Available online at:

http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/sheds_multimedia/sheds_mm.html
Smith, C. (2011). Review of ORD Test House Study, D390098.

Snodgrass (1987). PERMETHRIN: Fabric/Skin Contact From Wearing The Army Battle Dress
Uniform. (MRID No. 407668-12)

Snodgrass (1992). Permethrin Transfer from Treated Cloth to the Skin Surface: Potential for
Exposure in Humans. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 35: 91-105.

Stout II, D. M. and Mason, M.A. (2003). The Distribution of Chlorpyrifos Following a Crack
and Crevice Type Application in the U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House. Atmospheric
Environment, 37, 5539-5549.

Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E. (1996). Results tables from a detailed analysis of the National
Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) responses. Draft Report prepared for the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency by Lockheed Martin, Contract No. 68-W6-001, Delivery
Order No. 13.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. (2006). Insecticide Applications. Cockroach
Control Manual. Second Edition. Lincoln: Nebraska. 53-57.

U.S. Air Force (USAF). (2003). Department of The Air Force - Headquarters Air Force Civil
Engineer Support Agency, April 16, 2003 memo with the subject "Engineering Technical Letter
(ETL) 03-3: Air Force Carpet Standard."

U.S. EPA. (1992). Guidelines for Exposure Assessment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC, Federal Register Notice. Vol. 57. No. 104, pp. 22888-22938.

U.S. EPA. (1993). Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development,
Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

U.S. EPA. (1993) Protocol for Dermal Exposure Assessment: A Technical Report.
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. EPA/600/X-93/005.

U.S. EPA. (1995). Data Call-In Notice for Post-Application Exposure Data. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. (1995) Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model (MCCEM): User's Guide,
Version 2.4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics,
Economics, Exposure and Technology Division, Exposure Assessment Branch, Washington D.C.

U.S. EPA. (1996). Residue Chemistry Test Guidelines: OPPTS 860.1460 - Food Handling.
EPA 712-C-96-181.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

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References

U.S. EPA. (1997). Exposure Factors Handbook. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. (1997). Series 875 - Occupational and Residential Exposure Test Guidelines, Group B
- Post-application Exposure Monitoring Test Guidelines. Draft Document (Version 5.2). U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. (2001). Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM) Available online at:
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U.S. EPA. (2001). General Principles for Performing Aggregate Exposure and Risk
Assessments. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. (2002). Determination of the Appropriate FQPA Safety Factor(s) in Tolerance
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U.S. EPA. (2005). Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood
Exposures to Environmental Contaminants (Final). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC, EPA/630/P-03/003F.

U.S. EPA. (2005). Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/630/P-03/001F.

U.S. EPA. (2005). Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life
Exposure to Carcinogens. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/630/R-
03/003F.

U.S. EPA. (2009). Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based
Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC,
EPA/600/R-06/129F.

U.S. EPA. (2011). Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final). U.S. Environmental
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Vaccaro (1991). Evaluation of Dislodgeable Residues and Absorbed Doses of Chlorpyrifos to
Crawling Infants following of a Chlorpyrifos Based Emulsifiable Concentrate Indoor Broadcast
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World Health Organization (2004). A Generic Risk Assessment Model for Insecticide
Treatment and Subsequent Use of Mosquito Nets. World Health Organization Communicable
Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) &
Protection of the Human Environment Programme on Chemical Safety (PCS). Available at:


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References

Wright, CG and Jackson MD. (1975). Insecticide residues in non-target areas of rooms after two
methods of crack-and-crevice application. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology 13:123-128.

Wrzesinski, C. (2009). Dislodgeable Residue Study of SCH 783460 from Spot-On Treated
Beagle Dogs. Lab Project Number: N09-039-01. Unpublished study prepared by Intervet Inc.
EPA MRID 47834502.

Wrzesinski, C. (2010). One-Month Dislodgeable Residue Study of SCH 783460 from Spot-On
Treated Cats. Lab Project Number: N09-110-01. Unpublished study prepared by Intervet Inc.
EPA MRID 48010801.

Wrzesinski, C. (2010). One-Month Dislodgeable Residue Study of Indoxacarb and Permethrin
from Spot-On Treated Beagle Dogs. Lab Project Number: N09-064-01. Unpublished study
prepared by Intervet Inc. EPA MRID 48135326.

Wong, et al (2000). Adult proxy responses to a survey of children's dermal soil contact
activities. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:509-517.

Xue, J., Zartarian, V., Moya, J., Freeman, N., Beamer, P., Black, K., Tulve, N., Shalat, S.
(2007), A Meta-Analysis of Children's Hand-to-Mouth Frequency Data for Estimating
Nondietary Ingestion Exposure. Risk Analysis, 27(2):411-420.

Xue, J; Zartarian, V; Tulve, N; Moya, J; Freeman, N; AuYeung, W; Beamer, P. (2010). A Meta-
Analysis of Children's Object-to-Mouth Frequency Data for Estimating Non-Dietary Ingestion
Exposure. 20: 536-545.

Zartarian V.G., J. Xue, H. A. Ozkaynak, W. Dang, G. Glen, L. Smith, and C. Stallings. (2005). A
Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Children Who Contact CCA-treated Playsets and Decks
Using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for the Wood Preservative
Scenario (SHEDS-WOOD). Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
DC, EPA/600/X-05/009.

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Appendix A

Appendix A Health Effects Division Residential Standard Operating

Procedures "Index Lifestage" White Paper

Introduction

In the beginning phase of an exposure and risk assessment, exposure assessors must first identify
the relevant lifestages for each exposure scenario (i.e., adults, children 1 < 2 years old, children 3
< 6 years old, etc.). In most cases, there are multiple lifestages that could be potentially exposed
within a particular exposure scenario. To simplify the exposure and risk assessment process, an
exposure assessor generally focuses the exposure assessment towards the lifestage (or lifestages)
of highest concern due to unique behavioral characteristics that may lead to higher levels of
exposure. This process is referred to as "selecting an index lifestage". The index lifestage
approach utilizes quantitative assessments of the index lifestage to protect for the exposures and
risks for all potentially exposed lifestages. This approach simplifies and streamlines the
assessment process and allows risk managers to focus on the area(s) of highest concern.

Children engage in behaviors and consumption that can increase their risk of pesticide exposures
compared to adults. In the 1997 version of the Health Effects Division's (HED's) Residential
Standard Operating Procedures (ResSOPs), the children 3 < 6 years old lifestage was used to
represent children's exposure to pesticides in residential environments. At the time, the Agency
believed that this lifestage was the appropriate index lifestage for children based mainly on
behavioral aspects (e.g., mobility, mouthing characteristics). In the 2011 revised version of
HED's ResSOPs, different index lifestage were selected for each individual SOP based on
behavioral aspects (e.g., mobility, mouthing characteristics) as well as the types and quality of
data used in the individual SOPs.

In October 2009, the Agency presented the revised ResSOPs to the Federal Insecticide Fungicide
and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Science Advisory Panel (SAP). The FIFRA SAP provided a
number of comments on the revised ResSOPs specifically related to the issue of the selection of
index lifestages for children. The SAP agreed with the Agency's use of the index lifestage
approach but recommended that additional explanation be included in the ResSOPs regarding the
selection of the specific index lifestage for the individual SOPs.

Based on the FIFRA SAP's comments, the Agency decided to further analyze the index lifestage
issue. The Agency analyzed this issue using both quantitative exposure assessments as well as
qualitative considerations. Quantitative exposure assessments were performed for a variety of
younger lifestages as defined in the Agency's Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring
and Assessing Childhood Exposures for Environmental Contaminants1 . This analysis was
performed for each individual SOP and it includes the following lifestages: 6 < 12 months, 1 < 2
years, 2 < 3 years, and 3 < 6 years. While children younger than 6 months may potentially have
exposure in the residential setting, it is believed that exposure for children older than 6 months
will be equivalent, if not greater, due to behavioral and anatomical/physiological development;
therefore, the focus of the quantitative assessment was on children older than 6 months.

21 http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/guidance-on-selecting-age-groups.htm

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Appendix A

Where appropriate, dermal, inhalation, and non-dietary exposures (e.g., hand-to-mouth, object-
to-mouth) were considered for all individual SOPs. The results of this analysis can be found in
Attachment 1, Table AA-1 to Table AA-14 which can be found at the end of this document.
Selection of an index lifestage for an individual SOP cannot solely be based on this quantitative
analysis. The selection requires a holistic examination and discussion of the underlying data
utilized in these assessments, which is critical to this selection. Further discussion of the issues
to consider in the selection of an index lifestage is included below.

Exposure Data Considerations

• Exposure data based on monitoring of children are not typically available. The exposure
data used in all of the individual SOPs were developed via monitoring of adults and not
children. In order to use this data to more accurately represent children, the data were
adjusted to take into account the differences in body surface area between adults and
children. It is unclear how exposure studies performed with children would compare to
the available adjusted adult exposure data. However, the Agency does believe factors
such as force of contact (adults vs. children) and scripted vs. unscripted play could impact
the study results. Table A-l below presents the adjustment factors utilized in the
ResSOPs.

Tsihie A-l: Surface Area Atljiislmeiil l-'sidors

l.ifes(;iปe

Surface Area (in")

|Mcซiii: Combined Mules ;iiul l em;iles'|

Adjustment l";ic(ปr

6 < 12 months

0.45

0.23

1 < 2 years

0.53

0.27

2 < 3 years

0.61

0.31

3 < 6 years

0.76

0.39

6 < 11 years

1.08

0.55

11 < 16 years

1.59

0.82

1	U.S. EPA, 2011; Table 7-9

2	Derived as ratio of adult surface area (1.95 m2; average of male and female means) to combined male and
female mean surface area for specified lifestage (e.g., 0.76 m2 1.95 m2 = 0.39)

• In some cases, the dermal exposure studies represent activities that younger lifestages do
not perform or are unable to perform. In addition, the dermal exposure studies may
represent activities that involve a more vigorous or consistent contact with treated
surfaces than would be expected for young children. For example, the outdoor Turf SOP
is based on exposure data representing a combined routine of various outdoor turf
activities (some of which are relevant to the younger lifestages and some of which are
not). These exposure data can be considered a reasonable representation of younger
lifestage behaviors; however, it does not represent an exact match. One example of this
issue can be seen if the activities in the turf exposure study are examined. Many of these
activities (e.g., playing Frisbee, playing football) are unlikely to be performed by younger
lifestages, such as the 6 < 12 month old, the 1 < 2 year old, and the 2 < 3 year old
lifestages. These activities are also performed with older individuals and represent a
higher intensity contact with the treated surfaces (e.g., an adult being tackled on the lawn
versus a child crawling on the lawn). In another example, interaction with treated pets is
based on exposure monitoring of professional pet grooming activities. Groomers in the
study exhibited a more consistent and vigorous contact with the treated dogs than is

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Appendix A

expected from a child's casual contact with a pet. These exposure data may not be a
good representation of younger lifestage behaviors related to pets; however, the data have
been used in the Pet SOP as a surrogate for a child's contact with a treated pet in lieu of a
more representative pet exposure study. In general, using these exposure studies to
represent younger lifestages who wouldn't be performing those activities is not expected
to underestimate exposure for younger lifestages.

•	For some scenarios, assessment of some of the younger lifestages is not appropriate
because it is not expected that these lifestages will engage in the activities represented in
the scenario. For example, in the Outdoor Fogger SOP, the 6 < 12 month old, the 1 < 2
year old, and the 2 < 3 year old lifestages are not expected to spend any significant length
of time in horse or animal barns. As a result, these lifestages are not assessed for this
exposure scenario.

•	When selecting an index lifestage, developmental milestones for different lifestages need
to be considered. Table A-2 below clearly shows that from 6 months to 2 years, floor
mobility increases, which increases the likelihood of contacting different surfaces.

Among the younger lifestages, the 1 < 2 year old lifestage is likely the youngest lifestage
that is highly mobile and can potentially cover a large area indoors and outdoors.

Tabic A-2: Developmental Milestones Relevant to Oral and Dermal Exposure

Lifestage

Milestones

Birth < 3 months

Breast and bottle feeding. Hand-to-mouth activities.

3 < 6 months

Solid food may be introduced. Contact with surfaces increases. Object/hand-to-
mouth activities increase.

6 < 12 months

Food consumption expands. Children's floor mobility increases (surface
contact). Children are increasingly likely to mouth nonfood items.

12 < 24 months

Children consume full range of foods. They participate in increased play
activities, are extremely curious, and exercise poor judgment. Breast and bottle
feeding cease.

2 < 6 years

Children begin wearing adult-style clothing. Hand-to-mouth activities begin to
moderate.

6 < 11 years

There is decreased oral contact with hands and objects as well as decreased
dermal contact with surfaces.

• Developmental milestones, in particular floor mobility, are important because the
underlying assumption used in the dermal and incidental oral scenario equations is that
children are continuously contacting areas of with fresh (i.e., untouched) residue. The
SOPs do not take into account the fact that touching the same treated area over and over
again results in less total residue being transferred than if each touch is to a previously
uncontacted treated area. The Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF) has
performed multiple studies examining the impacts on the amount of residue transferred to
the hand resulting from these two very different surface contact patterns (i.e., contacting
the same piece of flooring for every hand-to-surface contact versus contacting a new
piece of flooring for each hand-to-surface contact). For example, a study performed with
permethrin showed that approximately 17% of the deposited residue was transferred to
the hand after four hand-to-surface contacts were made, with each contact occurring on a
new piece of treated flooring (i.e., fresh residue for every contact). In contrast,

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Appendix A

approximately 6% of the total deposited residue was transferred to the hand after four
hand-to-surface contacts were made, with each contact occurring on the same piece of
treated flooring. The NDETF data clearly show that, all other things being equal (e.g.,
exposure time, hand-to-mouth frequency, etc), repeated exposure to the same treated
surface will result in a lower overall exposure than repeated exposure to uncontacted
treated surfaces. Based on this data, assuming repeated contact with areas of fresh
residue is not expected to underestimate exposure.

Activity Data Considerations

•	The data available describing exposure time for young children in various environments
do not typically distinguish between the specific younger lifestages. The data are
typically presented for all children or subsets of children (e.g., 3-12 years old or 1-4 and
5-11 years old). As a result, the exposure times used as an input in the individual SOPs
are identical across many lifestages. This is likely a health protective use of these data as
it is unlikely the exposure time to treated turf or a treated pet would be the same for the 6
< 12 month old lifestage vs. the 1 < 2 year old lifestage vs. the 2 < 3 year old lifestage.

•	Frequency of hand-to-mouth events is an important variable for hand-to-mouth post-
application exposure assessments. Data on the frequency of hand-to-mouth events are
limited and difficult to collect. The meta-analysis presented in Xue et al. (2007)
examined hand-to-mouth frequency data from 9 studies representing 429 subjects and
more than 2,000 hours of behavior observation. This meta-analysis shows that mouthing
activity across the younger lifestages is very similar (see Table A-3); particularly for the 6
<12 months and 1 < 2 years old lifestages.

Tabic A-3: Hand-to-Mouth Activitv Data Summarv

Scenario

Lifestage

Mean HTM events

95th percentile HTM
events

Indoor

6< 12 months (N=l 19)

18.9

52

1 < 2 year old (N=245)

19.6

63

2 < 3 year old (N=160)

12.8

37.5

3 < 6 year old (N=160)

14.3

56.5

Outdoor

6 < 12 months (N=10)

14.5

46.7

1 <2yearold(N=32)

13.9

42.2

2 < 3 year old (N=46)

5.3

20

3 < 6 year old (N=55)

8.5

36

It is believed that a majority of the hand-to-mouth activity observed in the studies
included in the Xue, et al. 2007 meta-analysis occurred during eating intervals. Some
research supporting this belief has already been performed (AuYeung et. al, Poster
presented at 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Analysis;
2005) but more work needs to be done. Thus, the use of these hand-to-mouth activity
data is unlikely to underestimate exposure because hand contact with treated surfaces
(and thus transfer of residues) is likely limited during the time a child is eating.

In addition, it should be noted that hand-to-mouth events in these studies are defined as
when a child's hand touches anywhere near the mouth (i.e., each event did not
necessarily result in the hand entering the mouth). For example, if a child brought their

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Appendix A

hand up to their mouth and only touched the outside of the mouth, this was counted as a
hand-to-mouth event. In the ResSOPs, all hand-to-mouth events are assumed to be
mouthing events, where part of the hand is mouthed and residues are transferred via
saliva extraction. Using the data in this manner is not expected to underestimate
exposure.

It should also be acknowledged that the SOPs assume even spacing of the hand-to-mouth
events across replenishment intervals; however, in actuality, the hand-to-mouth events
observed in the studies are not evenly spaced out over the observation period. The
assumption of evenly spaced hand-to-mouth events is also unlikely to underestimate
exposure as it assumes a certain amount of hand-to-mouth events occur during each
replenishment interval, resulting in greater total exposure than if all the hand-to-mouth
events occurred after a single replenishment of residues.

• Frequency of object-to-mouth events is an important variable for object-to-mouth post-
application exposure assessments. Data on the frequency of object-to-mouth events are
limited and difficult to collect. The meta-analysis presented in Xue et al. (2009)
examined object-to-mouth frequency data from 7 studies representing 438 subjects and
-1500 hours of behavior observation. The object-to-mouth activity data available from
the Xue, et al. 2009 meta-analysis show that mouthing activity across the younger
lifestages is very similar (see Table A-4). It is acknowledged that object mouthing does
occur for children younger than 6 months of age; however, data are not available for
these younger lifestages.

Tabic A-4: Object-to-Mouth Activitv Data Summarv

Scenario

Lifestajjc

Mean OTIM events

95th percentile OTIM
events

Indoor

6 < 12 months (N=82)

20.3

37.9

1 <2yearold(N=137)

14.2

34.0

2 < 3 year old (N=94)

10.0

24.4

3 < 6 year old (N=158)

10.2

40.0

Outdoor

6 < 12 months

No data available.

1 <2yearold(N=21)

8.8

21.3

2<3 year old (N=29)

8.1

40.0

3 < 6 year old (N=53)

8.3

30.3

Similar to the hand-to-mouth scenario, the SOPs assume even spacing of the object-to-
mouth events across replenishment intervals; however, in actuality, the object-to-mouth
events observed in the studies are not evenly spaced out over the observation period. The
assumption of evenly spaced object-to-mouth events is unlikely to underestimate
exposure as it assumes a certain amount of obj ect-to-mouth events occur during each
replenishment interval, resulting in greater total exposure than if all the object-to-mouth
events occurred after a single replenishment of residues.

Also similar to the hand-to-mouth scenario, it should be noted that object-to-mouth
events in these studies are defined as whenever an object touched anywhere near the
mouth (i.e., each event did not necessarily result in the object entering the mouth). For
example, if a child brought an object up to their mouth and only touched the outside of

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Appendix A

the mouth, this was counted as a object-to-mouth event. In the ResSOPs, all object-to-
mouth events are assumed to be mouthing events where part of the object is mouthed and
residues are transferred via saliva extraction. Using the data in this manner is not
expected to underestimate exposure.

• Body weights outlined in the EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S.
EPA, 2011) show that mean male/female combined body weights for the younger
lifestages are similar (see Table A-5).

Tabic A-5: Bodv Weight Summarv

Lifestage

Mean Body Weight (kg)

95th percentile Body
Weight (kg)

6 < 12 months

9.2

11.3

1 < 2 year old

11.4

14.0

2 < 3 year old

13.8

17.1

3 < 6 year old

18.6

26.2

• Inhalation rates outlined in the EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (U.S.
EPA, 2011) show that rates for the younger lifestages are very similar (see Table A-6).

Table A-6: Inhalation Rate Summarv

Lifestage

Mean Inhalation Rate

(m3/hr)

95th percentile Inhalation
Rate (m3/hr)

6 < 12 months

0.23

0.33

1 < 2 year old

0.33

0.53

2 < 3 year old

0.37

0.57

3 < 6 year old

0.42

0.58

Aggregate Exposure Considerations

As a result of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), exposures from food, drinking water and
residential uses of a single pesticide are combined when completing an aggregate exposure
assessment. For pesticides with residential uses, residential exposures to children are an
important part of the Agency's consideration of aggregate exposure. As described above, in the
past the Agency has focused on assessing the 3 < 6 year old lifestage for residential exposures.
These residential assessments were then combined with the most sensitive lifestage from the
dietary assessment (food + water). For example, an aggregate assessment might combine dietary
exposure for infants less than 1 year old with the residential exposure for the 3< 6 year old
lifestage. As the Agency has analyzed the index lifestage issue for the ResSOPs, it was
determined that aggregating dietary and residential exposures from the same lifestage is most
appropriate. Aggregating exposures from the same lifestage will result in aggregate assessments
more reflective of real world exposures.

Selection of an Index Lifestage

As described above, there are a number of factors to consider in the selection of an index
lifestage for the ResSOPs. The Agency's quantitative analysis (see Table AA-1 to Table AA-14
in Attachment 1) showed that, for the most part, either the 6 < 12 month old lifestage or the 1 < 2
year old lifestage results in the highest quantitative estimate of exposure/dose for the younger
lifestages. However, as noted above, this quantitative analysis cannot be considered alone, as

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Appendix A

there are also a number of qualitative factors that impact the selection of an index lifestage for
the ResSOPs. Based on the combined quantitative and qualitative analysis of the index lifestage
issue, the Agency has determined that the 1 < 2 year old lifestage represents the most appropriate
index lifestage for children for most of the exposure scenarios. There are some exceptions to this
selection within the ResSOPs. For example, as mentioned above, in some of the individual
SOPs, selecting some of the younger lifestages (e.g., the 6 <12 month old lifestage in horse or
animal barns) is inappropriate because children in that age range are not expected to engage in
the activities represented in the scenario.

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Appendix B

Attachment 1: Quantitative Sensitivity Analysis

Turf SOP

I'iihk* AA-I: Turf l)crm;il Index l.iloslii^c \n;il>sis

TTR Calculations when Chemical Specific TTR Data are Not Available



Application Rate
(lb ai/acre)

F a

Fd

t

Weight unit
conversion
factor

Area unit
conversion
factor

TTRt (ug/cm2)

Liquid Product

0.87

0.01

0.1

0

450000000

0.0000000247

0.097

Granular Product

0.67

0.002

0.1

0

450000000

0.0000000247

0.015

Dermal Exposure for High Contact Lawn Activities

Exposure Scenario

Lifestage

TTRt (ug/cm2)

Weight unit
conversion
factor

Transfer
Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Hours of
Exposure (hr)

Exposure
(mg/day)

Average Daily

Dose
(mg/kg/day)

High Contact Lawn Activities (Liquids)

Adult

0.097

0.001

180,000

1.5

26.11

0.33

11 <16 years

0.097

0.001

150,000

1.5

21.76

0.38

6 <11 years

0.097

0.001

99,000

1.5

14.36

0.45

3 <6 years

0.097

0.001

70,000

1.5

10.15

0.55

2 <3 years

0.097

0.001

56,000

1.5

8.12

0.59

1 <2 years

0.097

0.001

49,000

1.5

7.11

0.62

6 <12 months

0.097

0.001

41,000

1.5

5.95

0.65

High Contact Lawn Activities (Granulars)

Adult

0.015

0.001

200,000

1.5

4.47

0.06

11 <16 years

0.015

0.001

160,000

1.5

3.57

0.06

6 <11 years

0.015

0.001

110,000

1.5

2.46

0.08

3 <6 years

0.015

0.001

78,000

1.5

1.74

0.09

2 <3 years

0.015

0.001

62,000

1.5

1.39

0.10

1 <2 years

0.015

0.001

54,000

1.5

1.21

0.11

6 <12 months

0.015

0.001

46,000

1.5

1.03

0.11

a. The screening level value was selected for the F value in this example. This value would be refined if chemical specific turf transferable residue data
are available.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-l


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Appendix B







liihlo \.\-2:

I'llrl' ll;iii(l-lo-Moiilh l.ifcshiiii' An;il\sis









Hand Residue Calculations

Exposure Scenario

Lifestage

Fclihands

Children Dermal
Exposure

SAh (cm2)

HRt

(mg/cm2)













3 <6 years

0.06

10.154

225

0.0014











Hand Residue

2 <3 years

0.06

8.123

160

0.0015











Liquid Product

1 <2 years

0.06

7.107

150

0.0014













6 <12 months

0.06

5.947

120

0.0015













3 <6 years

0.027

1.743

225

0.00010











Hand Residue

2 <3 years

0.027

1.385

160

0.00012











Granular Product

1 <2 years

0.027

1.206

150

0.00011













6 <12 months

0.027

1.028

120

0.00012











Hand-to-Mouth Exposure for Lawn Activities





HRt

Fm





N Replen

SE

Freq_HtM





Exposure Scenario

Lifestage

Hand
Residue
(mg/cm2)

Fraction of Hand

Surface Area
Mouthed / Event

SAh (cm2)

Exposure

Time
(hours/day)

Number of
replenishment
intervals per hr
(intervals/hr)

Extraction
by Saliva

H-t-M events
per hour

Exposure
(mg/day)

Average
Daily Dose
(mg/kg/day)



3 <6 years

0.00135

0.127

225

1.5

4

0.5

8.5

0.18

0.0096

HtM Exposure

2 <3 years

0.00152

0.127

160

1.5

4

0.5

5.3

0.11

0.0081

Liquid Product

1 <2 years

0.00142

0.127

150

1.5

4

0.5

13.9

0.15

0.013



6 <12 months

0.00149

0.127

120

1.5

4

0.5

14.5

0.12

0.014



3 <6 years

0.00010

0.127

150

1.5

4

0.5

8.5

0.0092

0.0005

HtM Exposure

2 <3 years

0.00012

0.127

150

1.5

4

0.5

5.3

0.0080

0.0006

Granular Product

1 <2 years

0.00011

0.127

150

1.5

4

0.5

13.9

0.011

0.0010



6 <12 months

0.00012

0.127

150

1.5

4

0.5

14.5

0.012

0.0013

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-2


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Appendix B

I'iihlo AA-3: Turf Ohjccl-lo-Mouih l.il'esl.iiic \n;il>sis

Object Residue Calculations

Exposure
Scenario

Application Rate
(lb ai/acre)

F0

Weight unit
conversion factor

Area unit
conversion factor

ORt (ug/cm2)



Object Residue
Liquid Product

0.87

0.0

450000000

0.0000000247

0.097

Object Residue
Granular Product

0.67

0.0

450000000

0.0000000247

0.074

Object-to-Mouth Exposure for Lawn Activities

Exposure Scenario

Lifestage

ORt

Weight
unit
conversion
factor

SAM0

Exposure

Time
(hours/day)

NReplen

SE

Freq_OtM



Average
Daily Dose
(mg/kg/day
)

Object
Residue
(mg/cm2
)

Object
Surface Area
Mouthed /

Event
(cm2/event)

Number of
replenishment
intervals per
hr

(intervals/hr)

Extraction
by Saliva

O-t-M

events per
hour

Exposure
(mg/day)

OtM Exposure Liquid Product

3 <6 years

0.097

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.3

0.0044

0.00024

2 <3 years

0.097

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.1

0.0044

0.00032

1 <2 years

0.097

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.8

0.0045

0.00040

6 <12
months

Data on outdoor object-to-mouth event per hour are not available for this lifestage.

OtM Exposure Granular Product

3 <6 years

0.074

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.8

0.0035

0.00019

2 <3 years

0.074

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.8

0.0035

0.00025

1 <2 years

0.074

0.001

10

1.5

4

0.5

8.8

0.0035

0.00031

6 <12
months

Data on outdoor object-to-mouth event per hour are not available for this lifestage.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-3


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Appendix B

Indoor SOP

Tiihlc AA-4: Indoor Dcrniiil An;il\sis

Indoor Surface Residue Calculations when Chemical Specific Data are Not Available

Type of
Application

Application
Rate (lb
ai/acre)

Conversion
Factor (ug/lb)

Conversion
Factor (ft2 to
cm2)

Percent of
application rate
deposited

Deposited
residue
(ug/cm2)



Broadcast

0.0001

4.5E+08

1.08E-03

100%

49.03

Dermal Exposure for Indoor Activities

Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

Deposited
Residue
(ug/cm2)

Conversion
Factor (mg/ug)

Fraction
transferred

Transfer
Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Hours of
Exposure
(hr)

Exposure
(mg/day)

Body
Weight
(kg)

Average Daily

Dose
(mg/kg/day)

Carpet

Adult

49.03

0.001

0.06

6,800

8

160.0

79.5

2.0

11 <16 years

49.03

0.001

0.06

5,500

5

80.9

56.8

1.4

6 <11 years

49.03

0.001

0.06

3,800

5

55.9

31.8

1.8

3 <6 years

49.03

0.001

0.06

2,700

5

39.7

18.6

2.1

2 <3 years

49.03

0.001

0.06

2,200

4

25.9

13.8

1.9

1 <2 years

49.03

0.001

0.06

1,800

4

21.2

11.4

1.9

6 <12 months

49.03

0.001

0.06

1,600

5

23.5

9.2

2.6

Hard
surfaces

Adult

49.03

0.001

0.08

6,800

2

53.3

79.5

0.7

11 <16 years

49.03

0.001

0.08

5,500

1

21.6

56.8

0.4

6 <11 years

49.03

0.001

0.08

3,800

2

29.8

31.8

0.9

3 <6 years

49.03

0.001

0.08

2,700

2

21.2

18.6

1.1

2 <3 years

49.03

0.001

0.08

2,200

2

17.3

13.8

1.3

1 <2 years

49.03

0.001

0.08

1,800

2

14.1

11.4

1.2

6 <12 months

49.03

0.001

0.08

1,600

2

12.6

9.2

1.4

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-4


-------
Appendix B

Tiihlc \.\-5: Indoor 111 h;ihi 1 ion (Aerosols) l.ilcslsigi* .\n;il\sis

Lifestage

Application rate
(lb ai/m3)

CF
(mg/lb)

Co (mg/m3)

IR (m3/hr)

ACH
(1/hr)

ET(hr)

Exposure
(mg/day)

Body
Weight (kg)

Inhalation Dose
(mg/kg/day)

Adult

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.64

0.45

2

60.41

79.5

0.8

11 <16 years

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.63

0.45

2

59.47

56.8

1.0

6 <11 years

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.5

0.45

2

47.20

31.8

1.5

3 <6 years

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.42

0.45

2

39.65

18.6

2.1

2 <3 years

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.37

0.45

2

34.93

13.8

2.5

1 <2 years

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.33

0.45

2

31.15

11.4

2.7

6 <12 months

0.000158

4.54E+05

71.58

0.23

0.45

2

21.71

9.2

2.4

Tiihk* AA-(ป: Indoor lnh;il;iiion (Yiipors) l.ileslsigi* An;il\sis

Lifestage

Inhalation
Rate (m3/hr)

Mass of active
ingredient
applied
(mg)

Hours of
Exposure
(hr)

k (first
order decay
rate)

Air
exchange
rate
(1/hr)

Volume of room (m3)

Exposure
(mg/day)

Body
Weight
(kg)

Inhalation

Dose
(mg/kg/day)

Adult

0.64

454

16

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.006

79.5

0.00007

11 <16 years

0.63

454

15

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.005

56.8

0.00009

6 <11 years

0.5

454

15

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.004

31.8

0.00012

3 <6 years

0.42

454

16

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.004

18.6

0.00020

2 <3 years

0.37

454

16

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.003

13.8

0.00024

1 <2 years

0.33

454

18

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.003

11.4

0.00029

6 <12 months

0.23

454

18

2.08E-05

0.45

33

0.002

9.2

0.00025

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-5


-------
Appendix B

T;ihk- AA-"7: Indoor ll;iii(l-lo-Moiilh l.ilcsl.iuc An;il\sis

Hand Residue Calculations

Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

Fai|l(m,is

Children
Dermal
Exposure

SAh (cm2)
Surface area
of one hand

HRt (mg/cm2)



Carpets

3 <6 years

0.15

39.7

225

0.0132

2 <3 years

0.15

25.9

160

0.0121

1 <2 years

0.15

21.2

150

0.0106

6 <12 months

0.15

23.5

120

0.0147

Hard surfaces

3 <6 years

0.15

21.2

225

0.0071

2 <3 years

0.15

17.3

160

0.0081

1 <2 years

0.15

14.1

150

0.0071

6 <12 months

0.15

12.6

120

0.0078

Hand-to-Mouth E?q

posure for Indoor Activities

Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

HRt

(mg/c
m2)

Fm

SAh (cm2)

Exposure

Time
(hours/da

y)

NReplen

SE

Freq_Ht
M

Exposur
e

(mg/day
)

Body
Weig
ht
(kg)

Average
Daily
Dose
(mg/kg/da

y)

Fraction of
Hand
Surface
Area
Mouthed /
Event

Surface area of
one hand

Number of
replenishme
nt intervals

perhr
(intervals/hr)

Extracti
on by
Saliva

H-t-M

events
per hour

Carpets

3 <6 years

0.0132

0.13

225

5

4

0.5

14

7.1

18.6

0.38

2 <3 years

0.0121

0.13

160

4

4

0.5

13

3.6

13.8

0.26

1 <2 years

0.0106

0.13

150

4

4

0.5

20

3.2

11.4

0.28

6 <12
months

0.0147

0.13

120

5

4

0.5

19

4.4

9.2

0.48

Hard surfaces

3 <6 years

0.0071

0.13

225

2

4

0.5

14

1.5

18.6

0.08

2 <3 years

0.0081

0.13

160

2

4

0.5

13

1.2

13.8

0.09

1 <2 years

0.0071

0.13

150

2

4

0.5

20

1.1

11.4

0.09

6 <12
months

0.0078

0.13

120

2

4

0.5

19

0.9

9.2

0.10

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-6


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Appendix B

I'iihlo AA-X: Indoor ObjccMo-Moudi l.ilVshiiii' An;il\sis

Object Residue Calculations

Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

Application
Rate (lb
ai/acre)

F0 (fraction
transferred to
object)

Conversion Factor
(ug/lb)

Conversion Factor
(ft2 to cm2)

Conversion
Factor (mg/ug)

Object
residue
loading
(mg/cm2)





3 <6 years























0.003



Carpet

2 <3 years





0.06

















0.003



1 <2 years





















0.003





6 <12 months

0.0001







4.50E+08



1.08E-03





0.001

0.003





3 <6 years













0.004



Hard

2 <3 years





0.08

















0.004



surface

1 <2 years





















0.004





6 <12 months























0.004



Object-to-Mouth Exposure for Indoor Activities









SAM





NReplen

SE

Freq_OtM







Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage



Object
residue
loading
(mg/cm2)

Surface Area
of Object
Mouthed /

Event
(cm2/event)

Exposure

Time
(hours/day)

Number of
replenishment
intervals per hr
(intervals/hr)

Extraction
by Saliva

O-t-M

events per
hour

Exposure
(mg/day)

Body
Weight
(kg)

Average
Daily Dose
(mg/kg/day)



3 <6 years

0.003





5

4

0.5

10

0.48

18.6

0.03

Carpet

2 <3 years

0.003





4

4

0.5

10

0.38

13.8

0.03

1 <2 years

0.003





4

4

0.5

14

0.43

11.4

0.04



6 <12 months

0.003



10

5

4

0.5

20

0.56

9.2

0.06



3 <6 years

0.004



2

4

0.5

10

0.26

18.6

0.01

Hard

2 <3 years

0.004





2

4

0.5

10

0.26

13.8

0.02

surface

1 <2 years

0.004





2

4

0.5

14

0.28

11.4

0.02



6 <12 months

0.004





2

4

0.5

20

0.30

9.2

0.03

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-7


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Appendix B

Pet SOP

Tsihlc AA-'J: Pel l)oi in;il lilVshiiicAniilvsis

Dermal Exposure for High Contact Pet Activities

Exposure Scenario

Lifestage

Application
Rate (mg)

Surface area
of pet (cm2)

Far3

Transfer
Coefficient
(cm2/hr)

Hours of
Exposure
(hr)

Exposure
(mg/day)

Body
Weight (kg)

Average Daily

Dose
(mg/kg/day)

Pet Post-application
(Liquids) Medium Dog

Adult

300

7000

0.02

5,200

0.77

3.432

79.5

0.0432

3 <6 years

300

7000

0.02

2,000

1.0

1.714

18.6

0.092

2 <3 years

300

7000

0.02

1,600

1.0

1.372

13.8

0.0994

1 <2 years

300

7000

0.02

1,400

1.0

1.2

11.4

0.1052

6 <12 months

300

7000

0.02

1,200

1.0

1.028

9.2

0.1118

Pet Post-application
(Solids) Medium Dogs

Adult

300

7000

0.02

140,000

0.77

92.4

79.5

1.162

3 <6 years

300

7000

0.02

55,000

1.0

47.14

18.6

2.534

2 <3 years

300

7000

0.02

43,000

1.0

36.86

13.8

2.67

1 <2 years

300

7000

0.02

38,000

1.0

32.572

11.4

2.858

6 <12 months

300

7000

0.02

32,000

1.0

27.428

9.2

2.982

b. The screening level value was selected for the FAR value in this example. This value would be refined if chemical specific pet residue data are
available.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-8


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Appendix B

Tsihk' AA-IO: Pol Ihiml-lo-Moiiih l.ifcslsigi' Ansihsis

Hand Residue Calculations

Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

Fai|l(m,is

Children
Dermal
Exposure

SAh (cm2)

HRt (mg/cm2)











Hand Residue

3 <6 years

0.04

1.714

225

0.000152











Liquid

2 <3 years

0.04

1.372

160

0.000172











Product

1 <2 years

0.04

1.2

150

0.00016











Medium Dog

6 <12 months

0.04

1.028

120

0.000171











Hand Residue
Solid Product
Medium Dog

3 <6 years

0.37

47.14

225

0.03876











2 <3 years

0.37

36.86

160

0.042619











1 <2 years

0.37

32.572

150

0.04017











6 <12 months

0.37

27.428

120

0.04229











Hand-to-Mouth Exposure for Pet Activities





HRt

Fm









N Replen

SE

Freq_HtM





Exposure
Scenario

Lifestage

Hand
Residue
(mg/cm2)

Fraction of
Hand
Surface
Area
Mouthed /
Event



SAh (cm2)



Exposure

Time
(hours/day)

Number of
replenishment
intervals per
hr

(intervals/hr)

Extraction by
Saliva

H-t-M events
per houra

Body Weight
(kg)

Average
Daily Dose
(mg/kg/day)

HtM

3 <6 years

0.000152

0.13

225

1.0

4

0.48

14

18.6

0.00086

Exposure

2 <3 years

0.000172

0.13

160

1.0

4

0.48

13

13.8

0.000911

Liquid

1 <2 years

0.00016

0.13

150

1.0

4

0.48

20

11.4

0.001053

Product
Medium Dog

6 <12 months

0.000171

0.13

120

1.0

4

0.48

19

9.2

0.00111

HtM

3 <6 years

0.03876

0.13

225

1.0

4

0.48

14

18.6

0.219

Exposure

2 <3 years

0.042619

0.13

160

1.0

4

0.48

13

13.8

0.2263

Solid Product

1 <2 years

0.04017

0.13

150

1.0

4

0.48

20

11.4

0.2644

Medium Dog

6 <12 months

0.04229

0.13

120

1.0

4

0.48

19

9.2

0.2740

a.	HTM event frequency is not available for the pet scenario specifically; therefore, data for indoor environments was used as a surrogate.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-9


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Appendix B

Outdoor Fogger SOP

Tiihk* AA-11: Aerosol C;in liih;il;ilion l.ileslsigc An;il\sis

lnli;il;ilK)ii 1 Aposurc One l<>o/.spia\ can

1 Aposurc Scenario

l.il'esiaue

\pplicaliou kale
(nil. cam

\iniihei' ill" cans

Volume <\ ) (in i

Xiillou (O)
(in lin

Ik (in lin

\\eiaue l)ail>
1 )ose ( iiiu ku das)

Inhalation -
Aerosol Can

Adult

473

1

15

5400

0.64

0.705

3 <6 years

473

1

15

5400

0.42

1.98

2 <3 years

473

1

15

5400

0.37

2.35

1 <2 years

473

1

15

5400

0.33

2.53

6 <12 months

473

1

15

5400

0.23

2.19

"I'iihlo AA-12: ( andlcs. Coils. Torches, and Mills Inhiiliilion l.il'oslaiio \nal\sis

1 nlialalkiii 1 Aposurc- l-ouro 25 iiiince slicks

lAposnie
Sceiiai'iii

l.ifesiaue

XpplicalKin
kale
mm product)

Niiinheiiif
kruducls

\ uliiiiie (\ i
mi i

1 lours of
1 Aposlll'C
din

\iillow (O)
(ill lin

I selnl Life

(Ill's)

\cs (111 )

Ik (111 III)

A\ eraue
l)ail> Dose
(mu ku das i

Inhalation -
Candles, Coils,
Torches and
Mats

Adult

7087

4

51

2.3

3960

4

11

0.64

0.032

3 <6 years

7087

4

51

2.5

3960

4

11

0.42

0.099

2 <3 years

7087

4

51

2.3

3960

4

11

0.37

0.106

1 <2 years

7087

4

51

2.3

3960

4

11

0.33

0.115

6 <12
months

7087

4

51

2.3

3960

4

11

0.23

0.079

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-10


-------
Appendix B

Tiihlc AA-13: Rosiden 1 i;i 1 Misting S\stems 1 nh;il;i 1 icin \n;il> sis

Inhalation lAposure- ()ue ounce spra\ no//les

1 Aposiiie
Scenario

l.il'esiaue

Application

kale
(o/ 1	IT')

hilse Rale
(spra> 111 )

Volume <\ )
(m )

1 loins of
1 Aposure (lin

\irllou 

1 )ose
( iiiiz ku das)

Inhalation -

Outdoor

Residential

Misting

System

Adult

1

1

91

2.3

5400

15

0.64

0.32

3 <6 years

1

1

91

2.5

5400

15

0.42

0.99

2 <3 years

1

1

91

2.3

5400

15

0.37

1.08

1 <2 years

1

1

91

2.3

5400

15

0.33

1.2

6 <12 months

1

1

91

2.3

5400

15

0.23

1.01

1 iihlo AA-14: Animal IS;irn Misting Svsk'ins Inhalation l.ilVslaiic\nal>sis'

Inhalation 1 Aposure- ()ne ouuee spni\ no//les

1 Aposiiie Scenario

Lilesiaue

\ppliealion kale

(O/ 1	1'l ')

Pulse kale
ispni\ lin

ACM

1 loins ii|" 1 Aposure
(lin

Ik mi lin

\\eraue l)ail>
Dose (nm ku das i

Inhalation -
Animal Barn

Adult

1

1

4

4

0.64

8.4

11<16 group

1

1

4

2

0.63

5.8

6 <11 years

1

1

4

2

0.50

8.2

3 <6 years

1

1

4

2

0.42

11.8

2 <3 years

1

1

4

2

0.37

13.9

1 <2 years

1

1

4

2

0.33

15.1

6 <12 months

1

1

4

2

0.23

13.1

a. The 6 <12 month old, the 1 < 2 year old, and the 2 < 3 year old lifestages are not expected to be present in horse or animal barns for any significant length of time. For this scenario, HED
believes that the 3 < 6 year old lifestage is the youngest lifestage viable for the exposure scenario and the younger lifestages will not be assessed. However, the other lifestages have been
included here for illustrative purposes.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

A-ll


-------
Appendix B

Appendix B Supporting Data Analysis and Documentation for Universal

Exposure Factors for Residential Exposure Assessment

B.l Generic Estimates of Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed

The generic estimates of fraction hand surface area mouthed are based on an analysis presented
in Zartarian et al. (2005). Based on this analysis, it was determined that a beta distribution (3.7,
25) best fits the observed data. Table B- 1: Fraction Hand Surface Area Mouthed Data
provides the raw data from this study.

liihlo IS- 1: l-'i'iiclion Ihinri Surl'iicc Aivsi Mouthed l);K;i

\UmiIhiiiu ( \

lTa|iieiic\

\uc of Child

(hi Id
II)

I'raclKin of
Hand

1'iimcr

partial fingers

5

1

453F01

3

1

partial fingers

1

1

453F01

5

2

partial fingers

0

1

453F01

7

3

partial fingers

1

1

453F01

9

4

partial fingers

0

1

453F01

11

5

Ml fingers

1

1

453F01

15

1

Ml fingers

0

1

453F01

29

2

Ml fingers

0

1

453F01

43

3

Ml fingers

0

1

453F01

57

4

Ml fingers

0

1

453F01

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

1

453F01

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

1

453F01

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

1

453F01

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

1

453F01

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

1

453F01

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

1

453F01

41

0

partial fingers

2

1

248M01

3

1

partial fingers

0

1

248M01

5

2

partial fingers

2

1

248M01

7

3

partial fingers

0

1

248M01

9

4

partial fingers

0

1

248M01

11

5

Ml fingers

26

1

248M01

15

1

Ml fingers

3

1

248M01

29

2

Ml fingers

0

1

248M01

43

3

Ml fingers

0

1

248M01

57

4

Ml fingers

0

1

248M01

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

1

248M01

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

1

248M01

78

2

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-l


-------
Appendix B

liihlo IS- 1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ice Ami Mouthed l);il;i

\KmiIInnu ( alcuois

l;ra|iiciic\

\ue of ( hi Id

Child
II)

lYaclioii of
Hand

I'limer

palm w/ fingers

0

1

248M01

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

1

248M01

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

1

248M01

163

5

palm w/out fingers

2

1

248M01

41

0

partial fingers

3

1

958F01

3

1

partial fingers

60

1

958F01

5

2

partial fingers

4

1

958F01

7

3

partial fingers

14

1

958F01

9

4

partial fingers

3

1

958F01

11

5

full fingers

0

1

958F01

15

1

full fingers

14

1

958F01

29

2

full fingers

0

1

958F01

43

3

full fingers

0

1

958F01

57

4

full fingers

0

1

958F01

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

1

958F01

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

1

958F01

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

1

958F01

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

1

958F01

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

1

958F01

163

5

palm w/out fingers

1

1

958F01

41

0

partial fingers

0

1

550M01

3

1

partial fingers

3

1

550M01

5

2

partial fingers

0

1

550M01

7

3

partial fingers

0

1

550M01

9

4

partial fingers

0

1

550M01

11

5

full fingers

0

1

550M01

15

1

full fingers

0

1

550M01

29

2

full fingers

0

1

550M01

43

3

full fingers

0

1

550M01

57

4

full fingers

0

1

550M01

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

1

550M01

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

1

550M01

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

1

550M01

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

1

550M01

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

1

550M01

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

1

550M01

41

0

partial fingers

0

2

420M02

3

1

partial fingers

0

2

420M02

5

2

partial fingers

0

2

420M02

7

3

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-2


-------
Appendix B

1 iihlo l$-

1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ioo A

v:i M nil (hod Diilii



Miiiithiim ( ;ik'Ui)i\



\ue of ( hi Id

Child

l iacliiin ol



1 ivqueiiL>

II)

Hand

linuei'

partial fingers

0

2

420M02

9

4

partial fingers

0

2

420M02

11

5

Ml fingers

0

2

420M02

15

1

Ml fingers

0

2

420M02

29

2

Ml fingers

0

2

420M02

43

3

Ml fingers

0

2

420M02

57

4

Ml fingers

0

2

420M02

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

2

420M02

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

2

420M02

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

2

420M02

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

2

420M02

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

2

420M02

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

2

420M02

41

0

partial fingers

2

2

638F02

3

1

partial fingers

1

2

638F02

5

2

partial fingers

0

2

638F02

7

3

partial fingers

1

2

638F02

9

4

partial fingers

0

2

638F02

11

5

Ml fingers

0

2

638F02

15

1

Ml fingers

0

2

638F02

29

2

Ml fingers

0

2

638F02

43

3

Ml fingers

0

2

638F02

57

4

Ml fingers

0

2

638F02

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

2

638F02

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

2

638F02

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

2

638F02

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

2

638F02

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

2

638F02

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

2

638F02

41

0

partial fingers

0

2

587F02

3

1

partial fingers

0

2

587F02

5

2

partial fingers

1

2

587F02

7

3

partial fingers

0

2

587F02

9

4

partial fingers

0

2

587F02

11

5

Ml fingers

6

2

587F02

15

1

Ml fingers

0

2

587F02

29

2

Ml fingers

0

2

587F02

43

3

Ml fingers

0

2

587F02

57

4

Ml fingers

0

2

587F02

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

2

587F02

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

2

587F02

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

2

587F02

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

2

587F02

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

2

587F02

163

5

palm w/out fingers

1

2

587F02

41

0

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-3


-------
Appendix B

liihlo IS- 1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ice Ami Mouthed l);il;i

\KmiIInnu ( ;ik'Ui)i \

l;ra|iiciic\

\ue of ( hi Id

Child
II)

I Vacliiiii of
Hand

I'limer

partial fingers

5

2

806M02

3

1

partial fingers

0

2

806M02

5

2

partial fingers

0

2

806M02

7

3

partial fingers

1

2

806M02

9

4

partial fingers

0

2

806M02

11

5

Ml fingers

0

2

806M02

15

1

Ml fingers

0

2

806M02

29

2

Ml fingers

0

2

806M02

43

3

Ml fingers

0

2

806M02

57

4

Ml fingers

0

2

806M02

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

2

806M02

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

2

806M02

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

2

806M02

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

2

806M02

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

2

806M02

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

2

806M02

41

0

partial fingers

1

3

165M03

3

1

partial fingers

7

3

165M03

5

2

partial fingers

1

3

165M03

7

3

partial fingers

1

3

165M03

9

4

partial fingers

0

3

165M03

11

5

Ml fingers

0

3

165M03

15

1

Ml fingers

0

3

165M03

29

2

Ml fingers

0

3

165M03

43

3

Ml fingers

0

3

165M03

57

4

Ml fingers

0

3

165M03

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

3

165M03

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

3

165M03

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

3

165M03

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

3

165M03

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

3

165M03

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

3

165M03

41

0

partial fingers

0

3

129M03

3

1

partial fingers

0

3

129M03

5

2

partial fingers

0

3

129M03

7

3

partial fingers

1

3

129M03

9

4

partial fingers

0

3

129M03

11

5

Ml fingers

0

3

129M03

15

1

Ml fingers

2

3

129M03

29

2

Ml fingers

0

3

129M03

43

3

Ml fingers

0

3

129M03

57

4

Ml fingers

1

3

129M03

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

3

129M03

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

3

129M03

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

3

129M03

106

3

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-4


-------
Appendix B

1 iihlo l$-

1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ioo A

v:i M nil (hod Diilii



Miiiithiim ( ;ik'Ui)i\



\ue of ( hi Id

Child

l iacliiin of



1 ivqueiiL>

II)

Hand

linuei'

palm w/ fingers

0

3

129M03

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

3

129M03

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

3

129M03

41

0

partial fingers

0

3

317F03

3

1

partial fingers

0

3

317F03

5

2

partial fingers

0

3

317F03

7

3

partial fingers

0

3

317F03

9

4

partial fingers

0

3

317F03

11

5

Ml fingers

0

3

317F03

15

1

Ml fingers

0

3

317F03

29

2

Ml fingers

0

3

317F03

43

3

Ml fingers

0

3

317F03

57

4

Ml fingers

0

3

317F03

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

3

317F03

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

3

317F03

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

3

317F03

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

3

317F03

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

3

317F03

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

3

317F03

41

0

partial fingers

7

4

422F04

3

1

partial fingers

3

4

422F04

5

2

partial fingers

5

4

422F04

7

3

partial fingers

1

4

422F04

9

4

partial fingers

0

4

422F04

11

5

Ml fingers

3

4

422F04

15

1

Ml fingers

0

4

422F04

29

2

Ml fingers

0

4

422F04

43

3

Ml fingers

0

4

422F04

57

4

Ml fingers

0

4

422F04

71

5

palm w/ fingers

1

4

422F04

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

4

422F04

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

4

422F04

106

3

palm w/ fingers

1

4

422F04

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

4

422F04

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

4

422F04

41

0

partial fingers

0

4

772M04

3

1

partial fingers

0

4

772M04

5

2

partial fingers

0

4

772M04

7

3

partial fingers

0

4

772M04

9

4

partial fingers

0

4

772M04

11

5

Ml fingers

0

4

772M04

15

1

Ml fingers

0

4

772M04

29

2

Ml fingers

0

4

772M04

43

3

Ml fingers

0

4

772M04

57

4

Ml fingers

0

4

772M04

71

5

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-5


-------
Appendix B

1 iihlo l$-

1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ioo A

v:i M nil (hod Diilii



Mouthiim ( 'alcuois



\ue iif ( hi Id

Child

liaclion of



1 ivqueiiL>

II)

Hand

linuei'

palm w/ fingers

0

4

772M04

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

4

772M04

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

4

772M04

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

4

772M04

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

4

772M04

163

5

palm w/out fingers

2

4

772M04

41

0

partial fingers

0

4

575F04

3

1

partial fingers

0

4

575F04

5

2

partial fingers

0

4

575F04

7

3

partial fingers

0

4

575F04

9

4

partial fingers

0

4

575F04

11

5

full fingers

0

4

575F04

15

1

full fingers

0

4

575F04

29

2

full fingers

0

4

575F04

43

3

full fingers

0

4

575F04

57

4

full fingers

0

4

575F04

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

4

575F04

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

4

575F04

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

4

575F04

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

4

575F04

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

4

575F04

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

4

575F04

41

0

partial fingers

0

5

919F05

3

1

partial fingers

1

5

919F05

5

2

partial fingers

0

5

919F05

7

3

partial fingers

0

5

919F05

9

4

partial fingers

0

5

919F05

11

5

full fingers

0

5

919F05

15

1

full fingers

1

5

919F05

29

2

full fingers

0

5

919F05

43

3

full fingers

0

5

919F05

57

4

full fingers

0

5

919F05

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

5

919F05

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

5

919F05

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

5

919F05

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

5

919F05

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

5

919F05

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

5

919F05

41

0

partial fingers

0

5

280M05

3

1

partial fingers

1

5

280M05

5

2

partial fingers

1

5

280M05

7

3

partial fingers

0

5

280M05

9

4

partial fingers

0

5

280M05

11

5

full fingers

0

5

280M05

15

1

full fingers

0

5

280M05

29

2

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-6


-------
Appendix B

liihlo IS- 1: I'riiclion Ihnul Siirl';ice Ami Mouthed l);il;i

\KmiIInnu ( ;ik'Ui)i \

l;ra|iiciic\

\ue of ( hi Id

Child
II)

I Vacliiiii of
Hand

I'limei'

Ml fingers

0

5

280M05

43

3

Ml fingers

0

5

280M05

57

4

Ml fingers

0

5

280M05

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

5

280M05

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

5

280M05

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

5

280M05

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

5

280M05

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

5

280M05

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

5

280M05

41

0

partial fingers

0

5

557F05

3

1

partial fingers

0

5

557F05

5

2

partial fingers

0

5

557F05

7

3

partial fingers

0

5

557F05

9

4

partial fingers

0

5

557F05

11

5

Ml fingers

0

5

557F05

15

1

Ml fingers

0

5

557F05

29

2

Ml fingers

0

5

557F05

43

3

Ml fingers

0

5

557F05

57

4

Ml fingers

0

5

557F05

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

5

557F05

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

5

557F05

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

5

557F05

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

5

557F05

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

5

557F05

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

5

557F05

41

0

partial fingers

1

6

257F06

3

1

partial fingers

0

6

257F06

5

2

partial fingers

0

6

257F06

7

3

partial fingers

0

6

257F06

9

4

partial fingers

0

6

257F06

11

5

Ml fingers

0

6

257F06

15

1

Ml fingers

0

6

257F06

29

2

Ml fingers

0

6

257F06

43

3

Ml fingers

0

6

257F06

57

4

Ml fingers

0

6

257F06

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

6

257F06

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

6

257F06

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

6

257F06

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

6

257F06

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

6

257F06

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

6

257F06

41

0

partial fingers

2

6

338F06

3

1

partial fingers

2

6

338F06

5

2

partial fingers

1

6

338F06

7

3

partial fingers

0

6

338F06

9

4

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-7


-------
Appendix B

liihlo IS- 1: l-nidion Ihnul Siirl';ice Ami Mouthed l);il;i

Miiiithiim ( ;ik'Ui)i\

l;ra|iiciic\

\ue ill ( In Id

Child
II)

I Vacliiiii of
Hand

I'limei'

partial fingers

0

6

338F06

11

5

Ml fingers

0

6

338F06

15

1

Ml fingers

0

6

338F06

29

2

Ml fingers

0

6

338F06

43

3

Ml fingers

0

6

338F06

57

4

Ml fingers

0

6

338F06

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

6

338F06

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

6

338F06

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

6

338F06

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

6

338F06

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

6

338F06

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

6

338F06

41

0

partial fingers

1

6

331F06

3

1

partial fingers

5

6

331F06

5

2

partial fingers

2

6

331F06

7

3

partial fingers

4

6

331F06

9

4

partial fingers

0

6

331F06

11

5

Ml fingers

2

6

331F06

15

1

Ml fingers

0

6

331F06

29

2

Ml fingers

0

6

331F06

43

3

Ml fingers

0

6

331F06

57

4

Ml fingers

0

6

331F06

71

5

palm w/ fingers

0

6

331F06

49

1

palm w/ fingers

0

6

331F06

78

2

palm w/ fingers

0

6

331F06

106

3

palm w/ fingers

0

6

331F06

134

4

palm w/ fingers

0

6

331F06

163

5

palm w/out fingers

0

6

331F06

41

0

Statistics such as standard deviations and select percentiles are presented in Table B- 2 below.

liihlc li- 2: I'riiclion Ihinri Surl';ico Aiv;i Mouthed

Sliiiisiic

I'riiclion Ihnul Surl'mr Aiv;i Mouthed

50th percentile

0.118

75th percentile

0.164

95th percentile

0.243

AM(SD)

0.127 (0.0614)

GM (GSD)

0.114(1.58)

Range

0.05-0.4

N

220

AM (SD) = arithmetic mean (standard deviation)

GM (GSD) = geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)

B.2 Generic Estimates of Object Surface Area Mouthed

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-8


-------
Appendix B

A factor used in object-to-mouth post-application assessments is the surface area of the object
that a child puts in its mouth. This value (expressed in cm ) is utilized in a number of the SOPs
in this document. Based on the area of hand mouthed by 2-5 years old as reported by Leckie et
al. (2000), and the assumption that children mouth a smaller area of an object than their hand, an
exponential distribution with a minimum of 1 cm2, a mean of 10 cm2, and a maximum of 50 cm2
was chosen. The maximum is comparable to the surface area of a ping-pong ball. Figure B-l
presents the Monte Carlo simulation based on the distribution derived from Leckie et al. (2000).

10,000 Trials

.039 1	

03
-a
o

t_

CL

.029

.020

.010

.000

Forecast: Object Surface Area Mouthed
Frequency Chart

~

0.00

256 Outliers

392

llllllllllllllllllllllllllll	I..I	

- 294

196

CD
J=)

CD

3

8.75

17.50

26.25

i

35.00

Figure B-l: Monte Carlo Simulation for Object Surface Area Mouthed (cm2) Assuming an Exponential
Distribution (Minimum= 1 cm2, Mean= 10 cm2, Maximim= 50 cm2)

B.3 Generic Estimates of Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva

The fraction of pesticide extracted by saliva is an important variable for hand-to-mouth and
object-to-mouth post-application exposure assessments. The fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva has historically been referred to as the saliva extraction factor or mouthing removal
efficiency. It is used in hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth assessments to account for removal
of pesticides from hands or objects via saliva. Data to adequately characterize the fraction of
pesticide extracted by saliva are limited and difficult to collect. However, one study, Camann et
al. (1996), is available to determine generic values for the fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva.

The Camann et al. study examined the removal efficiencies from hands with gauze moistened
with artificial and human saliva. This activity was meant to simulate removal of pesticides
resulting from placement of a hand into the mouth. Only the data collected with human saliva
are presented here. Triplicate samples were collected three times for three different pesticides
(chlorpyrifos, pyrethrin, and PBO). This resulted in a total of twenty-seven samples (nine for
each pesticide). All data were compiled and it was determined that the distribution of saliva
extraction values was best approximated by a beta distribution (a = 7.0, p = 7.6). Table B- 3
provides the raw data for the study. Following this table, Figure B-2 provides a comparison of

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-9


-------
Appendix B

the recommended beta distribution and actual observed values and Figure B-3 provides the
results of a Monte Carlo simulation using this distribution. Based on the recommended
distribution, the summary statistics presented in Table B- 4 were derived for fraction of pesticide
extracted by saliva. Note: This study focused specifically on fraction of pesticide extracted by
saliva from hands; not objects. However, there are currently no data available to address the
removal of residues from objects by saliva during mouthing events so this study is being used for
both hands and objects.

l iihlo IS-3: l-'i'iicliftn ol'Pesticide l.\(r;ick'd In S;ili\;i l);il;i



Subject

l);i>

1 l;md

\ IIKMI lit

Ti'iiiisl'ci'ivd lii
1 hind dim

AiikmiiiI
Rciirin cd h\
S;ili\;n\ W ipe
dim

S;ili\ ;ii'\ W ipe
1 Tliciencs

Chlorpyrifos

Subject A

1

RIGHT

5.58

2.01

0.360

Subject A

3

LEFT

6.63

2.13

0.321

Subject A

4

RIGHT

7.29

3.21

0.440

Subject B

2

LEFT

5.36

3.59

0.670

Subject B

3

RIGHT

6.47

3.16

0.488

Subject B

5

LEFT

4.7

2.74

0.583

Subject C

1

LEFT

7.46

3.75

0.503

Subject C

2

RIGHT

7.17

5.11

0.713

Subject C

4

LEFT

7.78

4.7

0.604

PyretMn

Subject A

1

RIGHT

24.8

10.6

0.427

Subject A

3

LEFT

26.8

10

0.373

Subject A

4

RIGHT

31.3

13.6

0.435

Subject B

2

LEFT

20.8

12.4

0.596

Subject B

3

RIGHT

26

15.5

0.596

Subject B

5

LEFT

19.4

9.6

0.495

Subject C



1

LEFT

32.2

19

0.590

Subject C



2

RIGHT

29.1

18.6

0.639

Subject C



4

LEFT

33.3

18.2

0.547

PBO

Subject A

1

RIGHT

28.1

11.9

0.423

Subject A

3

LEFT

43.1

11.1

0.258

Subject A

4

RIGHT

53.3

15.1

0.283

Subject B

2

LEFT

20.5

10.7

0.522

Subject B

3

RIGHT

40.4

8.9

0.220

Subject B

5

LEFT

19.6

10.8

0.551

Subject C

1

LEFT

51.2

22.6

0.441

Subject C

2

RIGHT

51.9

31.1

0.599

Subject C

4

LEFT

58.7

21.1

0.359

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-10


-------
Appendix B

Beta Percentiles (Alpha=7.0. Beta= 7.6)

—

- Fitted Beta Distribution

+

- Observed Data Points

Figure B-2: Comparison of the Recommended Beta Distribution (a = 7.0, p = 7.6) and the observed data

points from Camann et al. (1995).

Forecast: Fraction of Pesticide Removed BySaliva

IQOOOTrials	FrequencyChart

.026

.020

-O .013
<9

O

k_

CL

.007

.000

~

0.10

0.30

0.50



0.70

2 Outliers

264

•- 132

66

i

0.90

<"D

CD
3

Figure B-3: Monte Carlo Simulation for Fraction of Pesticide Extracted by Saliva Using a Beta Distribution

(a = 7.0, p = 7.6)

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-ll


-------
Appendix B

1 "sihie IS- 4: l-'nielion of Pesticide l.\(r;iclcd l)\ S;di\;i

SlalNic

I VaclKiii of IVsiiade lAiracled In S;ili\;i

50th percentile

0.50

75th percentile

0.57

90th percentile

0.64

95th percentile

0.68

99th percentile

0.80

Arithmetic Mean

0.48

Arithmetic Standard Deviation

0.13

Geometric Mean

0.46

Geometric Mean Standard Deviation

1.35

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

B-12


-------
Appendix C

Appendix C Supporting Data Analysis and Documentation for

Residential Handler Exposure Assessment

C.l Summary of Exposure Data Used to Generate Residential Unit
Exposures

Throughout the Residential SOPs, references are made to formulation- and application method-
specific unit exposures for use in various handler exposure assessment scenarios. The following
appendix provides summary information on the exposure studies that serve as the basis for those
unit exposures. It includes:

•	Scenario summaries organized by formulation, equipment/application methods, and
application site(s);

•	References for all available studies that could potentially be used for residential exposure
assessment (note: for confidentiality reasons, PHED studies are referenced by their PHED
code);

•	Brief study descriptions;

•	Tables outlining relevant characteristics for each study with respect to its potential use in
residential handler exposure assessments; and,

•	Study-specific data summaries, including limitations and uncertainties.

Analytical commonalities for all studies include:

•	Statistics for all exposure studies are based on fitting lognormal distributions. Given that
environmental data routinely follow a lognormal distribution and many of the exposure
studies display this trend, this is not an unreasonable assumption - including for scenarios
based on small datasets or those that may not exhibit an exact match with a lognormal
distribution with the data available;

•	Lognormal probability plots are presented, providing a visual demonstration of the
lognormal fit (or lack thereof) for the dataset. Additionally, plots that incorporate
multiple datasets included study-specific coding (different shapes) to provide visual
reference of the distribution of data points within studies and the studies within the
overall distribution.

•	Means and standard deviations are calculated using the minimum variance unbiased
estimator for lognormal distributions:

o AM = GM * exp {0.5* ((lnGSD)A2) };

o SD = AM * SQRT(exp((lnGSD)A2)-1); and

o Where: AM = arithmetic mean; GM = geometric mean; GSD = geometric
standard deviation.

•	Unit exposures are representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts; shorts,
shoes/socks, and no other protective equipment including chemical resistant gloves or
respirators;

•	Using '/2 the limit of detection or limit of quantification for non-detect samples as is
standard practice;

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-l


-------
Appendix C

•	90% protection is assumed when back-calculating gloved hand exposure to bare hand
exposure;

•	50% protection is assumed when back-calculating covered forearm and shin exposure to
bare forearm and shin exposure;

•	Corrections for field fortification recoveries as appropriate; and,

•	Using a breathing rate of 16.7 liters per minute, representing light activities (NAFTA-
CDPR, 1998), to extrapolate air samples to residential handler inhalation exposure.

Note that the exposure studies recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment
inform only the default unit exposure data for each scenario and does not mean that a study not
recommended for use cannot ever be used. Should a non-recommended study in this appendix
be deemed useful given a unique situation, the assessment should provide justification for its use
and deviation from the default data.

Tsihlc C-l: l.isl of 11 ;inซllor Smiiirins

I'nrmuhilion

r.(|iii|>iiK*iil/.\|>|>lic;ilioii

Method

Application Siio(s)

Psific
Nil in her

(franules

Push-type Spreader

outdoors (lawn, gardens)

C-4

Belly grinder

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-ll

Spoon

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-20

Cup

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-24

Hand dispersal

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-28

Dusts/Powders

Plunger duster

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests), indoors (general broadcast
treatments)

C-32

Shaker can

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests), indoors (general broadcast
treatments), pets/animals

C-36

Paints and
Stains

Airless sprayer

outdoors and indoors (general paint and stain
applications)

C-42

Brush

outdoors and indoors (general paint and stain
applications)

C-48

Mothballs

Hand placement

cabinets, sheds, closets

C-52

Liquids

(emulsifiable

concentrates,

soluble

concentrates,

etc.)

Manually-pressurized
handwand

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas), indoors (general
broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices)

C-56

Handheld Fogger

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests)

C-68

Dipping

pets/animals

C-71

Sponge

pets/animals

C-75

Hose-end sprayer

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-79

Backpack sprayer

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-91

Ready-to-use
(RTU)

Hose-end sprayer

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas)

C-107

Trigger-pump sprayer

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,

C-113

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-2


-------
Appendix C





mounds/nests, aquatic areas), indoors (plants, cracks
and crevices), pets/animals



Shampoo

pets/animals, children

C-124

Spot-on

pets/animals

C-130

Aerosol can

outdoors (gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas), indoors (general
broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices), pets/animals

C-134

Wettable
Powder (WP)

Manually-pressurized
handwand

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas), indoors (general
broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices)

C-141

Backpack sprayer

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter,
mounds/nests, aquatic areas), indoors (general
broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices)

C-148

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-3


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

Scenario Summary

I'iihlo ( -2: Scciiiii'io Description iind A\;iil;il>lc l-'\|>ซisnre Studios

Formulation

Granules

Equipment/Application
Method

Push-type Spreader (also: rotary spreader, cyclone spreader, "Scotts"
spreader)

Application Site(s)

Outdoors (lawn, gardens)

Available Exposure Studies

Klonne, D. (1999); MRID 44972201

PHED 1027

Solomon, K. R., Harris, S. A, Stephenson, G. R. (1993)

l iihlo ( -3: I nil llxnosuivs (mii/ll) ;ii) - (>r;iniilc Push-lvnc Sniv;i(k'r Annlicnlioiis

Siiilisiic

IK-rniiil

liihiiliilion

50 pei'cenule

o.oo

0.0014

75th percentile

1.0

0.0029

95th percentile

1.9

0.0089

99th percentile

2.9

0.019

99.9th percentile

4.7

0.047

AM(SD)

0.81 (0.57)

0.0026 (0.0043)

GM (GSD)

0.66(1.9)

0.0014(3.1)

Range

0.25-7.0

0.00013-0.019

N

30

45

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for push-type
spreader applications of granule pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID 44972201], This study
monitored 30 applications of a granule formulation for approximately 20 minutes to
approximately 10,000 square feet of turf in North Carolina using a rotary spreader. While other
studies were available to potentially represent homeowner exposure potential, this study was the
most reliable to represent the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear
(i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for push-
type spreader applications of granule pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID 44972201] and PHED
1027. Klonne, D. (1999) monitored 30 individuals while applying a granule formulation for
approximately 20 minutes to approximately 10,000 square feet of turf in North Carolina using a
rotary spreader. PHED 1027 monitored 15 applications of a granule formulation for
approximately 30-40 minutes to turf in North Carolina using a push cyclone spreader. Since
both available studies were accurate representations of homeowner or amatueur applicator
inhalation exposure, and were generally of the same magnitude, they were combined and
recommended for use as one dataset.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-4


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: X = Klonne, D. (1999)



.05.10 .25 .50 .75 .90 .95



X















v ___	.







	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	

.5	1.0	1.5	2.0	2.5	3.0	3.

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: X = Klonne. D. (1999); O = PHED 1027

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-5


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tahle (-4: S(ii(l\ Idenlificalion 111 IVinn;i(ion

Citation

Klonne, D. (1999). Integrated Report on Evaluation of Potential Exposure to
Homeowners and Professional Lawn Care Operators Mixing, Loading, and Applying
Granular and Liquid Pesticides to Residential Lawns. Sponsor/Submitter: Outdoor
Residential Exposure Task Force.

EPA MRID

449722201

ORETF Code

OMA003

EPA Review

D261948

EPA Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 30 individuals were monitored using passive dosimetry (inner
and outer whole body dosimeters, hand washes, face/neck wipes, and personal inhalation
monitors). Each test subject carried, loaded, and applied two 25-lb bags of a granule pesticide (a
0.89% dacthal, weed-and-feed fertilizer) with a rotary-type spreader to a lawn (a turf farm in
North Carolina) covering 10,000 ft2 (one bag to each of the two 5000 ft2 test plots). The target
application rate was approximately 2 lb ai/acre, with each individual handling approximately
0.45 lb of active ingredient. The average application time was 22 minutes, including loading the
rotary push-spreader and disposing of empty bags.

Dermal exposure was measured using inner and outer whole body dosimeters, hand washes, and
face/neck washes, such that exposure could be constructed for various clothing scenarios
(including a short-sleeve shirt and shorts). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
personal air monitoring devices set at 1.5 liters per minute. All fortified samples and field
samples collected on the same study day were stored frozen and analyzed together, eliminating
the need for storage stability determination. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of the face and neck
washes were below the level of quantification (LOQ) for dacthal, and 10% of the air samples
were also at or below the LOQ. Where results were less than the reported LOQ, V2 LOQ value
was used for calculations, and no recovery corrections were applied. Lab spike recoveries for all
matrices were in the range of 83-99%. Mean field fortification recoveries over the four study
days for each fortification level ranged from 83 to 97%.

1 "sihie ( -5: MKII) 44')"'22111 - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Keco 111 meiithi 1 ion

Smd\ ( I'llei'ia

1 Apiisuiv (iimpiiiieiil

Dermal

liihalalkiii

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-6


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tiihlc ( -(>: MRU) 44^22!II - Diilii Summ;in

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Apiisiiiv i mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiiv ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.45

0.24

II UIIIIII^X

II V,

0.00013

2

0.45

0.18

0.000311

0.39

0.00071

3

0.45

0.30

0.000449

0.67

0.00102

4

0.45

0.31

0.001113

0.69

0.00253

5

0.45

0.15

0.000056

0.33

0.00013

6

0.45

0.17

0.000278

0.37

0.00063

7

0.45

0.16

0.000286

0.36

0.00065

8

0.45

0.27

0.000585

0.60

0.00133

9

0.45

0.15

0.000298

0.34

0.00068

10

0.45

0.25

0.000564

0.56

0.00128

11

0.45

0.32

0.001048

0.71

0.00238

12

0.45

0.11

0.000242

0.25

0.00055

13

0.45

0.35

0.001436

0.79

0.00326

14

0.45

0.23

0.001324

0.51

0.00301

15

0.45

0.45

0.000601

1.00

0.00137

16

0.45

0.19

0.000311

0.41

0.00071

17

0.45

0.19

0.000289

0.43

0.00066

18

0.45

0.41

0.000438

0.92

0.00099

19

0.45

0.34

0.000423

0.76

0.00096

20

0.45

0.37

0.000334

0.83

0.00076

21

0.45

0.28

0.000253

0.62

0.00058

22

0.45

0.33

0.000115

0.73

0.00026

23

0.45

0.25

0.000251

0.55

0.00057

24

0.45

0.95

0.000461

2.10

0.00105

25

0.45

0.61

0.001290

1.36

0.00293

26

0.45

0.41

0.001025

0.91

0.00233

27

0.45

0.23

0.000265

0.52

0.00060

28

0.45

3.14

0.000322

6.98

0.00073

29

0.45

0.21

0.000276

0.46

0.00063

30

0.45

0.46

0.000138

1.02

0.00031

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a push-type spreader, the following
limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-7


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

T;ibk'C-"7: S(ud\ Idenlificalion 1 nIVinn;i(ion

Citation

PHED 1027

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

None

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 15 application events were monitored using 8 volunteers loading
and applying granules to turf sites in North Carolina using a "push cyclone spreader". Each
individual handled approximately 110 lbs of granule formulation (1.02% active ingredient; 1.1
lbs active ingredient) and spent approximately 30-40 minutes per application. Dermal exposure
was measured using whole body dosimetry underneath work clothing - a long-sleeve shirt, pants,
socks and shoes - and hand washes were used to collect exposure to bare hands (no chemical-
resistant gloves were worn). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5
liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Percent recovery (mean ฑ SD) for laboratory
fortifications is as follows: 97.2 ฑ 19.2% for glass fiber filter, 96.3 ฑ 29.4% for handwash, 107 ฑ
12.1% for facial swipe, and 105 ฑ 32.3% for whole-body dosimeter. With the exception of one
low average recovery, 42.4% for handwashes at site 1, average field fortification recoveries
ranged from 61.5% to 98.2%. The majority of the individual fortification recoveries fell within
the 50% to 120%) range with the noted exception of the high-level fortification of the handwash
solutions, facial swabs, and whole-body dosimeters at Site 1, which averaged from 61.6% to
68.2%.

TsihleC-H: Plll.l) I02"7 - (hcckliM iiiid I so Keccimmoilซl;i 1 ion

Suid> ( iilciia

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are included since the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

l ahle ('-'): Plll.l) 1027 - Dala Siimman

1 Visum II)

Villi

( Ills)

1 Apiismv (mm

1 ml 1 Apusiirc (mu lb ai i

Dermal

liilialalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

A

1.1100

--

0.0006

--

0.0005

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-8


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

l iihlo ('-*>: Plll.l) 1027 - Diilii Siiiiiin;ir\

1 Visum II)

Villi

( Ills)

1 \piiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiiv ( nm Ih ai i

Dermal

liilialalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

A

l.lluu

--

0.0024

—

0.0022

A

1.1100

--

0.0032

—

0.0029

A

1.1100

--

0.0056

—

0.0050

A

1.1100

--

0.0046

—

0.0041

A

1.1100

--

0.0055

—

0.0050

B

1.1100

--

0.0206

—

0.0186

B

1.1100

--

0.0032

—

0.0029

B

1.1100

--

0.0032

—

0.0028

B

1.1100

--

0.0027

—

0.0024

C

1.1100

--

0.0068

—

0.0061

C

1.1100

--

0.0165

—

0.0149

C

1.3900

--

0.0042

—

0.0030

C

1.3900

--

0.0006

—

0.0004

C

1.0500

--

0.0175

—

0.0167

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a push-type spreader, the following
limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled practically the same amount of active ingredient, making
analysis of the relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient
handled (the underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

1 iihlo ( -10: SliKh Identification Information

Citation

Solomon, K. R., Harris, S. A, Stephenson, G. R. (1993). Applicator And Bystander
Exposure To Home Garden And Landscape Pesticides. American Chemical Society,
1993, pp. 262-273

EPA MRID

none

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 20 application events were monitored using volunteers loading
and applying granules using a "drop spreader". Eleven of the applications were conducted while
wearing "protective" clothing, while 9 applications were conducted while wearing "normal"
clothing. The exact nature of the clothing worn was not provided. Each individual handled
approximately 0.3 - 2.6 lbs of 2, 4-D per application. Exposure was measured using
biomonitoring with passive monitoring only conducted for inhalation exposure using standard
pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. All except one inhalation exposure
sample was a non-detect (limit of detection = 0.0001 |_ig/L), Recoveries from field fortifications
of exposure sampling matrices were generally above 85% with little variation (standard deviation
approximately 3%).

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-9


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Push-type Spreader

Tal>lc('-ll: Solomon, el ;il. (— ( hocklisl ;iihI I so RocomnieiKhi 1 ion

Siud> ( I'ilci'ia

1 !\posiiie ('iimpiiiicnl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-10


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Scenario Summary

1 "sihie ( -12: Seeiiiirio Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle llxposiire Studies

Formulation

Granules

Equipment/Application
Method

Belly grinder (also: hand cyclone spreader, whirly-bird spreader)

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

PHED 1027

PHED 419

PHED 459

PHED 504

Spencer, et al. (1997)

Tiihle ( -13: I nil r.xpoMires (m^/lh ;ii) - (.rnnule Bell\ Grinder Applications

Statistic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

240

0.016

75th percentile

440

0.039

95th percentile

1100

0.142

99th percentile

2000

0.351

99.9th percentile

3900

0.966

AM(SD)

360 (405)

0.039 (0.085)

GM (GSD)

240 (2.5)

0.016 (3.76)

Range

49 - 992

0.0017-0.29

N

16

28

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for belly
grinder applications of granule pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from PHED 459. PHED 459 monitored 16 applications of a
granule formulation foundations, patios, driveways, and sidewalks of houses using a "whirly-bird
spreader". While other available studies were reasonable representations of residential exposure,
this study best represented a residential homeowner application while also providing a reliable
representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e.,
shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for belly
grinder applications of granule pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from PHED 1027, PHED 419, and PHED 504. PHED 1027
monitored 15 applications of a granule formulation for approximately 30-40 minutes to turf in
North Carolina using a hand cyclone spreader. PHED 419 monitored 5 applications of a granule
formulation to approximately 2 acres of container ornamentals in California using chest-mounted
application equipment. PHED 504 monitored 9 applications of a granule formulation for
approximately 4 hours to approximately 1 acre of turf in Michigan using a "hand cyclone
spreader". These studies all provided a reasonable representation of residential exposure,
including representing individuals without respiratory protection. As they were generally of
similar magnitudes, the studies are utilized as a composite dataset.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-ll


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Log-normal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = PHED 459
1100-

1000

900'
800'
700'

TO ___

_q 600'
500

LU

1 400'
E

(Sj 300'
200'

100'

0-

.0	.5	1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: X = PHED 419; 0 = PHED 1027; O = PHED 504

0.3

0.25

0.2

'ro

]? 0.15

LU

z>

ฆI 0.1

ro

0.05

0

01 23456789 10 11 12

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-12


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Table (-14: l.xpnsurc' Sliulj 1 (Ion 1 lion In To nil ill inn

Citation

PHED 1027

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total 15 application events were monitored using 8 volunteers loading
and applying granules to turf sites in North Carolina using a "hand cyclone spreader" (i.e., a
belly grinder). Each individual handled approximately 170 lbs granule formulation (1.02%
active ingredient; 1.7 lbs active ingredient) and spent approximately 30-40 minutes per
application. Dermal exposure monitoring represented an individual wearing a long-sleeve shirt,
pants, shoes, socks, and no chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using
standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Percent recovery (mean ฑ
SD) for laboratory fortifications is as follows: 97.2 ฑ 19.2% for glass fiber filter, 96.3 ฑ 29.4%
for handwash, 107 ฑ 12.1% for facial swipe, and 105 ฑ 32.3% for whole-body dosimeter. With
the exception of one low average recovery, 42.4% for handwashes at site 1, average field
fortification recoveries ranged from 61.5% to 98.2%. The majority of the individual fortification
recoveries fell within the 50% to 120% range with the noted exception of the high-level
fortification of the handwash solutions, facial swabs, and whole-body dosimeters at Site 1, which
averaged from 61.6% to 68.2%.

Table ( -15: PI 1 l-'l) I02"7 - ( lu'cklisl ;iikI I so Kecoinmoiithilion

Siud> ( rilci'ia

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are included since the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Table (-16: I'll F.I) I02"7- Dala Siimman

IVl'SOIl II)

Villi
(Ills)

1 \piiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic imu Ih an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

D

1.84

--

0.008

--

0.0043

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-13


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

D

1.49

--

0.013

--

0.0087

D

1.67

--

0.021

--

0.0126

D

1.67

--

0.009

--

0.0054

D

1.67

--

0.031

--

0.0186

E

1.67

--

0.072

--

0.0431

E

1.67

--

0.032

--

0.0192

E

1.67

--

0.116

--

0.0695

E

1.67

--

0.104

--

0.0623

E

1.67

--

0.103

--

0.0617

E

1.67

--

0.140

--

0.0838

F

1.65

--

0.486

--

0.2945

F

1.65

--

0.227

--

0.1376

F

1.67

--

0.003

--

0.0018

F

1.67

--

0.006

--

0.0036

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-
resistant gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a belly grinder, the following limitations are
noted:

• Each individual handled practically the same amount of active ingredient, making
analysis of the relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient
handled (the underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

1 "sihie C-l"7: r.xposure Siiulj Irieiilifieiilion Inl'tn-miilion

Citation

PHED419

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three workers were monitored over the course of three days (totaling 5
monitored application events) while applying a granule formulation using "chest-mounted
application equipment" to container ornamentals in California. Each application consisted of
applying approximately 174 lbs product/acre (3.5 lbs ai/acre) to approximately 2 acres of
container ornamentals. Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches placed strategically
across the workers' bodies (inside and outside the work clothing) as well as hand washes
underneath chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps
(4-7 liters of air collected per application; flow rate unknown), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries
from field fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were generally above 90%, though
inhalation sampling varied widely from 68 to 97% recovery.

l iihle ( -IN: PI 1 I'D 41*)- ( heeklisl iiiid I se Recommend;! lion

Smd\ ( I'ikTia

1 ApiislllC ( 'limpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-14


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Tahle ( -IN: PI 1 I'D 4I*>- ( hocklisl iiiid I so Recommendation

Siud\ ( lileria

1 ApoMiie (onipoueui

Dermal

Inhalation

Does ihc slud\ pi'o\ ide detailed cliaiacleiislics on the acli\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are included since the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.



Tsihie C-I'J:

Plli:i) 41ซJ — l)ala Siimman





IVi'son ID

Villi

1 \posuie (mm

1 ml 1 Aposure (mu lb an

(Ills)

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

6.0000

--

0.833

--

0.139

A

8.1200

--

—

--

—

B

6.0000

--

0.116

--

0.019

B

7.5200

--

0.358

--

0.048

C

7.2000

--

0.028

--

0.004

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a belly grinder, the following limitations are
noted:

The study monitored workers in a California nursery; therefore, using this study for
residential assessments introduces uncertainty.

The second application for Worker A was not used as the collection pump reportedly
malfunctioned.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-15


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

1 "sihie ( -20: I'xposure Siiulj Idenlificalion InToi-malion

Citation

PHED 459

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 16 applications were monitored using 3 volunteers loading and
applying 2% active ingredient granules around foundations, patios, driveways, and sidewalks of
houses using a "whirly-bird spreader" (i.e., belly grinder). Each worker applied approximately
5.7 oz of the bait formulation per 1000 ft resulting in a range of 0.0069 to 0.0425 lbs of active
ingredient per application. The sampling time ranged from 4 to 11 minutes. Dermal exposure
was monitored using gauze patches strategically placed on each body part both inside and
outside the individuals clothing. This methodology allows for representation of individuals
wearing shorts, a short-sleeve shirt, shoes and socks. Chemical-resistant gloves were worn so
exposure values to bare hands had to be back-calculated assuming 90% protection from
chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter
per minute), cassettes, and tubing. All air samples were below the limit of quantification.
Average laboratory recovery values are as follows, 103% with a standard deviation of 1.9% for
air filters, 117%> with a standard deviation of 7.7% for gauze pads, 116% with a standard
deviation of 1.5% for low-level hand rinse and 122% with a standard deviation of 3.8% for high-
level hand rinse. Average field recovery values are as follows, 95% with a standard deviation of
4.4% for air filters, 105% with a standard deviation of 2.9% for gauze pads (outside clothing),
90% with a standard deviation of 4.5% for gauze pads (outside clothing), 103% with a standard
deviation of 3.5% for gauze pads (inside clothing), and 102% with a standard deviation of 1.4%
for hand rinses.

l iihle ( -21: Plll'.l) 45V-Checklist ;iihI I se Kecommenthition

Siud\ ( 1'ilcria

1 ApiislllC ( 'limpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure is included, as inhalation exposure data
was not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study
itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-16


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Tsihk* ( -22: Plll-il) 45'J - l);il;i Suinm;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic i iiiu lb an

Dermal

liilialalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.0288

1.40

—

49

—

A

0.0425

4.31

—

101

—

A

0.0106

3.17

—

299

—

A

0.01

5.33

—

533

—

B

0.0125

1.65

—

132

—

B

0.0088

0.74

—

84

—

B

0.0125

4.31

—

345

—

B

0.0169

8.51

—

503

—

B

0.0119

4.74

—

398

—

B

0.015

14.89

—

992

—

C

0.0075

1.40

—

186

—

C

0.0088

6.03

—

685

—

C

0.0081

2.22

—

274

—

C

0.0069

3.48

—

504

—

C

0.0138

0.78

—

56

—

C

0.0081

1.50

—

186

—

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a belly grinder, the following limitations are
noted:

•	The individuals monitored in the study wore chemical-resistant gloves. Because
residential handler exposure assessments representative of individuals wearing chemical-
resistant gloves are not typically conducted, a back-calculation (i.e., increasing hand
exposures by 90%) to represent "bare hand" exposure was necessary, adding uncertainty
to the unit exposures.

•	All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (0.2 |Lxg) was
used in exposure calculations.

Table (-23: l.xposurc' Siuclj l(lenlirie;ilion Inlm-miilion

Citation

PHED 504

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 9 application events were monitored while loading and applying
granules using a "hand cyclone spreader" to approximately 0.9 acres (six 0.15 acre plots) of turf
in Michigan over the course of a 4 hour period. Each individual handled a total of approximately
400 lbs of formulation (1.4 lbs active ingredient), equivalent to approximately 1.5 lb ai per acre.
Dermal exposure was monitored using gauze patches, though the placement only allows for

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-17


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

representation of individuals wearing a long-sleeve shirt, long pants, shoes and socks. Chemical-
resistant gloves were not worn. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at
1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Average laboratory recoveries were as follows: 99.0 ฑ
10.2% for air filters and 98.0 ฑ 9.9% for tubes; 118.4 ฑ 6.5% for hand washes; and 100.3 ฑ 6.9%
for the gauze patches. Travel spike average recoveries for the tube, filter, hand rinse, and gauze
patch travel spikes were 104%, 112%, 101%, and 112%, respectively. Since the results were all
equal to or greater than 100%, no corrections to the data were applied based on these spikes.

Field fortification recoveries for the filter, hand rinse, and gauze patch field spikes were 104%,
98%), and 90%, respectively.

Table ( -24: Pill-ID 504- ( hccklisl iiiid I so Recommendation

Smd\ ( rileria

1 ApoMiie (onipoiieni

Dermal

Inhalation

Does ihc siud\ pi'o\ ide detailed chaiacleiisiics on the acli\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are included since the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Table ( -25: P11II1) 504 — Dala Siimman

IVi'son ID

Villi
(lbs)

1 ApoMiie (mm

1 ml 1 ApoMire (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

DS

1.33

--

0.009

--

0.007

DV

0.82

--

0.006

--

0.008

IC

1.29

--

0.006

--

0.005

JC

1.00

--

0.011

--

0.011

JJ

1.26

--

0.012

--

0.009

JM

1.24

--

0.009

--

0.007

MD

1.36

--

0.007

--

0.005

MS

1.28

--

0.012

--

0.010

NB

1.37

--

0.010

--

0.007

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-18


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Belly Grinder

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a belly grinder, the following limitations are
noted:

• Based on the amount of product applied and the application duration, the study was
meant to simulate a professional lawn care operator, so using this study for residential
assessments introduces uncertainty.

Tahlc C-2(ป: l-'.\posuro Simlj Idemiric;ilion InToi'malion

Citation

Spencer, et al. (1997). Exposure of Hand Applicators to Granular Hexazinone in
Forest Settings, 1993-1995.

EPA MRID

none

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Twenty-nine workers were monitored on 11 days at 4 different sites over
the course of 3 years, totaling 129 monitored worker-days, while applying 10% hexazinone
granules to forestry areas using a belly grinder. Applying approximately 3-4 lbs/acre, each
worker handled from 15 - 35 lbs of hexazinone per workday (150 - 350 lbs formulation).
Dermal exposure was monitored using whole body dosimetry underneath normal work clothing
and hand wipes used at various intervals throughout the workday. Workers wore various types
of clothing and personal protective equipment. Inhalation exposure was measured using
standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries from field
fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were generally above 90%.

Tahlc ( -2"7: Spencer. el ;il. (PW7) - ( hccklisl ;iihI I so Kocominoiithition

Sllld\ ( I'lkTKI

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

liihalalkiii

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-19


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Scenario Summary

I'iihk* ( -2N: Scciiiirio Description ;iihI A\;iil;il>lc l-lxposmv Studies

Formulation

Granules

Equipment/Application
Method

Spoon

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

Pontal, P.G. (1996); MRID 45250702

1 iihlc ( -2*>: I nil llxnosuros (mg/lh ;ii) - (.l iiiiulc Spoon Applications

Statistic

Dermal

Inhalation

50 percentile

3.7

0.024

75th percentile

7.3

0.071

95th percentile

20

0.34

99th percentile

39

1.0

99.9th percentile

83

3.4

AM(SD)

6.2 (8.2)

0.087 (0.30)

GM (GSD)

3.7 (2.7)

0.024 (5.0)

Range

1-16

0.0024-0.33

N

10

10

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a spoon is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from Pontal, P.G. (1996) [EPA MRID 45250702], Pontal,
P.G. (1996) monitored 10 applications of a granule formulation to a 1 acre banana plantation in
Cameroon using a spoon. Despite being an occupational exposure monitoring study, and thus
potentially an inaccurate representation of residential exposure, this is the only available study
for this application pattern.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a spoon is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from Pontal, P.G. (1996) [EPA MRID 45250702], Pontal,
P.G. (1996) monitored 10 applications of a granule formulation to a 1 acre banana plantation in
Cameroon using a spoon. Despite being an occupational exposure monitoring study, and thus
potentially an inaccurate representation of residential exposure, this is the only available study
for this application pattern.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-20


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Log-normal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = Pontal, P.G. (1996)

XBH0510 .25	.50

15-

ro 10-

LU

Z>

-1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1—

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = Pontal, P.G. (1996)

0.35-

0.3-

0.25-

0.2-

O)

E,

w 0.15-

c
o

0.05-

—I	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-21


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Available Handler Exposure Studies:

T;il)k'( -30: l-lxposuiv Siud> Idemiric;ilion Inrซirin;iiiซui

Citation

Pontal, P.G. (1996). Worker Exposure Study During Application Of Regent 20GR In
Banana Plantation, (RP Study 94/136 - Amended)

EPA MRID

45250702

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D270065

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 10 applications were monitored on two days for workers applying
a granule formulation of ftpronil with a spoon in banana plantations in Cameroon. The workers
covered approximately 1 acre per application-event, applying granules to approximately 800
plants at a rate of 0.15 gms active ingredient per plant (13 lbs product; 0.26 lbs fipronil). Dermal
exposure was monitored using whole body dosimetry - which served as the workers normal
clothing (i.e., measurements would be representative of workers without clothing). Clothing
protection factors were required to estimate exposure for workers while wearing clothing.
Workers wore chemical-resistant gloves with cotton gloves underneath serving as the hand
exposure measurement method. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at
1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Overall recovery levels from field spiked samples were
between 64% and 99% (average 87%) with only one recovery below 80%. Overall recovery
levels from samples spiked in the laboratory were between 92 and 117.5%.

Tahle ( -31: MRU) 45250"702 - ( heckliM iind I so Recummendalion

Siiids ( rilcria

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpoilCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tahle ( -32: MRU) 4525IP02 - Dala Siimman

IVrsim II)

\aill
(Ills)

1 ApoMII'C (IIIUI

1 ml 1 Aposiiic i mu Hi ai i

Dermal

liilialalioii

Dermal

liilialalioii

1

0.368

1.13

0.0010

3.06

0.0027

2

0.368

3.84

0.0009

10.42

0.0024

3

0.368

5.06

0.1198

13.76

0.3255

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-22


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

4

0.368

1.71

0.0731

4.64

0.1986

5

0.368

0.62

0.0037

1.70

0.0101

6

0.368

6.07

0.0109

16.50

0.0296

7

—

--

--

—

—

8

0.247

0.94

0.0114

3.82

0.0462

9

0.247

0.45

0.0057

1.83

0.0231

10

0.247

0.23

0.0034

0.94

0.0138

11

0.247

0.33

0.0094

1.36

0.0381

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.







Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a spoon, the following limitations are noted:

•	Dermal exposure was measured using clothing the individuals wore, thus representing
applicators not wearing any clothing. To estimate exposure representative of applicators
wearing shorts, short-sleeve shirt, shoes, and socks, a penetration factor of 50% was used
for exposure measurements to the torso, upper arms, and upper legs.

•	For hand exposure, since chemical-resistant gloves were worn, a protection factor of 90%
was used to back-calculate "bare" hand exposure.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-23


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Scenario Summary

T;il>lc (-33: Scenario Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihlc l-lxposurc Studies

1 simulation

Granules

Equipment/Application
Method

Cup

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, L. (2001); MRID 45333401

Table (-34: I nil r.xposurcs img/lh ;ii) - (.mimic Cup Applications

Siaiisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

0.05

0.013

75th percentile

0.12

0.013

95th percentile

0.40

0.013

99th percentile

0.91

0.013

99.9th percentile

2.3

0.013

AM(SD)

0.11 (0.21)

0.013 (0)

GM (GSD)

0.05 (3.4)

0.013 (1)

Range

0.0075 -0.36

0.013-0.013

N

30

30

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a cup is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, L. (2001) [EPA MRID 45333401], Merricks, L.
(2001) monitored 60 applications of a granule formulation for approximately 20-40 minutes to
shrubs and flower beds using a cup. Despite certain limitations (e.g., the lower body was not
measured), this study is a fair representation of residential exposure and is the only available
study for this application pattern.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a cup is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, L. (2001) [EPA MRID 45333401], Merricks, L.
(2001) monitored 60 applications of a granule formulation for approximately 20-40 minutes to
shrubs and flower beds using a cup. Despite certain limitations (e.g., all inhalation samples were
non-detects), this study is a fair representation of residential exposure and is the only available
study for this application pattern.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-24


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Log-normal Probability Plots

Log Normal Quantile

Note: Inhalation unit exposure lognormal probability plot not shown as all unit exposures were identical - all inhalation samples were non-
detects and all individuals handled the same amount of active ingredient.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-25


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tahle ( -35: llxposuiv Siuclj Idemiric;ilion InTni'malion

Citation

Merricks, L. (2001) Determination of Dermal (Hand and Forearm) and Inhalation
Exposure to Disulfoton Resulting from Residential Application of Bayer Advanced
Garden 2-in-l Systematic Rose and Flower Care to Shrubs and Flower Beds: Lab
Project Number: 4201. Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Inc. 178 p.

EPA MRID

45333401

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D273144

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Fifteen individuals were monitored during 4 applications (for a total of 60
application-events) of 1.04% disulfoton granules to shrubs and flower beds using a cup. An
application consisted of pouring the product into the measuring cup/lid attached to the product
package, then distributing the granules onto the soil around the base of the shrub or flower bed.
Each application lasted between 20 and 40 minutes to apply approximately 10 pounds of
formulation (0.1 lbs of disulfoton). Dermal exposure was measured for the hands and forearms
only using detergent washes. Half of the applications were with chemical-resistant gloves and
half were without (i.e., 30 applications with and 30 applications without chemical-resistant
gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per minute),
cassettes, and tubing. All inhalation samples were non-detects. The overall mean percent
recovery of concurrent laboratory fortifications from air sampling tubes was 99.9 ฑ 6.42%. The
overall mean percent recovery from hand/forearm wash solution was 99.5 ฑ 9.15%. For air
samples, the overall average fortified field recovery was 98.2 ฑ 6.32% with no apparent
differences in mean recoveries between days or fortification levels. Overall field fortified
recovery for hand/forearm wash samples collected from volunteers who did not wear gloves was
99.4 ฑ 7.95%) with no apparent differences in recovery values between days.

Tahle (-36: MRU) 45333401 - Checklist ;iihI I so Kccummcndalion

Siud> ( iilei'ia

1 Aposiue (onipoiieul

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the slud\ pivn ide detailed cliaiacleiisiics on llie ach\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-26


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Cup

T;ihk- ( -r: MRU) 45333401 - Suiiiin;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Apiisiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiiv ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.1

0.013

0.0013

0.13

0.013

2

0.1

0.030

0.0013

0.30

0.013

3

0.1

0.019

0.0013

0.19

0.013

4

0.1

0.015

0.0013

0.15

0.013

5

0.1

0.004

0.0013

0.04

0.013

6

0.1

0.017

0.0013

0.17

0.013

7

0.1

0.005

0.0013

0.05

0.013

8

0.1

0.002

0.0013

0.02

0.013

9

0.1

0.009

0.0013

0.09

0.013

10

0.1

0.036

0.0013

0.36

0.013

11

0.1

0.004

0.0013

0.04

0.013

12

0.1

0.025

0.0013

0.25

0.013

13

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

14

0.1

0.007

0.0013

0.07

0.013

15

0.1

0.016

0.0013

0.16

0.013

1

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

2

0.1

0.003

0.0013

0.03

0.013

3

0.1

0.002

0.0013

0.02

0.013

4

0.1

0.021

0.0013

0.21

0.013

5

0.1

0.008

0.0013

0.08

0.013

6

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

7

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

8

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

9

0.1

0.004

0.0013

0.04

0.013

10

0.1

0.005

0.0013

0.05

0.013

11

0.1

0.012

0.0013

0.12

0.013

12

0.1

0.003

0.0013

0.03

0.013

13

0.1

0.012

0.0013

0.12

0.013

14

0.1

0.001

0.0013

0.01

0.013

15

0.1

0.008

0.0013

0.08

0.013

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations using a cup, the following limitations are noted:

•	Dermal exposure was measured only on the hands and forearms. To the extent that this
type of application would result in significant exposure to the lower body, the use of this
data may underestimate exposure.

•	Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

•	All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of quantification (0.30) was
used.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-27


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Scenario Summary

I'iihk* (-3N: Scoiiiirio Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihlc l-lxposmv Studies

Formulation

Granules

Equipment/Application
Method

Hand dispersal

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawn, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

PHED 520

1 "sihie ( -3*>: I nil r.\nosinvs (mg/lh ;ii) - (ii'iiniile An

)liciili(ins h> Ihinri

Siaiisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

50 percentile

120

0.28

75th percentile

205

0.47

95th percentile

430

1.0

99th percentile

740

1.7

99.9th percentile

1300

3.1

AM(SD)

160 (150)

0.38 (0.35)

GM (GSD)

120 (2.2)

0.28 (2.2)

Range

24 - 370

0.064-0.95

N

16

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations by hand is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from PHED 520. PHED 520 monitored 16 applications of a
granule formulation to driveways, sidewalks, patios, foundations, and flower beds around private
residences in Florida. Despite certain limitations (e.g., back-calculations were necessary to
represent individuals wearing shorts, short-sleeve shirt and no chemical-resistant gloves), this
study is a good respresentation of residential exposure and is the only available study for this
application pattern.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of granule pesticide formulations by hand is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from PHED 520. PHED 520 monitored 16 applications of a
granule formulation to driveways, sidewalks, patios, foundations, and flower beds around private
residences in Florida. Despite certain limitations (e.g., all inhalation samples were non-detects),
this study is a good respresentation of residential exposure and is the only available study for this
application pattern.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-28


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Log-normal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = PHED 520

400-

350-

300-

250-

200-

ro

_Q

"3)
E

3 150-

"ro
E


Q

100-

50-

ฆ—i—i—i—

.00131 .05.10

.25

.50

.75

.90



.95

.0

Legend: ฆ = PHED 520

T

.5

T

T

T

1.0

1.5	2.0	2.5

Log Normal Quantile

3.0

3.5

4.

.00131 .05.10 .25

.50

.75

.90

0.9-



.95

0.8-

0.7-

m 0.6"

"Bj

LLI
3

0.5-

0.4-

^ 0.3-

0.2-

0.1-



.0

~r

.5

T

T

T

1.0

1.5	2.0	2.5

Log Normal Quantile

—T~

3.0

3.5

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-29


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Available Handler Exposure Studies

1 "sihie ( -40: llxposiiiv Siud> Idemil'iciilion Inl'tn-malion

Citation

PHED 520

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three commercial applicators were each monitored 5 times (for a total of
16 application-events) while applying 2% active ingredient granules by hand to driveways,
sidewalks, patios, foundations, and flower beds around private residences in Florida. Each
application consisted of treating one residences using less than 1 lb of product with gloved hands
at a rate of approximately 4 ounces per 1000 ft2 (0.005 lb ai/1000 ft2). Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches both inside and outside the normal work clothing (long-sleeve
shirt, long pants, shoes, socks) as well as hand washes to measure exposure to hands underneath
chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter
per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries from field fortifications of exposure sampling
matrices were generally above 90%.

Tahle ( -41: Plllll) 520 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kecci in men ซl;i 1 ion

SiiuK ( nieria

1 !\posiue (iinipiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )ocs ilie slikls pi'o\ ide detailed characteristics on llie acli\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tahle ( -42: PIII-:I) 520 - Data Siimman

Person

AaiH1

Exposure (mg)

Unit Exposure (mg/lb ai)4

ID

(lbs)

Dermal2

Inhalation3

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.026

0.635

0.0017

24

0.0654

A

0.003

0.635

0.0016

205

0.5333

A

0.003

0.635

0.0016

235

0.5333

A

0.005

0.970

0.0016

206

0.3200

A

0.005

0.970

0.0016

216

0.3200

B

0.013

0.635

0.0016

51

0.1231

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-30


-------
Formulation: Granules

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

B

0.003

0.635

0.0016

212

0.5333

B

0.002

0.635

0.0016

374

0.8000

B

0.003

0.635

0.0016

199

0.5333

B

0.006

0.635

0.0016

102

0.2667

C

0.010

0.635

0.0016

64

0.1600

C

0.007

0.635

0.0016

88

0.2286

C

0.003

0.635

0.0016

187

0.5333

C

0.004

0.635

0.0016

148

0.4000

C

0.010

1.034

0.0016

103

0.1600

C

0.024

0.780

0.0016

33

0.0667

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-
resistant gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of granule pesticide formulations by hand, the following limitations are noted:

•	The individuals monitored in the study wore chemical-resistant gloves and nearly all
dermal measurements (hands and body) were non-detects. Exposure was therefore
calculated using V2 of the limit of quantification (0.41 ug for body exposure; 41 ug for
hand exposure) and hand measurements required a back-calculation using a 90%
protection factor to represent "bare" hand exposure.

•	All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (0.2 |Lxg) was
used.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-31


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Plunger duster

Scenario Summary

Tiihlc ( -43: Scciiiirio Description iind A\;iil;il)k' l-lxposiiiv Studios

Formulation

Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application
Method

Plunger duster

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests),
indoors (general broadcast treatments)

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, D.L. (1997); MRID 44459801

l iihlo ( -44: I nil l.\

insures (inii/ll) :ii) - Dust/Powder Plunder Duskr Annliciilions

SiaiiMic

Dermal

Inhalation

50 percentile

150

0.50

75th percentile

290

1.4

95th percentile

790

6.5

99th percentile

1600

19

99.9th percentile

3400

62

AM(SD)

250 (330)

1.7 (5.4)

GM (GSD)

150 (2.8)

0.50 (4.8)

Range

36 - 1400

0.0045 - 8.2

N

20

20

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of dust or powder pesticide formulations using a plunger duster is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPA
MRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1997) monitored 20 applications of a dust formulation for
approximately 20 minutes to garden plants using a hand-operated plunger duster. As well as
being the only available data for this scenario, this study well represents the type of clothing a
homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-
resistant gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of dust or powder pesticide formulations using a plunger duster is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPA
MRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1997) monitored 20 applications of a dust formulation for
approximately 20 minutes to garden plants using a hand-operated plunger duster. As well as
being the only available data for this scenario, this study well represents residential applications
in terms of the clothing representation and activities.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-32


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Plunger duster

Lognormal Probability Plots

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = Merricks, D.L. (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-33


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Plunger duster

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Table (-45: l.xpnsurc' Smd> 1 don 1 lion InToi-malion

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1997). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study during
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%), Sevinฎ Ready to Use Insect Spray or Sevinฎ 10
Dust to Home Garden Vegetables

EPA MRID

44459801

ORETF Code

OMA006

EPA Review

EPA Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Twenty individuals were monitored while applying a dust formulation
(10% carbaryl) to gardens using a hand-operated plunger duster (The Spritzer™). Each
application was approximately 20 minutes and consisted of loading the duster and applying
approximately 0.16 lbs formulation (0.017 lbs carbaryl) to garden plants. Dermal exposure was
measured using inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes (without chemical-
resistant gloves worn). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters
per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive dosimeters averaged
84.3% for inner dosimeters and 77.7% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe field
fortifications averaged 84.8%. Both handwash and inhalation tube field fortification averaged
>90%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range of 70 to
120%). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except the inhalation
monitors where the LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig/sample
for all media except the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

1 "sihie C-4(ป: MKII) 44459X01 - CheckliM ;iihI I so Kccommendalion

SiikK ( rileiia

1 Aposuiv (onipoiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment
type, and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler
exposure assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -J"7: MRU) 4445<)SIII - Data Siimman

Person II)

\aill

(Ills)

1 \poMiie i mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic i mu Hi an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-34


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Plunger duster

E

0.003

2.22

0.0043

661

1.43

F

0.025

14.70

0.0087

590

0.35

I

0.007

1.99

0.0058

275

0.83

H

0.012

1.55

0.0154

132

1.28

K

0.012

2.11

0.0021

172

0.18

L

0.013

1.22

0.0046

97

0.35

0

0.005

1.06

0.0126

234

2.52

P

0.009

2.13

0.0000

228

0.00

S

0.013

1.09

0.0158

82

1.22

T

0.015

1.03

0.0033

70

0.22

W

0.019

1.55

0.0235

84

1.24

X

0.012

3.10

0.0045

252

0.38

A2

0.029

1.48

0.0332

51

1.14

B2

0.003

3.61

0.0214

1375

7.13

E2

0.020

0.80

0.0014

40

0.07

F2

0.009

2.41

0.0053

280

0.59

12

0.030

1.28

0.0242

42

0.81

J2

0.044

1.58

0.0144

36

0.33

M2

0.013

2.85

0.0171

227

1.32

02

0.026

1.54

0.0039

60

0.15

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of dust/powder formulations using a plunger duster, the following limitations are
noted:

• Though the study was strictly conducted outdoors, it is recommended for indoor use as
well since no indoor plunger duster study is available. Such use introduces uncertainty.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-35


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

Scenario Summary

T;il>lc (-4X: Scenario Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihlc l-lxposmv Studies

1 simulation

Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application
Method

Shaker can

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests),
indoors (general broadcast treatments), pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, D. (1997); MRID 44439901

McKeown, K. (2001); MRID 45519601

Tiihlc (-4'J: I nil r.xposiircs (mg/lh ;ii) - Dnsl/Powdcr Stalker c;in Applications

Sialisiic

Dermal

liihalalkin

50Ql percentile

3600

9.4

75 th percentile

5300

20

95th percentile

9200

59

99th percentile

14000

130

99.9th percentile

21000

290

AM(SD)

4300 (2600)

18 (28)

GM (GSD)

3600 (1.8)

9.4(3.1)

Range

1400 - 10000

0.36-74

N

20

55

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of dust or powder pesticide formulations using a shaker can is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D. (1997) [EPA MRID 44439901],
Merricks, D. (1997) monitored 40 applications of a dust formulation to dogs for approximately 7
minutes using a 1 lb shaker can. While another study was also available and reasonably
representative of residential applications, Merricks, D., (1997) employed monitoring methods
that best represented the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e.,
shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of dust or powder pesticide formulations using a shaker can is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D. (1997) [EPA MRID 44439901]
and McKeown, K. (2001) [MRID 45519601], Merricks, D. (1997) monitored 40 applications of
a dust formulation to dogs for approximately 7 minutes using a 1 lb shaker can. McKeown, K.
(2001) monitored 15 applications of approximately 1 ounce of a dust formulation for
approximately 2-3 minutes to dogs using a shaker can. Both studies were reasonably
representative of residential applications with inhalation exposures of the same general
magnitude, thus a composite dataset was utilized.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-36


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

Lognormal Probability Plots

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: X= McKeown. K. (2001); O = Merricks. D.L. (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-37


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

Available Handler Exposure Studies

1 "sihie ( -50: llxposiiiv Siud> Idemil'iciilion lnl'onii;i(ion

Citation

Merricks, D. (1997) Carbaryl Applicator Exposure Study During Application of Sevin
5 Dust to Dogs by the Nonprofessional: Lab Project Number: 1517: 10565: ML96
0662 RHP. Unpublished study prepared by Agrisearch Inc., Rhone Poulenc Ag Co.
and Morse Laboratories, Inc. 212 p.

EPA MRID

44439901

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 40 individuals - 20 with and 20 without chemical-resistant gloves
- were monitored while applying a dust formulation (5% carbaryl) to dogs. Each application,
lasting approximately 7 minutes, consisted of an individual using a 1 lb shaker can to apply an
average of 0.15 lbs of dust (0.008 lbs carbaryl) to 3 dogs, then rubbing the dust into the dog's
coat. Dermal exposure was measured using inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand
washes. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute),
cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive dosimeters averaged >90% for
inner and outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe field fortifications average 87.6%. Inhalation
tube field fortification averaged 100. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within
the acceptable range of 70 to 120%.

Tahlc('-5I: MRU) 4443'),)0I -( heeklisl iiiid I se Kecom meiKhi 1 ion

Siud\ ( rileiia

1 !\posiiie ('ompiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does ilie siud\ pi'o\ ide detailed cliaiaclensiics on llie ach\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal (individuals without chemical-resistant gloves only) and
inhalation exposure are included since both are recommended for use in residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

lahle ( -52: MRU) 4443'mi - l)ala Siimman

IVi'son ID

Villi
dbsi

1 Aposuie (iiiui

1 ml 1 ApuMire (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.005

--

0.036

--

7.20

2

0.015

--

0.307

--

20.47

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-38


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

T;ihk- ( -52: MRU) 4443'mi - l);ii;i Siimniiin

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Apiisiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiiv ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation



0.0034

34.15

(1 """Ml

10044

o4.~l

4

0.016

82.94

0.134

5184

8.38

5

0.005

--

0.016

--

3.20

6

0.008

--

0.100

--

12.50

7

0.0079

10.84

0.145

1372

18.35

8

0.0042

25.84

0.140

6152

33.33

9

0.01

--

0.120

--

12.00

10

0.0083

64.13

0.086

7726

10.36

11

0.002

--

0.029

--

14.50

12

0.007

--

0.137

--

19.57

13

0.0025

10.19

0.022

4076

8.80

14

0.003

10.76

0.038

3586

12.67

15

0.008

--

0.062

--

7.75

16

0.0068

18.19

0.098

2676

14.41

17

0.009

--

0.094

--

10.44

18

0.011

--

0.221

--

20.09

19

0.0068

15.49

0.091

2278

13.38

20

0.012

104.75

0.302

8729

25.17

21

0.008

--

0.225

--

28.13

22

0.017

--

0.280

--

16.47

23

0.0047

20.82

0.140

4431

29.79

24

0.022

84.35

0.280

3834

12.73

25

0.004

--

0.048

--

12.00

26

0.009

15.91

0.099

1711

11.00

27

0.002

--

0.024

--

12.00

28

0.008

--

0.591

--

73.88

29

0.0014

8.28

0.048

5914

34.29

30

0.0093

13.59

0.124

1599

13.33

31

0.005

--

0.072

--

14.40

32

0.005

--

0.044

--

8.80

33

0.014

29.36

0.293

2097

20.93

34

0.0069

23.17

0.120

3359

17.39

35

0.007

--

0.043

--

6.14

36

0.0064

24.96

0.039

3900

6.09

37

0.006

--

0.027

--

4.50

38

0.011

--

0.269

--

24.45

39

0.006

13.65

0.021

2275

3.50

40

0.004

13.86

0.098

3465

24.50

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of dust/powder formulations using a shaker can, the following limitations are noted:

• Though the study was strictly conducted on dogs, it is recommended for all other uses as
well since studies measuring exposure during shaker can applications of dust/powders to
other sites are available. Such use introduces uncertainty.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-39


-------
Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

Tahlc ( -53: I'xposn re Siiulj 1 don I lion In lorm a lion

Citation

McKeown, K. (2001). Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposures to
Tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) During the Application of an Insecticide Powder to a Dog:
Lab Project Number: 1556. Unpublished study prepared by The Hartz Mountain
Corp. 215 p.

EPA MRID

45519601

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D278626

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Five different applicators applied insecticidal powder (3.29% TCVP) using
a shaker can to 3 different dogs for a total of 15 application events. Each application of
approximately 1 ounce of product (approximately 0.0017 lbs TCVP) ranged between 2 and 3
minutes. Dermal exposure was measured using inner dosimetry underneath shorts and a short-
sleeve shirt and hand washes (face/neck exposure was not measured). Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 15 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries
from field fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were variable. Field fortification
recoveries averaged 96.9% ฑ 12.1 for handwipes, 82.12% ฑ 2.3 for inhalation samples, and
64. P/o ฑ 12.4 for whole body dosimeters. For the whole body dosimeters, recoveries were low
(48%) ฑ 2 at the low fortification level of 10 jag and 12.2% ฑ 3.2 at the higher fortification levels
of 500 and 3000 |ig). Laboratory recoveries averaged 104.8%> ฑ7.1 for handwipes, 100.2%> ฑ
9.3 for inhalation samples for the air filter/PUF plug, and 91.9% ฑ 9.2 whole body dosimeters.

Tahlc (-54: MRU) 455 I'M! I — ( hecklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Studs ( iilei'ia

1 ApoMiie (iinipiiiieul

Dermal

liihalalkiu

Dues i lie studs pan ide detailed characteristics mi I lie acli\ il\, equipment tspe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are presented as the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Tahlc ( -55: MRU) 455!')(>!II Dala Siimman

IVrsou ID

. Villi

( Ills)

1 Aposiire ( iiiui

1 ml 1 ApoMire i mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.0017

--

0.0040

--

2.35

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-40


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Formulation: Dusts/Powders

Equipment/Application Method: Shaker can

Tiihlc (-55: MRU) 455!')(>!II l);il;i Suinni;ir\

IVl'SOIl II)

Aaill

( Ills)

1 \poMirc (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiiv i iiiu 111 an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.0015

—

0.0105

--

7.00

A

0.0016

—

0.0008

--

0.50

B

0.0019

—

0.0105

--

5.53

B

0.0019

—

0.0076

--

4.00

B

0.0017

—

0.0340

--

20.00

C

0.0019

—

0.0177

--

9.32

C

0.0018

—

0.0036

--

2.00

C

0.0019

—

0.0082

--

4.32

D

0.0019

—

0.0168

--

8.84

D

0.0017

—

0.0037

--

2.18

D

0.0019

—

0.0354

--

18.63

E

0.0017

—

0.0018

--

1.06

E

0.0019

—

0.0007

--

0.37

E

0.0018

—

0.0011

--

0.61

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations:

•	Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

•	The use of 15 liters per minute is much higher than the standard setting of 1- 2 liters per
minute and could complicate air sampling.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-41


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer

I'iihk* C-5(ป: Scoiiiirio Description ;iihI A\;iil;il>lc l-lxposmv Studies

Formulation

Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application
Method

Airless sprayer

Application Site(s)

outdoors and indoors (general paint and stain applications)

Available Exposure Studies

Formella, T. (1995); MRID 43600102

PHED 467

"I'sihlo < -5-7: I nil llxnosuivs (m*i/ll> ;ii) - Pninl/Siiiin Airless Spr;i\er Applic;ilions

Statistic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

88

0.38

75th percentile

190

0.69

95th percentile

540

1.6

99th percentile

1100

2.9

99.9th percentile

2700

5.7

AM(SD)

160 (250)

0.56 (0.60)

GM (GSD)

88 (3.01)

0.38 (2.4)

Range

12-480

0.078- 1.6

N

15

51

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of pesticide-containing paints or stains using an airless sprayer is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from PHED 467. PHED 467 monitored
15 applications of approximately 5 gallons of pesticide-containing stain with an airless sprayer.
While another study was available that was also reasonably representative of residential
applications, PHED 467 employed exposure monitoring methods that best represented the type
of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no
chemical-resistant gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of pesticide-containing paints or stains using an airless sprayer is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Formella, T. (1995) [EPA MRID
43600102] and PHED 467. Formella, T. (1995) monitored 36 applications of approximately 5
gallons of pesticide-containing paint inside and outside houses for approximately 22-81 minutes
using an airless sprayer. PHED 467 monitored 15 applications of approximately 5 gallons of
pesticide-containing stain with an airless sprayer. Both studies were reasonably representative of
residential applications with inhalation exposures of the same general magnitude, thus a
composite dataset was utilized.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-42


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains	Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = PHED 467

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: X= Formella. T. (1995); O = PHED 467

X010510 .25

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-43


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains
Available Handler Exposure Studies

Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer

Tahlc (-5X: I'.\|)osiiiv Siudj 1 tlon I lion Inform;! I ion

Citation

Formella, T. (1995) Potential Exposure of Workers to Chlorothalonil when Handling
and Applying Paint Containing Chlorothalonil: Lab Project Number: 94 0204: ISKB
1894 002 02: 5227 94 0204 CR 001. Unpublished study prepared by Ricerca, Inc.
272 p.

EPA MRID

43600102

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Four individuals were monitored while applying chlorothalonil-containing
paint with an airless sprayer. Each individual was monitored 3 times for each of 3 paint-types
(interior latex-based, exterior latex-based, and exterior alkyd-based) - for a total of 36
application-events - while spraying 5 gallons of paint (< 1 lb chlorothalonil). Each application-
event ranged from 22 to 81 minutes. Dermal exposure was measured using whole body
dosimetry underneath a long-sleeve shirt, long pants, socks, and shoes. Hand exposure was
measured using inner and outer gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps
(set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification samples fortified with
exterior latex paint containing had a mean recovery of 96% with a standard deviation of 10.1%.
Those samples fortified with interior latex paint had a mean recovery of 96% with a standard
deviation of 6.5% and those fortified with exterior alkyd paint had a mean recovery of 97% with
a standard deviation of 10.4%. Overall laboratory concurrent recovery samples had a mean
recovery of 101% with a standard deviation of 11%.

Tahlc C-5'J: MRU) 43(>lllll02 — ( hecklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Siud\ ( rilciia

1 !\posiiie ( timpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are presented as the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Tahlc C-WI: MRU) 43(>II0I02 Dala Siimman

IVl'SOIl II)

\aill

1 Apiisuiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic i mu Ih an

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-44


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer



(Ills)

Dermal

lnlialalK
-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer

Study Description: Eight different individuals were monitored at 3 different sites (for a total of
15 application-events) while apply stain with an airless sprayer. Each application consisted of an
individual applying a 5 gallon container of stain to approximately 1000 ft . Dermal exposure
was measured using gauze patches outside and inside standard cotton clothing. Hand exposure
was measured using cotton gloves on the outside of protective latex gloves. Inhalation exposure
was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field
fortification recoveries averaged 80.3% for the patches, 90.7% for the filters, and 82.4% for the
cotton gloves. The average recovery from laboratory fortified control samples that were
analyzed with each set of test samples was 90.0% for white cotton gloves and 108.2% for
polyurethane foam filters.

1 "si hie (-(>2: Plllll) 4(i'7 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kecci in men ซl;i 1 ion

Siiids ( rilciia

1 ApoMII'C ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tahle ( -(>3: PI 1 l-'l) 4(>7 Dnin Siimman

IVi'son ID

\aill
dbsi

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 ApuMirc i mu lb an

Dermal

Inlialalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.1667

80.16

0.073

481

0.441

A

0.1667

22.17

0.168

133

1.007

B

0.1667

5.15

0.036

31

0.215

C

0.1667

23.31

0.140

140

0.842

B

0.1667

25.11

0.114

151

0.681

D

0.1667

1.95

0.045

12

0.270

C

0.1667

16.88

0.084

101

0.501

D

0.1667

2.27

0.046

14

0.275

E

0.1667

43.29

0.120

260

0.721

E

0.1667

14.45

0.107

87

0.641

F

0.1667

24.01

0.114

144

0.686

G

0.1667

24.23

0.060

145

0.361

F

0.1667

44.72

0.037

268

0.220

G

0.1667

3.72

0.073

22

0.436

H

0.1667

12.94

0.114

78

0.686

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-46


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application Method: Airless sprayer

gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.	

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of paint/stain
applications using an airless sprayer, the following limitations are noted:

• Cotton gloves were used to measure hand exposure which, though used in the past as a
frequent collection method for hand exposure may result in an overestimate.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-47


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Brush

Tsihle ( -(>4: Scenario Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihlc l-lxposuiv Studies

1 simulation

Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application
Method

Brush

Application Site(s)

outdoors and indoors (general paint and stain applications)

Available Exposure Studies

PHED 467

1 "sihie ( -(>5: I nil r.xposiircs (mg/lh ;ii) - I'iiinl/Miiin linish Applications

Statistic

Dermal

Inhalation

5()" percentile

3yu

o.ly

75th percentile

570

0.23

95th percentile

970

0.30

99th percentile

1400

0.37

99.9th percentile

2200

0.46

AM(SD)

450 (270)

0.20 (0.058)

GM (GSD)

390 (1.7)

0.19 (1.3)

Range

180 - 900

0.16-0.33

N

15

15

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of pesticide-containing paints or stains using a brush is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from PHED 467. PHED 467 monitored 15
applications of approximately 1 gallon of pesticide-containing paint to an interior bathroom for
approximately 34-94 minutes with 2- or 4-inch brushes. This was the only available study for
this exposure scenario.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of pesticide-containing paints or stains using a brush is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from PHED 467. PHED 467 monitored 15
applications of approximately 1 gallon of pesticide-containing paint to an interior bathroom for
approximately 34-94 minutes with 2- or 4-inch brushes. This was the only available study for
this exposure scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-48


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application Method: Brush

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = PHED 467

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = PHED 467

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-49


-------
Formulation: Paints and Stains
Available Exposure Studies

Equipment/Application Method: Brush

Tahlc ('-(>(>: l-'.\posure Siiulj 1 tloiili(ion Information

Citation

PHED 467

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Ten different individuals were monitored at 3 different sites (for a total of
15 application-events) while applying approximately 1 gallon of paint with 2- or 4-inch brushes
to an interior bathroom. Each application ranged from 34-94 minutes. Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches outside and inside standard cotton clothing. Hand exposure was
measured using cotton gloves on the outside of protective latex gloves. Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field
fortification recoveries average 82.5% for patches, 87.5% for filters, and 14.1% for gloves. A
laboratory storage stability study was initiated with each type of matrix. Patch samples had a
recovery of 75.6%, gloves had 81.5%, and filters had a recovery of 94.6% after 89 days storage.
The average recovery from laboratory fortified control samples averaged 87.5% for white cotton
gloves and 99.0% for polyurethane foam air filters.

Tahlc i -W: PI 1 l-'l) - ( hccklisl iiiid I so Recommendation

Studs ( riteria

1 Apiisiire (iiinpiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the siud\ pro\ ide detailed characteristics on (lie acti\ its, equipment t\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tahlc ( -(>X: I'lll-il) -Ki"7 - Dala Siimman

IVi'son ID

Villi
dbsi

1 Aposiiie (mm

1 ml 1 Apiisiire i mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

AA

0.0253

5.82

0.00835

230

0.330

BB

0.0253

4.87

0.00835

193

0.330

CC

0.051

18.32

0.00835

359

0.164

DD

0.051

12.35

0.00835

488

0.164

EE

0.051

4.75

0.00835

188

0.164

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-50


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Formulation: Paints and Stains

Equipment/Application Method: Brush

Tiihk* ( -(>X: Plll-ll) -Ki"7 - l);il;i Suinm;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \poMiiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic i iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

if

0.051

10.50

(HII IS i ^

415

0.1 o4

GG

0.051

21.05

0.00835

832

0.164

HH

0.051

7.59

0.00835

300

0.164

II

0.0253

13.67

0.00835

540

0.330

JJ

0.051

6.90

0.00835

273

0.164

KK

0.051

4.52

0.00835

179

0.164

LL

0.051

18.62

0.00835

736

0.164

MM

0.051

22.70

0.00835

897

0.164

NN

0.051

17.95

0.00835

710

0.164

00

0.051

19.74

0.00835

387

0.164

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of paint/stain
applications using a brush, the following limitations are noted:

• All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (2 |Lxg) was used.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-51


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Formulation: Mothballs

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Scenario Summary

Tsihle ('-(>'): Seen;iriป Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle I'xposure Studios

lormulation

Mothballs

Equipment/Application Method

Hand placement

Application Site(s)

Cabinets, sheds, closets

Available Exposure Studies

Waggoner, T. (1994); MRID 43716501

1 "sihie ( --70: I nil l-Anosures (mji/lh ;ii) — Moihhiill An

)lie:iliniis h> Ihinri

SiaiiMic

Dermal

Inhalation

50Ql percentile

0.021

Inhalation exposure while placing
mothballs in cabinets, closets, etc. is
assumed negligible. The post-
application inhalation exposure
assessment is considered protective of
handler inhalation exposure.

75 th percentile

0.060

95th percentile

0.28

99th percentile

0.81

99.9th percentile

2.7

AM(SD)

0.072 (0.24)

GM (GSD)

0.021 (4.8)

Range

0.032-0.078

N

3

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of pesticide-containing mothballs by hand is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from Waggoner, T. (1990) [EPA MRID 43716501], Waggoner,
T. (1990) monitored 3 applications of mothballs in closets and dresser drawers in 3 residences in
Georgia by hand. This was the only study available for this exposure scenario.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: Inhalation exposure while placing mothballs in
cabinets, closets, etc. is assumed negligible.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-52


-------
Formulation: Mothballs

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = Waggoner, T. (1994)

25 .50

.75

2.0

4.0

.90

T

T

.95

6.0	8.0

Log Normal Quantile

10.0

12.0

14.0

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-53


-------
Formulation: Mothballs

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

Available Exposure Studies

TahleC-"7!: r.xpnsuiv Siiulj 1 don I lion InToi-malion

Citation

Waggoner, T. (1994) Estimation of Homeowner Exposure to LX1298-01
(Napthalene) Resulting from Simulated Residential Use as an Insect Repellent: Final
Report: Lab Project Number: 93-9083: 92-298-01 -21H-02: 92-298-01-21H-03.
Unpublished study prepared by Landis International, Inc. and Pharmaco LSR, Inc.
100 p.

EPA MRID

43716501

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D340008

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three individuals were monitored while placing mothballs in closets and
dresser drawers in 3 residences in Georgia (1 person monitored in each residence for a total of 3
application-events). Each application consisted of weighing the mothballs (so as to place
approximately 1.0 lb naphthalene per 50 ft3 of space), placing mothballs in closets and/or dresser
drawers and closing the closet or dresser drawer. The amount of naphthalene used ranged from
1.34 lbs to 2.2 lbs. Dermal exposure was monitored for hands only using cotton gloves.
Inhalation exposure was monitored during the placement of the mothballs using standard pumps
(set at 0.5 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing - but the results were not reported. Recoveries
from field fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were not reported.

1 "si hie ('-"'2: MKII) 4J"7I(ป50I — ( hecklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Smd\ ( iilciia

1 ApoMiic ( ompiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ('-"'3: M KM) 43^ 10501 - Suminan

IVi'son ID

Villi
dbsi

1 Apusiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 ApuMirc (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

2.2

0.0081

—

0.004

—

B

1.3

0.1040

--

0.078

--

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-54


-------
Formulation: Mothballs

Equipment/Application Method: Hand

C

1.5

0.0465

0.032

Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm). Since
"applicator" inhalation samples were not reported, the highest reported post-application inhalation
exposures are shown.

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.	

Limitations:

•	The adequacy of the results is compromised due to the limited sample size.

•	Inhalation exposure during application of mothballs was not reported.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-55


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Scenario Summary

1 "sihie ( --74: Seeiiiirio Description ;ind A\;iil;ihle llxposiire Studies

Formulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application
Method

Manually-pressurized handwand (also: handheld pump sprayer)

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas), indoors (general broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices)

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, D.L. (1997); MRID 44459801

Merricks, D.L. (1998); MRID 44518501

PHED471

PHED 1024

Stewart, P., et al. (1999)

PHED 468

Rosenheck, L. (2000); MRID 45184305

Tiihle (-'75: I nil llxnosures (m^/lh ;ii) - liquid M;iiin;ilK-pressnri/ed ll;in(l\\;iii(l Applications

SiaiMic

Indoor I ses

Outdoor I ses

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

50 percentile

Studies measuring exposure while
mixing/loading/applying liquid formulations

indoors using a manually-pressurized
handwand are unavailable. The dataset for
mixing/loading/applying wettable powder
formulations indoors should be used as a
surrogate.

Jo

I) OIKi'J

75th percentile

73

0.018

95th percentile

204

0.069

99th percentile

422

0.178

99.9th percentile

949

0.517

AM(SD)

63 (91)

0.018 (0.045)

GM (GSD)

36 (2.89)

0.0069 (4.0)

Range

1.75 - 354

0.0021 -0.742

N

50

69

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary

Outdoor Environments: The recommended dermal unit exposures for applications of
liquid pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in outdoor
environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from
Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPAMRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1998) [EPAMRID
44518501], and Rosenheck, L. (2000) [EPA MRID 45184305], Merricks, D.L. (1997)
monitored 40 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation for approximately 20 minutes
to tomato and cucumber gardens using a manually-pressurized handwand. Merricks,
D.L. (1998) monitored 20 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation for
approximately 20 minutes to citrus trees and shrubs using a manually-pressurized
handwand. Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 10 applications of a liquid pesticide
formulation ranging from 25 to 44 minutes to lawns, gardens, ornamentals, shrubs, and
house foundations. These studies best represent outdoor residential use of this type of
equipment - while other studies are more occupational in nature - and the exposure
monitoring enables representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur
applicator would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves). As
the results were generally of the same magnitude, they were combined into one dataset.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-56


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Indoor Environments: Dermal exposure monitoring data for applications of liquid
pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in indoor environments is
unavailable; dermal unit exposures for applications of wettable powder pesticide
formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in indoor environments are
recommended as surrogate data.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary

Outdoor Environments: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for applications of
liquid pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in outdoor
environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from
Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPA MRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1998) [EPA MRID
44518501], and Rosenheck, L. (2000). Merricks, D.L. (1997) monitored 40 applications
of a liquid pesticide formulation for approximately 20 minutes to tomato and cucumber
gardens using a manually-pressurized handwand. Merricks, D.L. (1998) monitored 20
applications of a liquid pesticide formulation for approximately 20 minutes to citrus trees
and shrubs using a manually-pressurized handwand. Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 10
applications of a liquid pesticide formulation ranging from 25 to 44 minutes to lawns,
gardens, ornamentals, shrubs, and house foundations. These studies best represent
outdoor residential use of this type of equipment - other available studies are more
occupational in nature. Additionally, despite Rosenheck, L. (2000) resulting in
considerably higher inhalation exposures, the datasets were combined.

Indoor Environments: Inhalation exposure monitoring data for applications of liquid
pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in indoor environments is
unavailable; inhalation unit exposures for applications of wettable powder pesticide
formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand in indoor environments are
recommended as surrogate data.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-57


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: X = Merricks, D.L. (1997); O = Merricks, D.L. (1998); ~ = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: X = Merricks, D.L. (1997); O = Merricks, D.L. (1998); ~ = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-58


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Available Exposure Studies

Table ('-"<• 1 Aposni'c SiikI\ kleiililicaliiiii liifoinialiiiii

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1997). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study during
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%), Sevinฎ Ready to Use Insect Spray or Sevinฎ 10
Dust to Home Garden Vegetables

EPA MRID

44459801

ORETF Code

OMA006

EPA Review

Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Forty individuals were monitored while mixing, loading, and applying a
liquid formulation (21% carbaryl) to tomato and cucumber gardens using a manually-pressurized
handwand. Each application was approximately 20 minutes and consisted of loading the
manually-pressurized handwand and applying approximately 0.07 lbs formulation
(approximately 0.01 gallons; 0.02 lbs carbaryl) in 2 gallons of water to garden plants. Dermal
exposure was measured using inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes (20
individuals were monitored without gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive
dosimeters averaged 84.3% for inner dosimeters and 77.7% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck
wipe field fortifications averaged 84.8%. Both handwash and inhalation tube field fortification
averaged >90%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range
of 70 to 120%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except the
inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5
|ig/sample for all media except the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

Tiihlc C-"7"7: MRU) 4445'JXOI - Chccklisl ;nul I so Kccommciuliilion for

Siud\ ( iilcria

1 ApoMII'C ( 'iimpoilCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. Note that only dermal
exposure data representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks, and
no chemical-resistant gloves are presented. The submitted study itself or corresponding
analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-59


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

T;ihk- C-"7X: MRU) 4445'JXOI - l);ii;i Siimniiin

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \piiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiiv ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

P 2

0.018

--

0.00017

--

0.0094

Q2

0.019

--

0.00004

--

0.0023

R2

0.015

--

0.00009

--

0.0067

S2

0.017

--

0.00008

--

0.0041

V2

0.013

--

0.00004

--

0.0041

W2

0.017

--

0.00004

--

0.0041

X2

0.019

--

0.00004

--

0.0033

Y2

0.019

--

0.00004

--

0.0022

B3

0.017

--

0.00004

--

0.0032

C3

0.019

--

0.00008

--

0.0044

D3

0.019

--

0.00004

--

0.0021

E3

0.013

--

0.00004

--

0.0027

H3

0.018

--

0.00017

--

0.0131

13

0.019

--

0.00025

~

0.0129

J3

0.019

--

0.00004

~

0.0023

K3

0.019

--

0.00004

~

0.0027

N3

0.015

--

0.00004

--

0.0027

03

0.019

--

0.00004

~

0.0027

P3

0.015

--

0.00016

~

0.0107

Q3

0.019

--

0.00017

~

0.0101

A

0.018

1.16

0.00008

65

0.0047

B

0.018

0.88

0.00004

46

0.0022

G

0.013

0.30

0.00008

20

0.0053

C

0.020

2.84

0.00026

171

0.0155

J

0.010

0.21

0.00004

17

0.0033

D

0.010

3.71

0.00008

224

0.0050

M

0.013

0.33

0.00008

17

0.0044

N

0.019

1.14

0.00025

60

0.0131

Q

0.013

0.32

0.00004

19

0.0025

R

0.019

0.65

0.00017

34

0.0087

U

0.020

0.21

0.00004

11

0.0022

V

0.015

0.59

0.00025

46

0.0197

Y

0.013

1.81

0.00004

102

0.0023

Z

0.019

0.47

0.00004

25

0.0022

C2

0.018

2.39

0.00017

125

0.0087

D2

0.015

0.69

0.00008

36

0.0044

G2

0.015

0.45

0.00004

30

0.0027

H2

0.015

0.49

0.00017

26

0.0087

K2

0.015

0.16

0.00004

10

0.0027

L2

0.017

0.72

0.00008

38

0.0044

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand, the
following limitations are noted:

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-60


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

1 "sihie ("-""J: r.xposure Siudj Identification Information

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1998). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study During
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%) to Fruit Trees and Ornamental Plants

EPA MRID

44518501

ORETF Code

OMA005

EPA Review

Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Twenty individuals were monitored while loading and applying a liquid
formulation (21% carbaryl) to citrus trees and shrubs using a manually-pressurized handwand.
Each application consisted of pouring the formulation into the tank and spraying the trees - all
lasting less than 20 minutes. The amount of carbaryl handled ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 lbs.
Dermal exposure was measured using inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes
(individuals were monitored without gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive
dosimeters averaged 88.3% for inner and 76.2% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe
fortifications averaged 82.5%. Handwash fortifications averaged 93.6% and air sampler tube
fortification was 91.8%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable
range of 70 to 120%>. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except
the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was
0.5 |ig/sample for all media except the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

Tiihle ( -SO: MKII) 4451X501 - Checklist iiiid I se Recoiiimeiithi I ion

Siud\ ( 1'ilci'ia

1 ApiislllC ( 'iimpoilCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Tahlc( -XI: MKII) 4451X501 - l)ala Siimman

IVl'SOIl II)

Villi

1 \piiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiirc (mu lb an

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-61


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand



(Ills)

Dermal

liihalalkin

Dermal

Inhalation

2

0.018

0.45

0.000042

25

0.0023

4

0.015

0.79

0.000042

52

0.0027

6

0.020

2.57

0.000042

126

0.0021

8

0.019

0.51

0.000042

27

0.0022

10

0.013

4.52

0.000042

354

0.0033

12

0.014

0.78

0.000043

56

0.0031

14

0.018

2.12

0.000042

119

0.0023

16

0.020

3.52

0.000167

174

0.0083

18

0.017

0.75

0.000084

45

0.0050

20

0.015

0.61

0.000167

40

0.0109

22

0.019

0.88

0.000042

46

0.0022

24

0.018

0.27

0.000042

15

0.0023

26

0.018

0.64

0.000043

36

0.0024

28

0.020

1.66

0.000042

82

0.0021

30

0.015

1.17

0.000257

77

0.0168

32

0.018

1.34

0.000086

75

0.0048

34

0.020

0.92

0.000042

46

0.0021

36

0.017

0.61

0.000251

37

0.0151

38

0.020

0.50

0.000042

25

0.0021

40

0.018

1.13

0.000167

63

0.0094

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand, the
following limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

Tiihlc C-X2: l.\|)osiiro Siiulj Iricnlificiilion Inl'tn-miilion

Citation

PHED471

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

None

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Four workers at 4 different sites (for a total of 16 application events) were
monitored while mixing, loading, and applying a liquid formulation to poultry litter using a
manually-pressurized handwand. Each applicator mixed and applied 3, 2-gallon solutions (equal
to approximately 0.052 lbs active ingredient), a task that lasted on average 53 minutes. Dermal
exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work clothing) and
cotton gloves (underneath chemical-resistant gloves) for hand exposure. Inhalation exposure
was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. All
inhalation samples were non-detects. An average of 84.9 ฑ 5.2 (n=18) was recovered from field

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-62


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

fortified patches, 79.3 ฑ 7.3% from gloves and 84.0 ฑ 16.8% from foam air filters. The overall
average recovery from laboratory fortified control samples was 87 ฑ 12.0% for alpha-cellulose
gauze patches, 75 ฑ 11.6% for cotton gloves, and 89 ฑ 10.5% for foam air filters.

Table ( -S3: PI 1 l-'l) 4"7I - ( hocklisl iiiid I so Recommendation

Siud\ ( nieria

1 Aposlll'e ( 'lillipiiMCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Table C-X4: l-lxposure Siudj 1 tloiili(ion Information

Citation

PHED 1024

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

None

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Sixteen individuals were monitored while applying a liquid formulation to
greenhouse plants hanging overhead or on the floor or on benches using a manually-pressurized
handwand. A wide range of solution was applied ranging from 5 gallons to 120 gallons per
applicator, which corresponded to a range of 0.06 to 0.91 lbs of active ingredient handled. Each
application event generally lasted 1.5 hours. Dermal exposure was measured using gauze
patches (both inside and outside normal work clothing) and hand rinses (underneath chemical-
resistant gloves) for hand exposure. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps
(set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries from field fortifications of
exposure sampling matrices were generally above 90%.

Table ( -X5: Plll.l) 1024 - ( hcckliM and I se Recommendation lor

SiiuK ( nieria

1 \posure (onipoiicul

Dermal Inhalation

Does the studs pro\ ide detailed characteristics on (lie acti\ its, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-63


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Table ( -X5: Plll.l) 1024 - ( heckliM and I so Kecom inoiuhi I ion lor

SiiuK ( riieiia

1 \posuie ( ompoiieiii

Dermal

liihalaliou

Docs dermal exposure nioiuloring allow for coiisiruclioii of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Table C-H(ป: l-lxposure Siiulj 1 tloiili(ion Information

Citation

Stewart, P., T. Fears, H.F. Nicholson, B.C. Kross, L. K. Ogilvie, S.H. Zahm, M.H.
Ward and A. Blair (1999) Exposure Received From Application Of Animal
Insecticides. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 60:208-212

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three farmers were monitored while applying insecticides to animals using
a manually-pressurized handwand. Each application ranged from approximately 1 to 200 liters
of solution and varied among 6 active ingredients. Clothing worn varied between farmers.
Dermal exposure was measured using a fluorescent dye video-imaging technique. Inhalation
exposure was not measured.

Table ( -X"7: Sicwarl.el al. (— Checklist and I se Kccommendalion

Siud> ( iilei'ia

1 \posuie ( ompoiieiii

Dermal

liihalaliou

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

NA

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

NA

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-64


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

1 "sihie C-XX: l.xposuro S(ud\ Idenlificalion InToi-malion

Citation

PHED 468

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Nine individuals were monitored on two days (4 on the 1st day, 5 on the 2nd
day) while applying a plant growth regulator to ornamentals in a 2000 ft2 greenhouse. Each
worker was suited with sampling media separately for the mixing/loading portion of the task and
the application portion. Each application consisted of spraying 2 gallons of spray solution for
approximately 30 minutes at a rate of 1 gallon per 200 ft . The solution was 100 ppm (active
ingredient unknown) so each applicator handled approximately 0.0017 lbs of active ingredient.
Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work
clothing) and cotton gloves worn over chemical-resistant gloves for hand exposure. Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
All inhalation samples were non-detects. The overall recovery from samples fortified in the
laboratory and analyzed with each set of field samples averaged 102% for alpha-cellulose, 106%
for gloves, and 101% for foam filters.

l iihle C-Xซ): I'lll.l) 46X-( heeklisl iiiid I se Recommendation

Siiids ( I'llei'ia

1 AposUIC ( 'lillipiiMCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-65


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Tiihlc l.xpoNiiro S(ii(l> Idcnlificalion InToi-malion

Citation

Rosenheck, L. (2000) Determination of Exposure During the Mixing, Loading and
Application of Liquid Diazinon to Residential Turf Through the Use of Passive
Dosimetry and Biological Monitoring: Lab Project Number 767-98:
I024480NAU950T. Unpublished study prepared by Development
Resources/Chemical Support Department, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc. 574 p.

EPA MRID

45184305

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D268247

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Ten non-professional volunteers were monitored while making applications
of a liquid pesticide formulation (22.4% diazinon) with a manually-pressurized 2 gallon hand-
pump sprayer. Each application consisted of filling and spraying the tank twice, handling a total
of 8 teaspoons, or 0.021 lb active ingredient. Spot treatments were made to lawns, gardens,
ornamentals, shrubs, and house foundations. Dermal exposure was measured using whole body
dosimetry (100% cotton union suit) worn under shorts and a T-shirt, hand washes, and face/neck
wipes. No chemical-resistant gloves were worn. Inhalation exposure was measured using
standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries
for the cotton union suit dosimeters averaged 99%, face and neck wipe fortifications averaged
89.1%), handwash fortifications averaged 75% and air sampler tube fortification was 109%.
Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range of 70 to 120%.
The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for the cotton dosimeters, 0.5 |ig/sample for
the face/neck wipes, 1.0 |ig/sample for the hand washes and 0.01 |ig/sample for the inhalation
monitors.

Tahle ( -VI: MRU) 451X4305 - ( heckliM iiiid I so Kecummendalion

Siud\ ( 1'ilcria

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpoilCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-66


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Tiihk-( -<>2: MKII) 451X4305 - l);il;i Siimmsin

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 ApuMiic (mm

1 mi 1 ApoMirc ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

33

0.021

0.261

0.00167

12.43

0.0795

37

0.021

0.0368

0.00189

1.75

0.0901

38

0.021

0.507

0.00356

24.14

0.1697

39

0.021

0.137

0.00278

6.52

0.1325

40

0.021

1.12

0.00445

53.33

0.2121

41

0.021

0.156

0.00267

7.43

0.1272

42

0.021

0.278

0.00445

13.24

0.2121

43

0.021

0.473

0.01559

22.52

0.7422

31

0.021

2.176

0.00200

103.62

0.0954

32

0.021

0.0423

—

2.01

—

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand, the
following limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-67


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Handheld fogger

Scenario Summary

Tsihle C-'JJ: Scenario Description ;iihI A\;iihil>le l-lxposure Studies

Formulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application
Method

Handheld Fogger

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

Nigg, et al (1987); MRID 40350501

Bergman, J. (2003); MRID 45869301

1 "sihie ( -<>4: I nil llxposures img/lh ;ii) - l.imiiri 11 ;inซlheld l;oซปซer \pplic;ilions

Siaiisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

Studies measuring exposure while mixing/loading/applying liquid
formulations using a handheld fogger are available, but not recommended for
residential handler exposure assessment. Therefore, the exposure studies
recommended for applying an aerosol should be used as a surrogate.

75th percentile

95th percentile

99th percentile

99.9th percentile

AM(SD)

GM (GSD)

Range

N

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-68


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Handheld fogger

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tahle (-'>5: l.xpnsiMY Siuclj 1 tlonIlion InToi-malion

Citation

Nigg, et al (1987) Pesticide Exposure to Florida Greenhouse Applicators, Nigg, H.N.,
Stamper, J.H. andMahon, W.D., University of Florida, 1987

EPA MRID

40350501

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

None

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Four different workers were monitored while using a pulse-fogging device
in a Florida greenhouse. Four active ingredients were used at rates ranging from 0.03 lbs/hr to
0.2 lbs/hr. Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal
work clothing) and hand rinses were used for hand exposure (hand exposure was measured only
when gloves were not worn). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 3
liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries from field fortifications of exposure
sampling matrices were poor, ranging from 13% to 94% depending on the chemical and matrix.
Mean recoveries (%) from 10 |ig fortifications of fluvalinate on gauze pads was 75% ฑ 6%, for
handwashes was 62 ฑ 6%, and for air sampler plugs was 51 ฑ 4%. Mean recoveries from 10 |ig
fortifications of the compound chlorpyrifos on gauze pads was 82 ฑ 3%, for handwashes was 79
ฑ 4%, and for air sampler plugs was 73 ฑ 4%. Mean recoveries from 10 |ig fortifications of the
compound ethazol on gauze pads was 51 ฑ 7%, for handwashes was 45 ฑ 10%, and for air
sampler plugs was 68 ฑ 8%. Mean recoveries (%) from 10 |ig fortifications of the compound
dicofol on gauze pads was 89 ฑ 5%, for handwashes was 76 ฑ 4%, and for air sampler plugs was
90 ฑ 9%. Mean recoveries (%) from 10 |ig fortifications of the compound captan on gauze pads
was 61 ฑ 8%>, for handwashes was 13 ฑ 2%, and for air sampler plugs was 63 ฑ 14%. Mean
recoveries (%) from 10 |ig fortifications of the compound chlorothalonil on gauze pads was 94 ฑ
3%, for handwashes was 25 ฑ 14%, and for air sampler plugs was 67 ฑ 8%.

Tahle ('-')(>: MRU) 40350501 — ( hecklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Sllld\ ( I'lkTia

1 Aposurc ('ompiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Docs ihc silkIn pio\ idc dolailcd diaraclciisiKs oil ihc aai\ iIn , equipment l\ |X\
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-69


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Formulation: Liquids	Equipment/Application Method: Handheld fogger

Limitations: This study has been identified to have ethical concerns.

1 ahle ( -1)"7: r.xpnsuiv Siiulj 1 don I lion InToi-malion

Citation

Bergman, J. (2003) Applicator Exposure and Air Sampling Following Application of
ETOC Fogging Concentrate 2764 by ULV Fogging: Lab Project Number: GLP-1648.
Unpublished study prepared by McLaughlin Gormley King Company. 107 p.

{OPPTS 875.1400 and 875.2500}

EPA MRID

45869301

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D289337

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: One individual was monitored during 25 applications of a liquid
concentrate (active ingredient prallethrin) to a 5500 ft3 test chamber using a handheld ultra low-

"3

volume (ULV) fogger at the maximum application rate of 1 fl. oz. per 1000 ft (equivalent to
approximately 0.001 lb ai/1000 ft3). Dermal exposure was not monitored in this study.

Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 0.03 liter per minute), cassettes,
and tubing. One set of recovery results were provided, however, the study author did not specify
whether the recovery samples represented laboratory fortified samples or field fortified samples.
The results for these fortification recoveries are discussed in the Field Recovery section of this
study review. Three fortification samples were prepared at three concentrations (LOQ, 10 X
LOQ, and 100 X LOQ) for each application. Sample preparation and storage were not discussed.
Recoveries ranged from 76.8% to 147.3%. The average percent recovery for samples fortified at
the LOQ, at 10X LOQ and at 100X LOQ were 119.6%, 113.1%, and 92.3%, respectively. The
overall average percent recovery was 108.3 ฑ 14.3%.

Tahle C-')X: MRU) 45S6')3ll| -Checklist and I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Siud\ ( 1'ilci'ia

1 !\posiiie ( ompiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: This study has been identified to have ethical concerns.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-70


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Dipping

Scenario Summary

1 "sihie ( Seeiiiirio Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle llxposiire Studies

Formulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application
Method

Dipping

Application Site(s)

Pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

McKeown, K. (2001); MRID 45528801

l iihle ( -1011: I nil l-Aposures (mji/lh ;ii) - l.iuuiri Dinning Applications

Siaiisiic

Dermal

liihalaliiiii

50th percentile

67

0.026

75th percentile

120

0.028

95th percentile

300

0.031

99th percentile

560

0.034

99.9th percentile

1100

0.037

AM(SD)

100 (120)

0.027 (0.0028)

GM (GSD)

67 (2.5)

0.026(1.1)

Range

17-430

0.022-0.032

N

15

15

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for dipping
pets or animals in liquid pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution fit with
exposure monitoring data from McKeown, K. (2001) [EPA MRID 45528801], McKeown, K.
(2001) monitored 15 applications of dipping dogs in a tub containing a liquid pesticide solution
for approximately 4 to 5 minutes. This was the only available study for this exposure scenario.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
dipping pets or animals in liquid pesticide formulations is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from McKeown, K. (2001) [EPA MRID 45528801], McKeown,
K. (2001) monitored 15 applications of dipping dogs in a tub containing a liquid pesticide
solution for approximately 4 to 5 minutes. This was the only available study for this exposure
scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-71


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Dipping

Lognormal Probability Plots

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = McKeown, K. (2001)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-72


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Dipping

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tahle('-IOI: l'l\|)osure Siudj 1 dent il'ic;i lion 1 n I'o nun lion

Citation

McKeown, K. (2001) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposures to
Tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) During the Application of a Dipping Solution to a Dog:
Lab Project Number: TX 76384: 1557: ML01-0925-HMT. Unpublished study
prepared by The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Morse Laboratories, Inc. and Sharp
Veterinary Research. 258 p.

EPA MRID

45528801

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D279176

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review 1/7/02

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Five individuals were monitored while dipping 3 dogs (for a total of 15
application events) in a solution with the active ingredient TCVP. Each application event,
lasting only 4 to 5 minutes, consisted of mixing the solution (8 oz of product per 4 gallons water;
3.29% TCVP) in a tub, dipping the dog in the solution and pouring the solution over those parts
not submerged, then removing the dog from the tub. Dermal exposure was measured using a
whole body dosimeter (underneath a short-sleeve shirt and shorts) and hand washes. Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 15 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
Hand wipes had field recoveries above 90% at all fortification levels. Cotton union suits had
recoveries of 48% to 73% depending upon the fortification levels. The air sampling media had a
recovery of 81% at 10X LOQ which was the lowest level tested. Laboratory recoveries were
above 90% for all the types of dosimeters, at all levels tested, including the LOQ. For dermal
dosimeters, handwipes, and air tubes, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig, the limit of
quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig.

l iihle ( -102: MKII) 4552XXOI - Checklist ;iihI I se Recommendation

Smd\ ( menu

1 !\posiiie (timpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

I "si hie ( -103: MKII) 4552XXOI - l);K;i Suinni;ir\

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-73


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Dipping

IVl'SOIl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Apiisuiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic iiiiu Ih ail

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liilialalion

A

0.015

1.36

0.00041

90.7

0.0274

A

0.015

2.09

0.00048

139.3

0.0318

A

0.015

0.89

0.00043

59.3

0.0285

B

0.015

2.59

0.00034

172.7

0.0229

B

0.015

1.31

0.00037

87.3

0.0246

B

0.015

1.01

0.00033

67.3

0.0222

C

0.015

0.44

0.00043

29.3

0.0290

C

0.015

0.29

0.00041

19.3

0.0275

C

0.015

1.51

0.00039

100.7

0.0263

D

0.015

0.37

0.00039

24.7

0.0264

D

0.015

0.25

0.00038

16.7

0.0259

D

0.015

0.74

0.00037

49.3

0.0247

E

0.015

2.55

0.00039

170.0

0.0264

E

0.015

6.35

0.00036

423.3

0.0242

E

0.015

0.53

0.00047

35.3

0.0316

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm). All
samples were non-detects. Reported as Vi LOD (0.01 ug/m3).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of dipping pets or
animals in a dilute liquid pesticide solution, the following limitations are noted:

•	All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (0.5 |Lxg) was
used.

•	Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

•	The use of 15 liters per minute is much higher than the standard setting of 1- 2 liters per
minute and could complicate air sampling.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-74


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Sponge

Scenario Summary

Tiihlc ( -104: Scoiiiii'io Description ;iihI A\iiil;ihk- r.xpnsuiv Studies

1 simulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application
Method

Sponge

Application Site(s)

Pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

McKeown, K. (2001); MRID 45528801

Tiihlc ( -105: I nil llxnosuivs (mii/ll) ;ii) - Liquid Sponge Applications

Siaiisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

5ir* percentile

yl7

U.2U

75th percentile

1860

0.24

95th percentile

5150

0.31

99th percentile

10500

0.37

99.9th percentile

23400

0.45

AM(SD)

1600 (2250)

0.21 (0.055)

GM (GSD)

917 (2.9)

0.20 (1.3)

Range

267 - 4842

0.143 -0.268

N

5

5

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a sponge is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from McKeown, K. (2001) [EPA MRID 45528801],
McKeown, K. (2001) monitored 5 applications of a liquid pesticide solution for approximately 4
to 5 minutes using a sponge. This was the only available study for this exposure scenario.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a sponge is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from McKeown, K. (2001) [EPA MRID 45528801],
McKeown, K. (2001) monitored 5 applications of a liquid pesticide solution for approximately 4
to 5 minutes using a sponge. This was the only available study for this exposure scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-75


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Sponge

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = McKeown, K. (2001)

5000'

4000'

'ro 30001

J2
O)

E

w 2000'

D
ro

fe 1000'

Q

0'

.5	1.0	1.5	2.0	2.5	3.0

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = McKeown, K. (2001)

0.28'
0.26'
0.24

TO _ _ _

s 0.22-

~6)

E,

w 0.2'

D
c
.o

I 0.18'

sz
_c

0.16'

.8	.9	1.0	1.1	1.2	1.3

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-76


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Sponge

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Table C-I0(ป: r.\|)(isuiT S(ii(l\ 1 tlon((ion Information

Citation

McKeown, K. (2001) Determination of Dermal and Inhalation Exposures to
Tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) During the Application of a Dipping Solution to a Dog:
Lab Project Number: TX 76384: 1557: ML01-0925-HMT. Unpublished study
prepared by The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Morse Laboratories, Inc. and Sharp
Veterinary Research. 258 p.

EPA MRID

45528801

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D279176

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review 1/7/02

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Five individuals were monitored while applying a liquid solution (active
ingredient TCVP) using a sponge to 5 dogs (for a total of 5 application events). Each application
event, lasting only 4 to 5 minutes, consisted of mixing the solution (2 oz of product in a 1 gallon
container; 3.29% TCVP), placing the dog in a tub, applying the solution to the dog with a
sponge, then removing the dog from the tub. Dermal exposure was measured using a whole
body dosimeter (underneath a short-sleeve shirt and shorts) and hand washes. Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 15 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
Hand wipes had field recoveries above 90% at all fortification levels. Cotton union suits had
recoveries of 48% to 73% depending upon the fortification levels. The air sampling media had a
recovery of 81% at 10X LOQ which was the lowest level tested. Laboratory recoveries were
above 90% for all the types of dosimeters, at all levels tested, including the LOQ. For dermal
dosimeters, handwipes, and air tubes, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig, the limit of
quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig.

1 "sihie ( -107; MRU) 4552SSIII - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Recummendalion lor

Siud\ ( 1'ilcria

1 Apiisuiv ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table C-I0H: MRU) 4552SSOI - Siimman

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-77


-------
Formulation: Liquids	Equipment/Application Method: Sponge

IVl'SOIl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \posi

re (mm

1 ml 1 Aposii

v dim Ih ail

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liilialalion

A

0.0024

0.63

0.00050

267

0.209735

B

0.0019

1.26

0.00058

664

0.305605

C

0.0016

7.69

0.00052

4842

0.326541

D

0.0024

2.08

0.00042

870

0.17405

E

0.0019

1.61

0.00045

868

0.240907

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

Unit Exposure

= Exposure/AaiH.









Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of applying dilute
liquid pesticide solutions to pets or animals with a sponge, the following limitations are noted:

•	All inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (0.5 |Lxg) was
used.

•	Each individual handled approximately the same amount of active ingredient making
analysis of the relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient
handled (the underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

•	The use of 15 liters per minute is much higher than the standard setting of 1- 2 liters per
minute and could complicate air sampling.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-78


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Scenario Summary

1 iihlc ( -HI'): Scoiiiii'io Description ;iihI A\;iil;il>le l.xpnsuiv Studios

Formulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application
Method

Hose-end sprayer

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

Solomon, K. R., Harris, S. A, Stephenson, G. R. (1993).

Klonne, D. (1999); MRID 44972201

Merricks, D.L. (1998); MRID 44518501

Merricks, D.L. (1997); MRID 44459801

Rosenheck, L. (2000); MRID 45184305

Tiihk* (-110: I nil llxnosuivs (iii^/ll) :ii) - l.iiiuid Mosc-cnri Snr;i\er Applications

Statistic

Lawns Mounds \ests \quatic areas

Gardens lives IVi'inieter

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

50 percentile

8.01

0.015

T /

0.0012

75 th percentile

16.2

0.027

69

0.0017

95th percentile

40.5

0.064

180

0.0029

99th percentile

76.9

0.12

340

0.0043

99.9th percentile

158

0.23

710

0.0065

AM(SD)

13.4(16)

0.022 (0.024)

58(71)

0.0014 (0.00082)

GM (GSD)

8.61 (2.56)

0.015 (2.4)

37 (2.6)

0.0012(1.7)

Range

0.874 - 49

0.003 -0.082

5.0-280

0.0004 - 0.0062

N

42

41

40

60

Dermal Unit Exposure Data Summary

Gardens, Trees, and Perimeter Treatments: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a dial-type hose-end sprayer to
gardens, trees, and perimeters of houses is based on a lognormal distribution fit with
exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D.L. (1998) [EPAMRID 44518501] and
Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPA MRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1998) monitored 20
applications of a liquid formulation for approximately 20 minutes to citrus trees and
shrubs using a dial-type hose-end sprayer. Merricks, D.L. (1997) monitored 40
applications of a liquid formulation for approximately 20 minutes to tomato and
cucumber gardens using a dial-type hose-end sprayer.

Lawns, Insect Mounds and Nests, and Aquatic Areas: The recommended dermal unit
exposures for applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a dial-type hose-end
sprayer to lawns, insect mounds and nests, and aquatic areas is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID
44972201] andRosenheck, L. (2000) [EPAMRID 45184305], Klonne, D. (1999)
monitored 30 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation for approximately 75 minutes
to approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns using a dial-type hose-end sprayer.
Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 12 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation ranging
from 18 to 78 minutes to approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns using a conventional

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-79


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

hose-end sprayer. These studies best represents residential use for this scenario and the
exposure monitoring enabled representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or
amateur applicator would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant
gloves).

Inhalation Unit Exposure Data Summary

Gardens, Trees, and Perimeter Treatments: The recommended inhalation unit exposures
for applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a dial-type hose-end sprayer to
gardens, trees, and perimeters of houses is based on a lognormal distribution fit with
exposure monitoring data from Merricks, D.L. (1998) [EPA MRID 44518501] and
Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPA MRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1998) monitored 20
applications of a liquid formulation for approximately 20 minutes to citrus trees and
shrubs using a dial-type hose-end sprayer. Merricks, D.L. (1997) monitored 40
applications of a liquid formulation for approximately 20 minutes to tomato and
cucumber gardens using a dial-type hose-end sprayer. Of the available studies these were
most representative of residential uses for this scenario.

Lawns, Insect Mounds and Nests, and Aquatic Areas: The recommended inhalation unit
exposures for applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a dial-type hose-end
sprayer to lawns, insect mounds and nests, and aquatic areas is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID
44972201] and Rosenheck, L. (2000) [EPA MRID 45184305], Klonne, D. (1999)
monitored 30 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation for approximately 75 minutes
to approximately 5000 ft of residential lawns using a dial-type hose-end sprayer.
Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 12 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation ranging
from 18 to 78 minutes to approximately 5000 ft of residential lawns using a conventional
hose-end sprayer. Of the available studies these were the most representative of
residential uses for this scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-80


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Lognormal Probability Plots

Turf/Mounds/Nests/Aquatic Legend: ฆ = Klonne, D. (1999); X = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Log Normal Quantile

Turf/Mounds/Nests/Aquatic Legend: ฆ = Klonne, D. (1999); X = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-81


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Gardens & Trees/Perimeter Legend: X = Merricks, D.L. (1997); O = Merricks, D.L. (1998)

Log Normal Quantile

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-82


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Tahle ( -111: A\ailahle l"\posuro Siudj Idenliricalion 1 nlVinn;ilion

Citation

Solomon, K. R., Harris, S. A, Stephenson, G. R. (1993). Applicator And Bystander
Exposure To Home Garden And Landscape Pesticides. American Chemical Society,
1993, pp. 262-273

EPA MRID

none

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total 20 application events were monitored while loading and applying a
liquid concentrate formulation (active ingredient 2, 4-D) using a hose-end sprayer. Eleven of the
applications were conducted while wearing "protective" clothing, while 9 applications were
conducted while wearing "normal" clothing. The exact nature of the clothing worn was not
provided. Each individual handled approximately 0.08 - 3 lbs of 2, 4-D per application.
Exposure was measured using biomonitoring with passive monitoring only conducted for
inhalation exposure using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
Recoveries from field fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were generally above 85%.

1 "sihie (-112: Solomon, el ill. (I'J'JJ) - ( heeklisl iind I se Kecoinmeiithition lor

Smd\ ( rileiia

1 ApiislllV ( 'iillipiillCIII

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Tahle ( -113: l'l\posure Siuilj 1 tlon I il'ic;i I ion Information

Citation

Klonne, D. (1999). Integrated Report on Evaluation of Potential Exposure to
Homeowners and Professional Lawn Care Operators Mixing, Loading, and Applying
Granular and Liquid Pesticides to Residential Lawns. Sponsor/Submitter: Outdoor
Residential Exposure Task Force

EPA MRID

44972201

ORETF Code

OMA004

EPA Review

Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D261948

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-83


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

	D287251	

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 30 application events were collected from 30 individuals using
passive dosimetry (inner and outer whole body dosimeters, hand washes, face/neck wipes, and
personal inhalation monitors). Each test subject poured a 32 fl. oz. plastic container into a dial-
type sprayer (DTS), which was then screwed onto the end of the hose. Each application
consisted of treating approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns and handling approximately 0.5
lb active ingredient (diazinon) over the course of 75 minutes. Dermal exposure was measured
using inner and outer whole body dosimeters, hand washes, and face/neck washes, such that
exposure can be constructed for various clothing scenarios (including a short-sleeve shirt, shorts,
and no chemical-resistant gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard personal air
monitoring devices set at 1.5 liters per minute. All fortified samples and field samples collected
on the same study day were stored frozen and analyzed together, eliminating the need for storage
stability determination. Lab spike recoveries for all matrices were in the range of 87-103%.

Mean field fortification recoveries ranged from 79 to 104%.

1 "sihie ( -114: MKII) 44V22HI - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Siud\ ( iiieria

1 Aposuic ( onipoiicul

Dermal

Inhalation

Docs die silkIn pro\ ide detailed characteristics oil the acli\ iIn . equipment l\ pc.
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -115: MKII) 44')"722lll - Data Siimman

IVi'sou ID

Vull
dbsi

1 \posuiv (mm

1 ml 1 ApoMire (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

3

0.5

1.29

0.007

2.58

0.014

4

0.5

9.01

—

18.03

—

7

0.5

12.80

0.025

25.60

0.050

8

0.5

7.60

0.015

15.21

0.030

10

0.5

5.20

0.005

10.40

0.010

14

0.5

3.52

0.008

7.04

0.016

15

0.5

2.97

0.021

5.94

0.042

16

0.5

6.56

0.015

13.12

0.030

18

0.5

3.60

0.014

7.19

0.028

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-84


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

1 "sihie ( -115: MKII) 44')"722lll - l);ii;i Siiiiiin;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( nm lb an

Dermal

Inhalalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

20

0.5

4.o5

0.007

9.30

0.014

24

0.5

2.25

0.010

4.49

0.020

25

0.5

24.72

0.041

49.44

0.082

27

0.5

4.70

0.028

9.40

0.056

28

0.5

8.04

0.023

16.07

0.046

30

0.5

14.78

0.005

29.57

0.010

34

0.5

4.39

0.005

8.77

0.010

35

0.5

17.55

0.002

35.10

0.004

36

0.5

11.98

0.002

23.96

0.004

39

0.5

3.40

0.007

6.81

0.014

40

0.5

7.14

0.006

14.28

0.012

43

0.5

1.74

0.002

3.48

0.004

44

0.5

3.72

0.003

7.44

0.006

47

0.5

6.32

0.007

12.65

0.014

49

0.5

11.05

0.024

22.09

0.048

50

0.5

3.94

0.013

7.88

0.026

54

0.5

9.73

0.009

19.45

0.018

55

0.5

2.65

0.002

5.29

0.004

56

0.5

1.31

0.005

2.62

0.010

59

0.5

16.03

0.010

32.06

0.020

60

0.5

3.49

0.009

6.99

0.018

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a hose-end sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

Tsihle ( -11(>: l-'.xposure Siuilj Idemil'ic:ilion lnlonii;ilioii

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1998). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study During
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%) to Fruit Trees and Ornamental Plants

EPA MRID

44518501

ORETF Code

OMA005

EPA Review

Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Twenty individuals were monitored while loading and applying a liquid
formulation (21% carbaryl) to citrus trees and shrubs using a hose-end sprayer. Each application
consisted of pouring the formulation into a dial-type sprayer (DTS), screwing it onto the garden

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-85


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

hose and spraying the trees and shrubs. The activity lasted less than 20 minutes and the amount
of carbaryl handled ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 lbs. Dermal exposure was measured using inner
and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes (individuals were monitored without gloves).
Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes,
and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive dosimeters averaged 88.3% for inner and
76.2% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe fortifications averaged 82.5%. Handwash
fortifications averaged 93.6% and air sampler tube fortification was 91.8%. Laboratory method
validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range of 70 to 120%. The limit of
quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except the inhalation monitors where the
LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig/sample for all media except
the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

1 "sihie ( -11"7: MKII) 4451X501 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Siud\ ( iilciia

1 Aposiiic (onipoiiciii

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -1 IS: MKII) 4451X501 - Data Siimman

IVi'son II)

Vnll
(Ills)

1 \posiii'c (mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiiv (mu Ih an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.026

0.19

0.000042

7.3

0.0016

B

0.020

2.25

0.000042

112.5

0.0021

C

0.066

8.71

0.000042

132.0

0.0006

D

0.052

14.65

0.000084

281.7

0.0016

E

0.027

1.64

0.000167

60.7

0.0062

F

0.025

0.31

0.000042

12.4

0.0017

G

0.020

1.38

0.000042

69.0

0.0021

H

0.022

0.99

0.000042

45.0

0.0019

I

0.021

0.90

0.000042

42.9

0.0020

J

0.020

0.99

0.000042

49.5

0.0021

K

0.035

0.42

0.000044

12.0

0.0013

L

0.046

0.23

0.000042

5.0

0.0009

M

0.042

2.51

0.000042

59.8

0.0010

N

0.090

3.80

0.000134

42.2

0.0015

O

0.029

0.75

0.000042

25.9

0.0015

P

0.027

3.08

0.000042

114.1

0.0016

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-86


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

1 "sihie ( -1 IS: MKII) 4451X501 - l);ii;i Siimniiin

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 ApoMII'C 1IIIU)

1 ml 1 Aposii

v dim lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

( )

111 Ki1

LoU

11111111114 ^

^ S

111 inn"

R

0.024

2.20

0.000042

91.7

0.0018

S

0.073

1.22

0.000043

16.7

0.0006

T

0.024

0.66

0.000042

27.5

0.0018

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

Unit Exposure

= Exposure/AaiH.









Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a hose-end sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

• Seventeen of 20 inhalation exposure measurements were non-detects. Use of V2 the limit
of detection (0.01 |Lxg) was necessary, thus introducing uncertainty.

T.ihle (-11'J: Hxposure Siuclj Itlenlil'ic:ilion 111IV1 nn;ition

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1997). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study during
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%), Sevinฎ Ready to Use Insect Spray or Sevinฎ 10
Dust to Home Garden Vegetables

EPA MRID

44459801

ORETF Code

OMA006

EPA Review

Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Forty individuals were monitored while mixing, loading, and applying a
liquid formulation (21% carbaryl) to tomato and cucumber gardens using a hose-end sprayer.
Each application consisted of pouring the formulation into a dial-type sprayer (DTS), screwing it
onto the garden hose and spraying the garden. The activity lasted less than 20 minutes and the
amount of carbaryl handled ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 lbs. Dermal exposure was measured using
inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes (20 individuals were monitored without
gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute),
cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive dosimeters averaged 84.3% for
inner dosimeters and 77.7% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe field fortifications
averaged 84.8%. Both handwash and inhalation tube field fortification averaged >90%.
Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range of 70 to 120%.
The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except the inhalation monitors
where the LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig/sample for all
media except the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

l iihle ( -120: MKII) 44459X01 - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Keeummenriiilion for

Smd\ ( nicria

1 Aposiirc (onipoiiciii

Dermal Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-87


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

1 "sihie ( -120: MRU) 44459X01 - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Rccummendalion lor

Sllld\ ( I'lkTia

1 Apiisuiv ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

liihalalkin

and amount of active ingredient handled?



Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. Note that only dermal
exposure data representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks, and
no chemical-resistant gloves are presented. The submitted study itself or corresponding
analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

l ahle( -121: MKII) 44459S01 - l);ii;i Suinman

IVi'son II)

Villi
dbsi

1 ApiiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

P2

0.11

3.43

0.000142

31.2

0.0013

Q2

0.08

3.59

0.000042

44.9

0.0005

T2

0.05

0.96

0.000042

19.2

0.0009

U2

0.03

1.92

0.000042

64.0

0.0017

V2

0.05

2.90

0.000043

58.0

0.0009

W2

0.08

6.30

0.000146

78.8

0.0018

Z2

0.05

1.18

0.000084

23.6

0.0018

A3

0.05

1.63

0.000134

32.6

0.0026

B3

0.04

0.79

0.000041

19.8

0.0010

C3

0.05

0.92

0.000042

18.4

0.0008

F3

0.07

2.34

0.000042

33.4

0.0006

G3

0.05

4.30

0.000125

86.0

0.0025

H3

0.03

0.73

0.000043

24.3

0.0014

13

0.07

4.21

0.000042

60.1

0.0006

M3

0.03

0.20

0.000042

6.7

0.0016

L3

0.04

7.16

0.000094

179.0

0.0026

N3

0.05

8.33

0.000042

166.6

0.0008

03

0.1

1.06

0.000042

10.6

0.0004

R3

0.05

1.09

0.000134

21.8

0.0025

S3

0.02

0.18

0.000042

9.0

0.0017

A

0.05

--

0.000042

--

0.0008

B

0.04

--

0.000042

--

0.0011

G

0.04

--

0.000042

--

0.0011

C

0.05

--

0.000042

--

0.0008

J

0.04

--

0.000042

--

0.0011

D

0.07

--

0.000042

--

0.0006

M

0.02

--

0.000042

--

0.0020

N

0.08

--

0.000042

--

0.0005

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-88


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

1 ;ilปlo <-121: MRU) 44459S01 - Suiiininn

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \poMirc (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

Q

0.03

--

0.000042

--

0.0013

R

0.04

--

0.000042

--

0.0010

U

0.04

--

0.000043

--

0.0010

V

0.07

--

0.000042

--

0.0006

Y

0.05

--

0.000042

--

0.0009

Z

0.04

--

0.000042

--

0.0009

C2

0.05

--

0.000042

--

0.0009

D2

0.07

--

0.000041

--

0.0006

G2

0.01

--

0.000042

--

0.0038

H2

0.07

--

0.000042

--

0.0006

K2

0.03

--

0.000042

--

0.0013

L2

0.06

--

0.000042

--

0.0006

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a hose-end sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

• Thirty-six of 40 inhalation exposure measurements were non-detects. Use of V2 the limit
of detection (0.01 |Lxg) was necessary, thus introducing uncertainty.

1 iihlc (-122: l \|)(isuic Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

Rosenheck, L. (2000) Determination of Exposure During the Mixing, Loading and
Application of Liquid Diazinon to Residential Turf Through the Use of Passive
Dosimetry and Biological Monitoring: Lab Project Number 767-98:
I024480NAU950T. Unpublished study prepared by Development
Resources/Chemical Support Department, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc. 574 p.

EPA MRID

45184305

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D268247

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Twelve non-professional volunteers were monitored while making
applications of a liquid pesticide formulation (22.4% diazinon) with a conventional hose-end
sprayer to approximately 5000 ft of lawn. The applications ranged from 18 to 78 minutes with
all individuals 0.5 lbs of active ingredient (diazinon). Dermal exposure was measured using
whole body dosimetry (100% cotton union suit) worn under shorts and a T-shirt, hand washes,
and face/neck wipes. No chemical-resistant gloves were worn. Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field
fortification recoveries for the cotton union suit dosimeters averaged 99%, face and neck wipe
fortifications averaged 89.1%, handwash fortifications averaged 75% and air sampler tube
fortification was 109%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable
range of 70 to 120%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for the cotton

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-89


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

dosimeters, 0.5 |ig/sample for the face/neck wipes, 1.0 |ig/sample for the hand washes and 0.01
|ig/sample for the inhalation monitors.

1 "sihie ( -123: MKII) 451X4305 - Checklist iiiid I se Recommendation

Siud\ ( iilci'ia

1 Apiisuiv ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -124: MKII) 451X4305 - Data Siimman

IVi'son II)

Villi
 "• ~S

2.14

(1 oS"

17

0.5

16.72

0.0056

33.44

0.0111

16

0.5

4.12

0.0012

8.23

0.0024

19

0.5

4.06

0.0094

8.11

0.0187

27

0.5

1.63

0.0057

3.26

0.0114

24

0.5

1.35

0.0036

2.70

0.0071

25

0.5

2.84

0.0267

5.68

0.0534

26

0.5

11.36

0.0046

22.71

0.0091

20

0.5

3.48

0.0049

6.96

0.0098

21

0.5

0.58

0.0022

1.17

0.0045

29

0.5

0.44

0.0045

0.87

0.0089

30

0.5

1.42

—

2.84

—

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a conventional hose-end sprayer, the
following limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-90


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Scenario Summary

1 "sihie ( -125: Seeiiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle l-'\|>ซisnre Studios

Formulation

Liquids (emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, etc.)

Equipment/Application Method

Backpack sprayer

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

PHED 471

PHED 1024

Beard, K.K. (1997); MRID 44339801

PHED 9010

PHED 9011

PHED 9004

PHED 9003

Schneider et al (1999)

King, C.; Prince, P. (1995); MRID 43623202

Spencer et al (2000); MRID 46852112

Stewart, P., et al. (1999)

PHED 9012

T;ihle C-l2(ป: I nil l-'.\nosures img/lh ;ii) - Liquid l$;ieki>;iek Snr;i\er Annlicnlious

Siaiisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

50Ql percentile

25

0.09

75 th percentile

85

0.17

95th percentile

490

0.43

99th percentile

1700

0.83

99.9th percentile

6600

1.7

AM(SD)

130 (630)

0.140 (0.14)

GM (GSD)

25 (6.04)

0.09 (2.63)

Range

0.72 - 540

0.0142-0.29

N

26

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for applications of
liquid pesticide formulations using a backpack sprayer is based on a lognormal distribution fit
with exposure monitoring data from PHED 471, PHED 1024, and Beard, K.K. (1997) [EPA
MRID 44339801], PHED 471 monitored 9 applications of 3, 2-gallon liquid pesticide solutions
for approximately 47 minutes to poultry litter using a backpack sprayer. PHED 1024 monitored
2 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation to greenhouse plants hanging overhead, on the
floor, or on benches for approximately 1.5 hours using a backpack sprayer. Beard, K.K. (1997)
monitored 15 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation to approximately 6000 ft of
Christmas tree farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut for approximately 4 hours
using a backpack sprayer. While no studies available were considered representative of
homeowner applications using a backpack sprayer, the exposure monitoring in these studies
enabled representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear
(i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves). Additionally, a composite dataset
was used as the exposures in the studies were generally of the same magnitude.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a backpack sprayer is based on a lognormal

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-91


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from King, C.; Prince, P. (1995) [EPA MRID
43623202; AH605], King, C.; Prince, P. (1995) monitored 16 applications of a liquid pesticide
formulation for approximately 63-94 minutes to greenhouse ornamentals in Florida, Maryland,
and California. No studies adequately represented homeowner applications using a backpack
sprayer. This study was therefore selected as it resulted in the highest inhalation exposure
estimates of the available studies.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-92


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Lognormal Probability Plots

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = King, C., Prince, P., (1995)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-93


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Available Handler Exposure Studies

1 ahle (-I2"7: llxposuiv Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion Information

Citation

PHED471

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Nine individuals were monitored while applying a liquid formulation to
poultry litter using a backpack sprayer. Each applicator mixed and applied 3, 2-gallon solutions
(equal to approximately 0.052 lbs active ingredient); a task that lasted on average 47 minutes.
Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work
clothing) and cotton gloves (underneath chemical-resistant gloves) for hand exposure. Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
An average of 84.9 ฑ 5.2% (n=18) was recovered from field fortified patches, 79.3 ฑ 7.3% from
gloves and 84.0 ฑ 16.8% from foam air filters. The overall average recovery from laboratory
fortified control samples was 87 ฑ 12.0% for alpha-cellulose gauze patches, 75 ฑ 11.6% for
cotton gloves, and 89 ฑ 10.5% for foam air filters.

1 "sihie ( -I2X: Plllll) -I'M - ( heeklisl iind I se Kecommeiithi 1 ion lor

Siud\ ( rileiia

1 Apiisuie ('iinipoiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does ilie siud\ piv\ ide detailed characteristics on (lie acti\ its, equipment t\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure data from this study is not recommended for the purposes of residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

Tahlc (-12'J: Plll-M) -I"71 - Dala Siimman

Person ID

AaiH1

Exposure (mg)

Unit Exposure (mg/lb ai)4



(lbs)

Dermal2

Inhalation3

Dermal

Inhalation

CC

0.048

0.362

—

7.54

--

DD

0.048

0.035

—

0.73

--

EE

0.048

0.109

—

2.27

--

FF

0.048

2.69

—

56.04

--

GG

0.048

5.65

--

117.71

--

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-94


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

1 ;ihle (-129: PI 11" 1) -I"71 - l);ii;i Siimniiin

Person ID

AaiH1
(lbs)

Exposure (mg)

Unit Exposure (mg/lb ai)4

Dermal2

Inhalation3

Dermal

Inhalation

HH

0.048

1.58

—

32.92

--

II

0.048

0.68

—

14.17

--

JJ

0.048

1.08

—

22.50

--

KK

0.048

0.18

—

3.75

--

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm). All samples

were non-detects.









4 Unit Exposure

= Exposure/AaiH.









Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a backpack sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

•	All monitored individuals wore chemical-resistant gloves, thus a back-calculation using a
90% protection factor to "bare hands" exposure was necessary.

•	The study was conducted using workers in a poultry house, so use for residential handler
exposure assessments introduces uncertainty.

Tsihle ( -130: l-lxposuiv Siud> 1 tlon((ion lnlonii;ilioii

Citation

PHED 1024

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Two individuals were monitored while applying a liquid formulation to
greenhouse plants hanging overhead or on the floor or on benches using a backpack sprayer.
Each applicator sprayed over 100 gallons of solution, corresponding to 0.13 lbs of active
ingredient handled. Each application event generally lasted 1.5 hours. Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work clothing) and hand rinses
(underneath chemical-resistant gloves) for hand exposure. Inhalation exposure was measured
using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Recoveries from field
fortifications of exposure sampling matrices were generally above 90%.

1 "sihie ( -131: I'll F.I) 1024 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kecommeiithilion

Suiclv ( iileria

1 Apiisuie (iinipiiiieiil

Dermal

liilialaliou

Does ilie sluils pro\ ide detailed cliaiacleiislics on (lie ach\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory

Yes

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-95


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

1 "sihie ( -131: I'll F.I) 1024 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kecommeiithilion

Suiclv ( rileria

1 !\posine ( ompiiiieiil

Dermal

liihalalkiii

recovery samples adequate)?





Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure data from this study is not recommended for the purposes of residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -132: Plll l) 1024 - l)ala Siimman

IVi'son II)

Villi
dbsi

1 \piisll

iv (mm

1 mi 1 Aposn

v dim Ih an

Dermal

liihalalkiii

Dermal

Inhalation

L

0.13

0.56

—

4.30

—

N

0.13

3.39

—

26.10

—

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

Unit Exposure

= Exposure/AaiH.









Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a backpack sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

•	All monitored individuals wore chemical-resistant gloves, thus a back-calculation using a
90% protection factor to "bare hands" exposure was necessary.

•	The study was conducted using workers in a greenhouse, so use for residential handler
exposure assessments introduces uncertainty.

Tahlc('-I33: Fxposure Siudj Identification Information

Citation

Beard, K.K. (1997)Evaluation of Applicator Exposures to SURFLANฎ A.S. During
Mixing, Loading, and Application with Backpack Sprayers

EPA MRID

44339801

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D284121

D242325

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Fifteen individuals (14 loader/applicators, 1 mixer/loader/applicator) were
monitored while applying a liquid formulation of oryzalin to Christmas tree farms in Michigan,
Pennsylvania, and Connecticut using a backpack sprayer. Each application was at least 4 hours
and each worker treated an area of at least 6000 ft handling from 5 to 70 lbs of oryzalin.
Dermal exposure was measured using whole body dosimetry (both outside and underneath
normal work clothing) and hand exposure was measured using wipes. Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. The average

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-96


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

recoveries for spikes prepared with the filter/tube combinations, denim, long underwear, socks
and hand wipes were 106 ฑ 5.1%, 113 ฑ 4.7%, 102 ฑ 7.2%, 93.3 ฑ 56%, and 84 ฑ 8.3%,
respectively. The average recovery for spikes prepared with coverall portions was 85 ฑ 15%, for
spikes prepared with long underwear portions was 104 ฑ 22%, for spikes prepared with pairs of
socks was 87 ฑ 17%.

1 "sihie ( -134: MKII) 4433'JXOI - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Smd\ ( rilcria

1 Apiisuiv ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure data from this study is not recommended for the purposes of residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -135: MKII) 4433'JXOI - Data Siimman

IVi'son II)

Villi
(lbs)

1 \posniv (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

8.3

226

—

27.21

—

2

8.3

222

—

26.80

—

3

68.6

63

—

0.92

—

4

8.3

245

—

29.57

—

5

8.3

12

—

1.41

—

7

16

2957

—

184.82

—

8

16

8673

—

542.06

—

9

16

1285

—

80.32

—

10

16

2841

—

177.54

—

11

16

5171

—

323.16

—

13

4.9

770

—

157.11

—

14

4.9

419

—

85.57

—

15

4.9

376

—

76.71

—

16

4.9

203

—

41.44

—

17

23.3

359

—

15.40

—

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-97


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a backpack sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

•	All monitored individuals wore chemical-resistant gloves, thus a back-calculation using a
90% protection factor to "bare hands" exposure was necessary.

•	The study was conducted using workers at a Christmas tree farm, so use for residential
handler exposure assessments introduces uncertainty.

Tahle C-I3(ป: Hxposiire Sludj 1 don I (ion 1 nl'o rni;il ion

Citation

PHED 9010

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Eight workers were monitored on 5 separate days (for a total of 40
monitored application events) while applying a pesticideto grass cover in a Malaysian plantation.
Each application was approximately 3-4 hours and each applicator handled approximately 1 lb
of active ingredient. Dermal exposure was measured using whole body dosimetry (outside
normal work clothing only) and hand exposure was measured using wipes. Inhalation exposure
was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field
recovery from all sampling materials ranged from 79% to 92%.

1 "sihie C-13"7: I'll F.I) Villi! - Cheeklisl iind I se Kccommendalion

Siud\ ( 1'ilcria

1 ApoMII'C ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -I3X: r.xposurc Sunl> Idoiililiciilioii Iiil'orni;ilion

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-98


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Citation

PHED 9011

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Five workers were monitored during 4 applications of a pesticide to grass
cover in a Malaysian plantation using backpack sprayers. The application time and amount of
active ingredient handled were unclear based on the study report. Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches (most placed outside normal work clothing only). Hand exposure
was not measured. Inhalation exposure was measured for only 9 of the 20 application events
using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Only laboratory
recoveries were reported which averaged 59%.

1 "sihie C-13'J: I'll F.I) 'X> 11 - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Kecoinmeiithilion

Siuds ( I'ikTia

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

liihalalkiii

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Table (-140: Fxposiire Siudj Idenliricalion Informalion

Citation

PHED 9004

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Six workers were monitored for a total of 12 application events during
applications of a pesticide to grassland in England using a backpack sprayer. Each application
consisted of spraying 3, 16 liter tanks over the course of 1 day. The amount of active ingredient
handled ranged from 0.5 to 5 lbs per application. The application time was not reported in the

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-99


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

study report. Dermal exposure was measured for 9 of the 12 applications using whole body
dosimetry (outside normal work clothing only) and cotton gloves. Inhalation exposure was
measured for 3 of the 12 applications using standard pumps (set at 3 liters per minute), cassettes,
and tubing. Laboratory recoveries were generally above 85%, although field recoveries were not
reported.

1 "si hie (-141: I'll F.I) ซ)IHI4 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Keco in meiithil ion

Sllld\ ( I'lkTia

1 ApiislllV ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

liilialalioii

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

TahleC-142: Fxposure Siudj Idenliricalion Informalion

Citation

PHED 9003

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Ten workers were monitored during 2 applications of a pesticide to weeds
in a Sri Lankan tea plantation using a backpack sprayer. Each application consisted of spraying
4 tank loads over the course of approximately 1 hour. Each worker handled approximately 0.05
lbs of active ingredient per application. Dermal exposure was measured using whole body
dosimetry (outside normal work clothing only) and cotton gloves. Inhalation exposure was not
measured. Field recovery summary from the light procedural recoveries are for sock 90% and
for glove 110%), and for dark procedural recoveries are for sock 94%> and for glove 85%.

Tahlc('-I43: PI 1 F.I)'>003 - Cheeklisl and I se Kecommendalion

Smd\ ( iileria

1 !\posiiie ('iimpoiieiil

Dermal liilialalioii

Does ilie siud\ piv\ ide detailed cliaiacleiisiics on llie acli\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-100


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Tsihle C-144: llxposuiv Siud> 1 don((ion Inl'ormsilion

Citation

Schneider et al (1999). Exposure of Hand Applicators to Glyphosate in Forest
Settings, 1995

EPA MRID

none

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Ten individuals were monitored during 2 days of glyphosate applications in
forests using backpack sprayers. Each day of applications was approximately 6 to 8 hours (with
each worker applying at least 20 tank loads) and each individual handled between 2 and 3 lbs of
glyphosate per day. Dermal exposure was measured using a long-sleeve t-shirt and knee-length
socks (underneath normal work clothing only) and hand wipes. All workers wore chemical-
resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per
minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field recoveries were generally above 75%.

1 'sihie ( -145: Schneider, el sil (1WJ) - ( hecklisl and I se Kccnmmcndalinn

Smd\ ( 1'ilci'ia

1 ApoMII'C ( 'iimpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-101


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Tahle C-I4(ป: l-'.\posurc Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion Information

Citation

King, C.; Prince, P. (1995) Chlorothalonil Worker Exposure During Application of
Daconil 2787 Flowable Fungicide in Greenhouses: Lab Project Number: 5968-94-
0104-CR-001: 94-0104: SDS-2787. Unpublished study prepared by Ricerca, Inc.

AHETF study: AH605

EPA MRID

43623202

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D393093

Contractor review (Versar, Inc.) 8/4/11

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Sixteen backpack applications in greenhouses - 6 workers in Florida, and 5
each in Maryland and California - were monitored. Each application was approximately 63 to
94 minutes and consisted of each individual mixing, loading, and applying 3 tank loads
(approximately 0.1 lbs chlorothalonil) to ornamental plants. Dermal exposure was measured
using inner whole body dosimetry (underneath normal work clothing) and hand rinses. All
workers wore chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
pumps (set at 2 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Inhalation samples in Maryland were
adjusted for the average background level (0.051 |Lxg) following previous use of the product.
Field fortified travel spikes had mean recoveries greater than or equal to 77% for each site and
matrix. Weathered samples had recoveries greater than or equal to 75% at higher fortification
levels. Recoveries ranged between 30 to 70% for alpha-cellulose patches, dosimeter patches,
and air monitoring samples. Analytical laboratory generated recovery samples were analyzed
concurrently with the worker exposure samples as a check on losses due to the extraction
procedure. These samples had a mean recovery of 100% with a standard deviation of 9.7%.

Tahle C-14"7: ( hccklisl ;iihI I so KocominoiKhition lor MRU) 43(>23202

Siiich ( I'iici'ia

1 Aposiiiv (iimpoiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-102


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are presented as the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

l :il)lo( -I4X: MKID 436232112 - l);K;i Siimniiin

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 ApiiMII'C (IIIU)

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.086

--

0.0098

--

0.1145

2

0.098

--

0.0099

--

0.1009

3

0.065

--

0.0144

--

0.2218

4

0.081

--

0.0235

--

0.2896

5

0.092

--

0.0195

--

0.2121

1A

0.085

--

0.0139

--

0.1638

6

0.106

--

0.0015

--

0.0142

7A

0.063

--

0.0014

--

0.0218

8

0.064

--

0.0030

--

0.0361

9

0.094

--

0.0033

--

0.0353

10

0.065

--

0.0016

--

0.0247

11

0.071

--

0.0133

--

0.1878

12

0.057

--

0.0142

--

0.2487

13

0.053

--

0.0076

--

0.1425

14

0.099

--

0.0101

--

0.1019

15

0.076

--

0.0055

--

0.0720

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a backpack sprayer, the following
limitations are noted:

• The study was conducted using workers in a greenhouse, so use for residential handler
exposure assessments introduces uncertainty.

1 iihlc (-I4*>: I'Aposiiiv Sluil> 1 don I (ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

Spencer et al (2000). HS-1769. Exposure of Hand Applicators to Triclopyr in Foresi
Settings, 1995

EPA MRID

46852112

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review 9/30/03

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Ten individuals were monitored during 2 applications of triclopyr in forests
using backpack sprayers. Each application consisted of loading and applying 3 tank loads over

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-103


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

the course of approximately 6 hours with each individual handling approximately 3 lbs of
triclopyr per application. Dermal exposure was measured using a long-sleeve t-shirt and knee-
length socks (underneath normal work clothing only) and hand wipes. All workers wore
chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2
liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. The average field fortification recoveries from air filters
was 58.98% with a standard deviation of 20.95%, from wipes was 95.90% with a standard
deviation of 8.67%, from socks was 85.62%) with a standard deviation of 7.98%>, and from T-
shirt was 98.23%) with a standard deviation of 5.06%.

1 "sihie ( -150: MKII) 46X52112 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Recommendation

Siiiclv ('menu

1 Aposnie (onipoiieni

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

TahlcC-151: llxposure Siudj Idcnliricalion Information

Citation

Stewart, P., T. Fears, H.F. Nicholson, B.C. Kross, L. K. Ogilvie, S.H. Zahm, M.H.
Ward and A. Blair (1999) Exposure Received From Application Of Animal
Insecticides. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 60:208-212

EPA MRID

none

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Two farmers were monitored while applying insecticides to animals using a
backpack sprayer. Each application ranged from approximately 1 to 200 liters of solution and
varied among 6 active ingredients. Clothing worn varied between farmers. Dermal exposure
was measured using a fluorescent dye video-imaging technique. Inhalation exposure was not
measured.

Table ( -152: Sicwarl. e( al (I'J'W) - Cheeklisl and I se Recommendation

Sind\ ('menu

1 \poMiie (onipoiieni

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-104


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer



Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -153: Fxposiire Siudj 1 don((ion Information

Citation

PHED 9012

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Four workers were monitored during 5 applications of a pesticide to grass
cover in a Malaysian plantation using backpack sprayers. The application time and amount of
active ingredient handled were unclear based on the study report. Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches (most placed outside normal work clothing only). Hand exposure
was not measured. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2 liters per
minute), cassettes, and tubing. Only laboratory recoveries were reported (59%). [Note: This
data comes from the same study as PHED 9011 - monitoring conducted at different times.]

Table ( -154: I'll F.I) '>012 - ( hecklisl and I se Kccnmmendalion

Smd> ( I'ikTia

1 ApoMII'C ( 'oilipoilCIll

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure

No

No

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-105


-------
Formulation: Liquids

Equipment/Application Method: Backpack sprayer

assessments?

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-106


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

I'iihlo (-155: Scciiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;il>lc r.xpnsurc Studios

Formulation

Ready-to-use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method

Hose-end sprayer

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas)

Available Exposure Studies

Klonne, D. (1999); MRID 44972201

Rosenheck, L. (2000); MRID45184305

1 ;ihk' (-I5(ป: I nil llxnosuivs (iii^/ll) :ii) - K 11 Mosc-cnd Snr;i\cr \nnlic;i(ions

Sialisiic

Dermal

Inhalation

50Ql percentile

2.28

0.015

75 th percentile

5.96

0.036

95th percentile

23.6

0.121

99th percentile

62.2

0.285

99.9th percentile

184

0.745

AM(SD)

6.26 (16)

0.034 (0.066)

GM (GSD)

2.28 (4.14)

0.015 (3.52)

Range

0.078-33.0

0.00067-0.156

N

41

41

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for applications
using a RTU hose-end sprayer is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring
data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID 44972201] and Rosenheck, L. (2000) [EPA MRID
45184305], Klonne, D. (1999) monitored 30 applications of pesticide formulations to
approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns for approximately 75 minutes using a RTU hose-end
sprayer. Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 11 applications of ready-to-use liquid formulations to
approximately 5000 ft2 of lawns for 32 to 119 minutes. These studies were representative of
homeowner or amateur applications for this scenario and the exposure monitoring enabled
representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e.,
shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves). Additionally, a composite dataset was
used as the exposures in the studies were generally of the same magnitude.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications using a RTU hose-end sprayer is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure
monitoring data from Klonne, D. (1999) [EPA MRID 44972201] and Rosenheck, L. (2000)
[EPA MRID 45184305], Klonne, D. (1999) monitored 30 applications of pesticide formulations
to approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns for approximately 75 minutes using a RTU hose-
end sprayer. Rosenheck, L. (2000) monitored 11 applications of ready-to-use liquid
formulations to approximately 5000 ft2 of lawns for 32 to 119 minutes. These studies were
representative of homeowner or amateur applications for this scenario and a composite dataset
was formed despite Rosenheck, L. (2000) resulting in higher estimates of inhalation exposure.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-107


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = Klonne, D. (1999); X = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = Klonne, D. (1999); X = Rosenheck, L. (2000)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-108


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Available Handler Exposure Studies

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Tsihle C-15"?: llxposuiv Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

Klonne, D. (1999). Integrated Report on Evaluation of Potential Exposure to
Homeowners and Professional Lawn Care Operators Mixing, Loading, and Applying
Granular and Liquid Pesticides to Residential Lawns. Sponsor/Submitter: Outdoor
Residential Exposure Task Force.

EPA MRID

44972201

ORETF Code

OMA004

EPA Review

D261948

EPA Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: A total of 30 application events were monitored for 30 different volunteers
using passive dosimetry (inner and outer whole body dosimeters, hand washes, face/neck wipes,
and personal inhalation monitors). Each test subject screwed a ready-to-use (RTU) 32 fl. oz.
plastic container onto the end of the hose and treated approximately 5000 ft2 of residential lawns.
Each applicator handled approximately 0.5 lb active ingredient (diazinon) over the course of 75
minutes. Dermal exposure was measured using inner and outer whole body dosimeters, hand
washes, and face/neck washes, such that exposure can be constructed for various clothing
scenarios (including a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, and no chemical-resistant gloves). Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard personal air monitoring devices set at 1.5 liters per
minute. All fortified samples and field samples collected on the same study day were stored
frozen and analyzed together, eliminating the need for storage stability determination.

Concurrent lab spikes produced mean recoveries in the range of 78-125% for the various
matrices. Mean field fortification recoveries ranged from 76% to 110% for all matrices. Mean
percent field fortification recovery for outer dosimeter with a spike level of 50 |ig was 80.6%
with a standard deviation of 7.95%, of 500 |ig was 79.4% with a standard deviation of 19.3%,
and of 5000 |ig was 75.5% with a standard deviation of 5.81%. Mean percent field fortification
recovery for inner dosimeter with a spike level of 5 |ig was 99.3% with a standard deviation of
10.7%), and of 50 |ig was 89.5% with a standard deviation of 8.33%. Mean percent field
fortification recovery for hand wash with a spike level of 5 |ig was 83.7% with a standard
deviation of 9.13%, of 25 |ig was 83.9% with a standard deviation of 10.0%, and of 100 |ig was
85.6%) with a standard deviation of 11.1%. Mean percent field fortification recovery for
neck/face wash with a spike level of 5 |ig was 102% with a standard deviation of 2.81, of 10 |ig
was 101%) with a standard deviation of 13.9%, and of 25 |ig was 93.0% with a standard deviation
of 2.93%.

1 "sihie ( -I5N: MKII) 44V22HI - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Keeoinineiuliilioii

Smd\ ( iilciia

1 !\posine (iimpoiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-109


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

1 "sihie ( -I5N: MKII) 44V22HI - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Sind\ ( riieria

1 \posiire ( onipoiieni

Dermal

Inhalation

Is ihe dala of reasonable qnalils (j e , are field loriiliealioii and laboratory

recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table C-I5'J: MKII) 44V220I - Data Siimman

IVrson II)

\aill
ilbsi

1 \posnre (mm

1 ml 1 \posiire (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liihalalion

1

0.5

0.11

0.0090

0.21

0.0180

2

0.5

3.42

0.0120

6.84

0.0240

5

0.5

16.50

0.0303

33.00

0.0606

6

0.5

0.93

0.0059

1.86

0.0117

9

0.5

1.56

0.0142

3.12

0.0285

11

0.5

1.60

0.0173

3.20

0.0346

12

0.5

0.62

0.0126

1.23

0.0252

13

0.5

0.69

0.0141

1.37

0.0282

17

0.5

0.65

0.0016

1.30

0.0033

19

0.5

0.50

0.0091

1.00

0.0183

21

0.5

4.75

0.0159

9.49

0.0318

22

0.5

0.58

0.0030

1.17

0.0061

23

0.5

1.62

0.0101

3.23

0.0201

26

0.5

4.90

0.0209

9.80

0.0418

29

0.5

2.74

0.0288

5.49

0.0575

31

0.5

6.52

0.0026

13.05

0.0053

32

0.5

0.97

0.0010

1.94

0.0019

33

0.5

4.52

0.0019

9.04

0.0038

37

0.5

1.86

0.0077

3.72

0.0155

38

0.5

5.59

0.0037

11.17

0.0074

41

0.5

0.04

0.0003

0.08

0.0007

42

0.5

11.63

0.0006

23.26

0.0011

45

0.5

2.28

0.0016

4.56

0.0032

46

0.5

0.11

0.0071

0.22

0.0142

48

0.5

1.43

0.0138

2.86

0.0276

51

0.5

0.61

0.0017

1.22

0.0034

52

0.5

4.35

0.0033

8.71

0.0067

53

0.5

0.21

0.0013

0.41

0.0026

57

0.5

11.97

0.0066

23.94

0.0132

58

0.5

0.09

0.0021

0.17

0.0043

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-110


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of ready-to-use formulations using a hose-end sprayer, the following limitations are
noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

l iihlc ( -K)ll: l-lxposuiv Siud> 1 tlon((ion Inlormalion

Citation

Rosenheck, L. (2000) Determination of Exposure During the Mixing, Loading and
Application of Liquid Diazinon to Residential Turf Through the Use of Passive
Dosimetry and Biological Monitoring: Lab Project Number 767-98:
I024480NAU950T. Unpublished study prepared by Development
Resources/Chemical Support Department, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc. 574 p.

EPA MRID

45184305

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D268247

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Eleven non-professional volunteers were monitored while making
applications of a liquid pesticide formulation (22.4% diazinon) with a ready-to-use hose-end
sprayer to approximately 5000 ft of lawn. The applications ranged from 32 to 119 minutes with
all individuals 0.5 lbs of active ingredient (diazinon). Dermal exposure was measured using
whole body dosimetry (100% cotton union suit) worn under shorts and a T-shirt, hand washes,
and face/neck wipes. No chemical-resistant gloves were worn. Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field
fortification recoveries for the cotton union suit dosimeters averaged 99%, face and neck wipe
fortifications averaged 89.1%, handwash fortifications averaged 75% and air sampler tube
fortification was 109%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable
range of 70 to 120%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for the cotton
dosimeters, 0.5 |ig/sample for the face/neck wipes, 1.0 |ig/sample for the hand washes and 0.01
|ig/sample for the inhalation monitors.

Tahlc ('-!(> 1: MKII) 451X4305 - Checklist iiiid I so Recommendation

Smd\ ( I'llcna

1 \piiMiic (iimpiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )ocs ilic siud\ pi'o\ ide detailed dini'Mclci'isiics on ilic Mcli\ il\, equipment l\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-lll


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Hose-end sprayer

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

1 "sihie ( -I(i2: MKII) 451X4305 - l);ii;i Siiiiiin;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 Apiisuiv i mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

2

0.5

1.522

0.0501

3.04

0.1002

3

0.5

0.163

0.0122

0.33

0.0245

4

0.5

0.706

0.0096

1.41

0.0191

12

0.5

0.446

0.0223

0.89

0.0445

7

0.5

0.701

0.0779

1.40

0.1559

5

0.5

0.774

0.0212

1.55

0.0423

6

0.5

0.397

0.0094

0.79

0.0187

14

0.5

0.474

0.0189

0.95

0.0379

15

0.5

0.95

0.0209

1.90

0.0418

13

0.5

2.854

0.0145

17.42

0.0884

46

0.5

1.15

0.0256

2.30

0.0512

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of residential
applications of liquid concentrate formulations using a conventional hose-end sprayer, the
following limitations are noted:

• Each individual handled the same amount of active ingredient, making analysis of the
relationship between exposure and the amount of active ingredient handled (the
underlying basis of unit exposures) difficult.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-112


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Tsihle C-l(>3: Sceiiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle r.xpnsurc Studios

Formulation

Ready-to-use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method

Trigger-pump sprayer

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas), indoors (plants, cracks and crevices), pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, D.L. (1997); MRID 44459801

Meo, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Mester, T. (1997); MRID 44433302

Knarr, R.D. (1988); MRID 41054701

Barnekow, D.E.; Cook, W.L.; Meitl, T.J.; Shurdut, B.A. (1999); MRID
44739301

1 "sihie ( -l(>4: I nil l'.\nosui'es (inii/lb ;ii) - l.iuuiri 1 ri^er-niiinn spr;i\cr Applications

Siaiisiic

( )iiuKhii's Indoors

IVls \iiimals

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

50" percentile

54

0.046

510

2.2

75 th percentile

103

0.077

990

4.0

95th percentile

260

0.16

2600

9.6

99th percentile

490

0.26

5000

18

99.9th percentile

1020

0.46

10500

36

AM(SD)

85.1 (103)

0.061 (0.053)

820 (1040)

3.3 (3.7)

GM (GSD)

54.2 (2.56)

0.046 (2.10)

510(2.7)

2.2 (2.5)

Range

11.0-253

0.016-0.21

101 -2400

0.30-8.4

N

20

70

16

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary

Outdoor and Indoor Environments: The recommended dermal unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a trigger-pump sprayer to outdoor and
indoor environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring
data from Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPAMRID 44459801], Merricks, D.L. (1997)
monitored 40 applications to tomatoes and cucumbers using a ready-to-use (RTU)
trigger-spray bottle. While other studies were available which potentially could represent
residential applications, the exposure monitoring in this study enabled the best
representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear
(i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves).

Pets and Animals: The recommended dermal unit exposures for applications of liquid
pesticide formulations using a trigger-pump sprayer to pets or animals is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Meo, N. et al (1997) [EPA
MRID 44433302], Meo, N. et al (1997) monitored 16 applications by commercial pet
groomers treating 8 dogs for approximately 38-72 minutes using a ready-to-use (RTU)
trigger-spray bottle. This is the only study available for this exposure scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-113


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary

Outdoor and Indoor Environments: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of liquid pesticide formulations using a trigger-pump sprayer to outdoor and
indoor environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring
data from Merricks, D.L. (1997) [EPAMRID 44459801], Knarr, R.D. (1998) [EPA
MRID 41054701], and Barnekow, D.E., et al (1999) [EPA MRID 47739301], Merricks,
D.L. (1997) monitored 40 applications to tomatoes and cucumbers using a ready-to-use
(RTU) trigger-spray bottle. Knarr, R.D. (1998) monitored 5 applications of a liquid
pesticide formulation to door frames, screens, patios, and stoops for approximately 9-21
minutes using a trigger sprayer attached to a V2 gallon container with an 18-inch hose.
Barnekow, D.E., et al (1999) monitored 15 applications of a liquid pesticide formulation
to outdoor foundations, perimeters, and flower beds for approximately 1 hour using a 24
oz. ready-to-use trigger spray bottle. All available studies were considered reasonably
representative of residential application inhalation exposure, and, since they were
generally of the same magnitude, combined into a single dataset.

Pets and Animals: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for applications of liquid
pesticide formulations using a trigger-pump sprayer to pets or animals is based on a
lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Meo, N. et al (1997) [EPA
MRID 44433302], Meo, N. et al (1997) monitored 16 applications by commercial pet
groomers treating 8 dogs for approximately 38-72 minutes using a ready-to-use (RTU)
trigger-spray bottle. This is the only study available for this exposure scenario.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-114


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Lognormal Probability Plots

Outdoor/Indoor Environments Legend: ฆ = Merricks, D.L. (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

Outdoor/Indoor Environments Legend: ฆ = Bamekow, D.E. et al (1997); O = Knarr, R.D. (1998); X = Merricks, D.L. (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-115


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Pets/Animals Legend: ฆ = Meo, N. etal (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

Pets/Animals Legend: ฆ = Meo, N. etal (1997)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-116


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)	Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tahle C-I(i5: I'\posure Siudj Idemil'ic:ilion Inlormalion

Citation

Merricks, D.L. (1997). Carbaryl Mixer/Loader/Applicator Exposure Study during
Application of RP-2 Liquid (21%), Sevinฎ Ready to Use Insect Spray or Sevinฎ 10
Dust to Home Garden Vegetables

EPA MRID

44459801

ORETF Code

OMA006

EPA Review

EPA Memo from G. Bangs to D. Fuller (3/5/03)

D287251

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Forty individuals were monitored while spraying tomatoes and cucumbers
using a ready-to-use (RTU) trigger-spray bottle (i.e., no mixing was necessary). Each
application was approximately 20 minutes and consisted of approximately 2 lbs formulation
(approximately 0.24 gallons; 0.002 lbs carbaryl) to garden plants. Dermal exposure was
measured using inner and outer whole body dosimetry and hand washes (20 individuals were
monitored without gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 2
liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification recoveries for passive dosimeters
averaged 84.3% for inner dosimeters and 77.7% for outer dosimeters. Face and neck wipe field
fortifications averaged 84.8%. Both handwash and inhalation tube field fortification averaged
>90%. Laboratory method validation for each matrix fell within the acceptable range of 70 to
120%). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 |ig/sample for all media except the inhalation
monitors where the LOQ was 0.01 |ig/sample. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 |ig/sample
for all media except the inhalation monitors where the LOQ was 0.005 |ig/sample.

Tahle (-!(>(>: MKII) 44459X0I - Checklist iiml I se Kecommendalion

Smd\ ( 1'ilci'ia

1 Aposiiiv (iimpiiiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. Note that only dermal
exposure data representative of individuals wearing short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks, and
no chemical-resistant gloves are presented. The submitted study itself or corresponding
analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

I "si hie ( -l(>7: MKII) 44459X01 - Dala Siiiiiin;ir\

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-117


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

IVl'SOIl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \poMirc (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic iiiiu Ih ail

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liilialalion

R2

0.0024

0.30

0.000418

126

0.1739

S2

0.0022

0.13

0.000334

61

0.1532

T2

0.0028

0.70

0.000163

253

0.0592

U2

0.0025

0.33

0.000251

129

0.0989

X2

0.0020

0.29

0.000167

143

0.0824

Y2

0.0022

0.20

0.000042

93

0.0191

Z2

0.0020

0.33

0.000167

165

0.0824

A3

0.0022

0.17

0.000251

76

0.1149

D3

0.0021

0.05

0.000042

24

0.0202

E3

0.0022

0.10

0.000042

47

0.0188

F3

0.0021

0.05

0.000042

24

0.0195

G3

0.0022

0.22

0.000084

98

0.0375

J3

0.0022

0.05

0.000042

25

0.0191

K3

0.0021

0.05

0.000167

21

0.0782

M3

0.0020

0.04

0.000042

20

0.0208

L3

0.0022

0.48

0.000042

219

0.0191

P3

0.0022

0.02

0.000042

11

0.0193

Q3

0.0022

0.04

0.000042

18

0.0186

R3

0.0022

0.09

0.000041

43

0.0189

S3

0.0022

0.05

0.000041

22

0.0187

E

0.0025

--

0.000042

--

0.0166

F

0.0025

--

0.000042

--

0.0169

I

0.0022

--

0.000042

--

0.0186

H

0.0028

--

0.000084

--

0.0301

K

0.0025

--

0.000042

--

0.0165

L

0.0024

--

0.000042

--

0.0177

0

0.0024

--

0.000043

--

0.0180

P

0.0020

--

0.000042

--

0.0213

S

0.0025

--

0.000042

--

0.0168

T

0.0025

--

0.000042

--

0.0165

W

0.0026

--

0.000167

--

0.0654

X

0.0025

--

0.000501

--

0.2013

A2

0.0024

--

0.000042

--

0.0177

B2

0.0026

--

0.000251

--

0.0980

E2

0.0023

--

0.000167

--

0.0736

F2

0.0022

--

0.000167

--

0.0766

12

0.0027

--

0.000086

--

0.0319

J2

0.0026

--

0.000084

--

0.0327

M2

0.0027

--

0.000167

--

0.0611

N2

0.0021

--

0.000167

--

0.0782

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during use
of ready-to-use trigger sprayers, the following limitations are noted:

• An estimated 90% of all dermal exposure samples (underneath the individuals clothing)
were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (1.0 |Lxg) was used.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-118


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)	Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

• Nineteen of 40 inhalation samples were non-detects. One-half the limit of detection (0.01
Hg) was used.

1 ahle ( -KiX: A\ailahle1-'\posuro Siudj Idenliricalion 1 nlVinn;ilion

Citation

Meo, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Mester, T. (1997) Dermal and Inhalation Exposure of
Commercial Pet Groomers During Application of Frontline Spray Treatment: Final
Report: Lab Project Number: MERIAL 445 SAFXT046: SAFX046: PDA9705.
Unpublished study prepared by ABC Labs., California and Animal Appeal Grooming
Shop & Case Veterinary Hospital. 1066 p.

EPA MRID

44433302

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review; 4/27/98

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Sixteen different commercial pet groomers were monitored while treating
dogs with fipronil, an active ingredient used to control fleas and ticks, using a ready-to-use
(RTU) trigger-spray bottle. Each application consisted of treating 8 dogs by holding the dog
with one hand and spraying with the other, including rubbing the spray into the dog's fur.
Application times ranged from 38 to 72 minutes and the amount of fipronil applied ranged from
approximately 0.002 to 0.007 lbs. Dermal exposure was measured using inner whole body
dosimetry (underneath pants, a short-sleeved shirt, and a smock) and cotton gloves underneath
household latex gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5
liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Field fortification samples of each matrix were fortified
with diluted formulated product at the test site and subjected to the same conditions as the
replicate samples. Average recoveries (triplicate samples) at each fortification level (low,
medium, high) for each matrix ranged from 81.6% to 105.9%.

1 "sihie ( -!(>'>: MKII) 44433302 - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Suid> ( menu

1 \piiMiic ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table C-PO: MKII) 44433302 - l)ala Siimman

IVl'SOIl II)

Vnll

1 ApoMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic (mu lb an

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-119


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer



(Ills)

Dermal

liihalalkin

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.0033

0.72

0.007

218.18

2.12

2

0.0024

5.64

0.003

2350.00

1.25

3

0.0033

0.33

0.008

100.00

2.42

4

0.0035

0.94

0.011

268.57

3.14

5

0.0047

2.17

0.039

461.70

8.30

6

0.0064

3.31

0.026

517.19

4.06

7

0.0037

5.97

0.003

1613.51

0.81

8

0.0025

0.29

0.010

116.00

4.00

9

0.0036

1.74

0.001

483.33

0.28

10

0.0065

7.48

0.012

1150.8

1.8

11

0.0038

3.95

0.022

1039.5

5.8

12

0.0025

0.31

0.001

124.0

0.4

13

0.0033

1.59

0.011

481.8

3.3

14

0.0053

5.07

0.009

956.6

1.7

15

0.0019

1.49

0.011

784.2

5.8

16

0.0060

7.78

0.012

1296.7

2.0

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during use
of ready-to-use trigger sprayers, the following limitations are noted:

•	The study monitored professional/commercial pet groomers and may not be
representative of the exposure an individual at home would experience while treating
their pets.

•	The individuals monitored wore long pants, long-sleeve shirts, and chemical-resistant
gloves. Therefore, back-calculations using standard penetration factors to represent
exposure to people wearing shorts, a short-sleeve shirt and no chemical-resistant gloves
were necessary.

1 iihlc (-l7l: r.xposuiv Sluclj 1 (IonI(ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

Knarr, R.D. (1988). Exposure of Applicators to Propoxur During Trigger-Pump
Spray Applications of a Liquid Product

EPA MRID

41054701

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D287251

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review; 9/29/89

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three individuals were monitored for each of 5 applications using a trigger
sprayer attached to a V2 gallon container with an 18-inch hose to treat the outside of homes (door
frames, screens, patios, stoops, etc.). Applications ranged from 9 to 21 minutes and the amount
of active ingredient (propoxur) handled ranged from 0.01 to 0.025 lbs. Dermal exposure was
measured using gauze patches (underneath normal work clothing) and hand washes. All
individuals wore chemical-resistant gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Average laboratory recovery for all

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-120


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

media ranged from 99.2% to 109%. Patches and filters were fortified at 1 |ig/sample while hand
rinses were fortified at either 200 or 1000 |ig/sample. Average field recovery results ranged
from 90.3%) to 102.2%. Patches were fortified at levels from 1 to 50 |ig/sample, hand rinses
were fortified at 200 |ig/sample, and filters were fortified at 0.2 |ig/sample.

1 "sihie ( -172: MKII) 41054701 - ( heeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Studs ( riteria

1 \posure (onipoiieui

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the studs pro\ ide detailed characteristics on the acli\ its, equipment t\pe,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Only inhalation exposure results are presented as dermal exposure
monitoring was not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Table ( -P3: MKII) 4I054'70I - Data Siimman

IVi'sou ID

Vull
(Ills)

1 \posure (mm

1 mi 1 Aposure (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.0188

--

0.0026

--

0.136

A

0.0188

--

0.0016

--

0.087

A

0.0250

--

0.0016

--

0.065

A

0.0250

--

0.0019

--

0.075

A

0.0250

--

0.0052

--

0.210

B

0.0188

--

0.0019

--

0.100

B

0.0188

--

0.0013

--

0.071

B

0.0250

--

0.0029

--

0.114

B

0.0250

--

0.0019

--

0.076

B

0.0206

--

0.0015

--

0.074

C

0.0100

--

0.0004

--

0.038

C

0.0188

--

0.0008

--

0.041

C

0.0188

--

0.0009

--

0.048

C

0.0131

--

0.0014

--

0.109

C

0.0250

--

0.0009

--

0.036

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: No limitations were identified for this study.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-121


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Tahle(-I74: r.\|)osuiv Siudj Idemiric;ilion Information

Citation

Barnekow, D.E.; Cook, W.L.; Meitl, T.J.; Shurdut, B.A. (1999). Exposure to
Chlorpyrifos While Applying a Ready to Use Formulation. January 14, 1999.
Laboratory Project Study ID: HEA 976046.

EPA MRID

44739301

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D252733

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Fifteen individuals were monitored during applications to outdoor areas of
houses (foundations, perimeters, flower beds) using a ready-to-use trigger spray bottle (24 oz.;
0.5% chlorpyrifos). Applications lasted 1 hour or until 5 bottles were exhausted, whichever was
longer. Dermal exposure was measured using whole body dosimetry (underneath long pants,
short-sleeve shirt) and hand washes (no chemical-resistant gloves were worn). Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
Laboratory recoveries for coveralls resulted in a mean percent recovery of 94.3% and RSD of
5.1%), while recoveries for handwash had a mean percent recovery of 107.6%) and RSD of 3.9%.
Field recoveries for coveralls resulted in a mean percent recovery of 99.1 and RSD of 4.7%,
while recoveries for handwash had a mean percent recovery of 93.6% and RSD of 5.1%>.

1 "sihie ( -175: MRU) 44"73')3UI - Checklist iiiid I se Recommendation

SiiuK ( rikTia

1 \poMiic ( onipoiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are presented as the dermal
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Table < -1 "7fป: MRU) 44"Willi - Data Siimman

IVi'son II)

Vnll
ilhsi

1 ApoMiic (mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu Ih ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.036

--

0.0024

--

0.066

2

0.030

--

0.0012

--

0.041

3

0.030

--

0.0016

--

0.055

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-122


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Trigger-pump sprayer

Tiihle ('-Cft: MKII) 44"73*>301 - Dnin Sumin;ir\

1 Visum II)

\aill
ilhsi

1 Apiisuiv (mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu Ih ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liilialalioii

4

0.036

--

0.0022

--

0.062

5

0.038

--

0.0022

--

0.059

6

0.037

--

0.0029

~

0.079

7

0.015

--

0.0024

~

0.161

8

0.030

--

0.0018

--

0.058

9

0.035

--

0.0036

~

0.102

10

0.037

--

0.0011

~

0.030

11

0.038

--

0.0011

~

0.030

12

0.023

--

0.0016

~

0.069

13

0.038

--

0.0016

--

0.042

14

0.038

--

0.0014

~

0.037

15

0.037

--

0.0018

~

0.049

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: No limitations were identified in this study.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-123


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

1 "sihie ( -I"7"7: Seeiiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle r.xpnsure Studios

Formulation

Ready-to-use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method

Shampoo

Application Site(s)

Pets/animals, children

Available Exposure Studies

Mester, T.C. (1998); MRID 44658401

Selim, S. (2005); MRID 46601001

l iihle (-I^S: I nil llxposures iniu/lh :ii) - K 11 Mi;impoo Applications

SiaiiMic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

1700

0.169

75 th percentile

2500

0.342

95th percentile

4700

0.942

99th percentile

7200

1.92

99.9th percentile

12000

4.26

AM(SD)

2000 (1400)

0.29 (0.41)

GM (GSD)

1700 (1.9)

0.17 (2.8)

Range

340 - 8300

0.0197-0.496

N

64

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for shampoo
applications of liquid pesticide formulations to pets, animals, or children is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Mester, T.C. (1998) [EPA MRID 44658401]
and Selim, S. (2005) [EPA MRID 46601001], Mester, T.C. (1998) monitored 16 applications by
commercial pet groomers of shampoo to 8 dogs for approximately 149-295 minutes. Selim, S.
(2005) monitored 16 shampoo applications to one dog each for approximately 30 minutes. Both
studies were considered reasonably representative of activities related to shampooing pets and
both had limitations with respect to exposure monitoring representing the type of clothing a
homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-
resistant gloves). Additionally, since the exposure results were generally of the same magnitude,
the datasets were combined.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for shampoo
applications of liquid pesticide formulations to pets, animals, or children is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from Mester, T.C. (1998) [EPA MRID 44658401],
Mester, T.C. (1998) monitored 16 applications by commercial pet groomers of shampoo to 8
dogs for approximately 149-295 minutes. Another available study did not monitor inhalation
exposure.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-124


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: O = Mester. T.C. (1998); X = Selim. S. (2005)

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = Mester, T.C. (1998)

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-125


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)	Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

Available Handler Exposure Studies

Tiihlc (-l7'J: r.xposuiv Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion Inl'ormalion

Citation

Mester, T.C. (1998). Dermal Exposure and Inhalation Exposure to Carbaryl by
Commercial Pet Groomers During Applications of Adams ™ Carbaryl Shampoo

EPA MRID

44658401

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D287251

Contractor (Versar, Inc.) review 12/4/98

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Sixteen different commercial pet groomers were monitored while treating
dogs with carbaryl, an active ingredient used to control fleas and ticks, using a ready-to-use
(RTU) disposable shampoo bottle. Each application consisted of treating 8 dogs by soaking (2-3
minutes), treating with the shampoo, letting the shampoo sit for 5 minutes, then rinsing, drying
and combing the dog. Application times for treating all 8 dogs ranged from 149 to 295 minutes
and the amount of carbaryl applied ranged from approximately 0.0008 to 0.008 lbs. Dermal
exposure was measured using inner whole body dosimetry (underneath pants, a short-sleeved
shirt and a smock) and hand washes (no chemical-resistant gloves were worn). Inhalation
exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1.5 liters per minute), cassettes, and tubing.
Laboratory control samples for hand wash solutions were fortified with carbaryl with four rates
of concurrent recovery determination, which ranged in percent recovery from 88% to 120%, with
a mean percent recovery of 104% and a standard deviation of 8.7%. Field fortifications for hand
wash solutions were prepared at three spiking levels, with a mean of all three spiking levels at
100%) and a standard deviation of 5.9%. Laboratory control samples for whole body dosimeters
were fortified with carbaryl with two rates for concurrent recovery determination, which ranged
in percent recovery from 91% to 119%), with a mean percent recovery of 107%) and a standard
deviation of 6.9%>. Field fortification samples for whole body dosimeters were prepared at three
spiking levels with a mean of all three spiking levels at 83%> and a standard deviation of 5.0%.

1 "sihie ('-ISO: MKII) 44(>5X40I - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Siud> ( iilena

1 ApoMiic ( ompoiieiil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-126


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

1 "sihie ( -1X1: MKII) 44(>5X40I - l);ii;i Suiiiin;ir\

IVl'siHl II)

\aill
dbsi

1 \piiMiic (mm

1 ml 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.0050

15.36

0.00196

3072

0.3878

2

0.0015

11.72

0.00005

7813

0.0332

3

0.0020

2.61

0.00086

1305

0.4256

4

0.0044

5.51

0.00057

1252

0.1291

5

0.0036

10.40

0.00065

2889

0.1788

6

0.0027

3.99

0.00054

1478

0.2036

7

0.0015

4.49

0.00059

2993

0.4031

8

0.0008

5.13

0.00041

6413

0.4958

9

0.0013

2.20

0.00005

1692

0.0378

10

0.0039

27.88

0.00140

7149

0.3627

11

0.0021

1.76

0.00022

838

0.1066

12

0.0082

15.00

0.00097

1829

0.1185

13

0.0025

8.29

0.00118

3316

0.4732

14

0.0025

8.60

0.00005

3440

0.0197

15

0.0016

2.54

0.00076

1588

0.4865

16

0.0043

1.44

0.00048

335

0.1129

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
shampoo applications, the following limitations are noted:

•	The study monitored professional/commercial pet groomers and may not be
representative of the exposure an individual at home would experience while treating
their pets.

•	The individuals monitored wore long pants, long-sleeve shirts, a smock and chemical-
resistant gloves. Therefore, back-calculations using standard penetration factors to
represent exposure to people wearing shorts, a short-sleeve shirt and no chemical-
resistant gloves were necessary.

Tsihle C-IK2: Hxposiire Siuclj Itlenlil'ic:ilion 1 nlVinn;ition

Citation

Selim, S. (2005) Human Exposure During and Following Use of a
Pyrethrins/Piperonyl Butoxide/MGK-264 Shampoo Formulation on Dogs: Final
Report. Project Number: 040154. Unpublished study prepared by Young Veterinary
Research Services and Golden Pacific Laboratories, LLC (GPL). 466 p.

EPA MRID

46601001

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D319806

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-127


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

Study Description: Sixteen individuals were monitored while treating dogs with a shampoo
containing the active ingredients pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and MGK-264. Each
application took approximately 30 minutes and consisted of shampooing, rinsing, and drying a
single dog. The amount of active ingredient ranged from 12 mg (pyrethrins) to 663 mg (PBO).
Dermal exposure was measured using a t-shirt (no inner dosimeter, so exposure represents bare
upper body) and hand washes or wipes (no chemical-resistant gloves were worn) both
immediately following the treatment and 4 hours after. Lower body exposure was not measured.
Inhalation exposure was not measured. Overall average laboratory recoveries for PYI
(pyrethrins) ranged from 83.5% (shampoo rinse) to 98.0% (paper towels), for PBO (piperonyl
butoxide) ranged from 84.2% (dog hair) to 98.6% (shampoo rinse), for MGK 264 ranged from
86.3%) (hand washes) to 98.2% (paper towels). For CDC A, the overall average recovery was
92.1%). Field fortification samples were not discussed in the Study Report.

1 "sihie ( -1X3: MKII) 4(>(>0I00I - Cheeklisl iiiid I se Kccommendalion

Smd\ ( niciia

1 Aposiiic (onipoiiciii

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

Yes

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure was not measured. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets
should be reviewed for further information.

Tahlc('-IX4: MRU) 4(>(>01001 - Dala Siimman

IVlMHI ID

.Villi
(Ills)

1 ApoMiic (mm

1 mi 1 ApuMirc (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A1 (PY;

0.000056

0.063

—

1125

—

A2 (PY)

0.000049

0.063

—

1286

—

A3 (PY)

0.000063

0.080

—

1270

—

A4 (PY)

0.000060

0.058

—

967

—

A5 (PY)

0.000027

0.031

—

1148

—

A6 (PY)

0.000039

0.063

—

1615

—

A7 (PY)

0.000039

0.255

—

6538

—

A8 (PY)

0.000048

0.048

—

1000

—

A9 (PY)

0.000049

0.124

—

2531

—

A10 (PY)

0.000052

0.105

—

2019

—

All (PY)

0.000051

0.051

—

1000

—

A12 (PY)

0.000040

0.064

—

1600

—

A13 (PY)

0.000080

0.114

—

1425

—

A14 (PY)

0.000047

0.062

--

1319

--

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-128


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Shampoo

1 iihlo C-IS4: MRU) 4(>(>01001 - l);ii;i Sunim;ir\

1 Viv.ii II)

Aaill

1 Aposll

re (mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiic ( iiiu lb an



(Ills)

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A15 (PY;

0.000051

0.045

—

882

—

A16 (PY)

0.000056

0.042

—

750

—

A1 (PBO)

0.00103

1.25

—

1214

—

A2 (PBO)

0.00089

1.20

—

1348

—

A3 (PBO)

0.00116

1.41

—

1216

—

A4 (PBO)

0.00109

1.16

—

1064

—

A5 (PBO)

0.00049

0.74

—

1510

—

A6 (PBO)

0.00071

1.48

—

2085

—

A7 (PBO)

0.00072

5.67

—

7875

—

A8 (PBO)

0.00088

1.86

—

2114

—

A9 (PBO)

0.00090

2.24

—

2489

—

A10 (PBO)

0.00095

1.74

—

1832

—

All (PBO)

0.00094

0.83

—

883

—

A12 (PBO)

0.00073

1.12

—

1534

—

A13 (PBO)

0.00146

2.07

—

1418

—

A14 (PBO)

0.00086

1.08

—

1256

—

A15 (PBO)

0.00092

0.90

—

978

—

A16 (PBO)

0.00101

0.80

—

792

—

A1 (MGK-264)

0.00035

0.646

—

1846

—

A2 (MGK-264)

0.00030

0.493

—

1643

—

A3 (MGK-264)

0.00040

0.678

—

1695

—

A4 (MGK-264)

0.00037

0.450

—

1216

—

A5 (MGK-264)

0.00017

0.273

—

1606

—

A6 (MGK-264)

0.00024

0.552

—

2300

—

A7 (MGK-264)

0.00025

2.055

—

8220

—

A8 (MGK-264)

0.00030

0.461

—

1537

—

A9 (MGK-264)

0.00031

0.786

—

2535

—

A10 (MGK-264)

0.00033

0.596

—

1806

—

All (MGK-264)

0.00032

0.288

—

900

—

A12 (MGK-264)

0.00025

0.338

—

1352

—

A13 (MGK-264)

0.00050

0.725

—

1450

—

A14 (MGK-264)

0.00029

0.331

—

1141

—

A15 (MGK-264)

0.00032

0.266

—

831

—

A16 (MGK-264)

0.00035

0.244

—

697

—

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
shampoo applications, the following limitations are noted:

• Dermal exposure to the legs was not measured. However, since dermal exposure was
measured using the t-shirt that the individuals were wearing (i.e., measurements represent
a bare upper body), the potential overrepresentation of the upper body exposure likely
compensates for the lack of lower body measurements.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-129


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Spot-on

I'iihlo ( -1X5: Scciiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;il>lc l-lxposuiv Studios

Formulation

Ready-to-use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method

Spot-on

Application Site(s)

Pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

Meo, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Belcher, T. (1997); MRID 44433303

Tiihk'(-IX(>: I nil r.\nosmvs (in^/lh :ii) - K 11 Snol-nn Annliciilions

SiaiiMic

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

29

Inhalation exposure data during
application of spot-on treatments is
unavailable, however is considered
negligible.

75 th percentile

91

95th percentile

460

99th percentile

1400

99.9th percentile

5100

AM(SD)

120 (470)

GM (GSD)

29 (5.3)

Range

1.1-370

N

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for spot-on
applications to pets or animals is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring
data from Meo, N., et al (1997) [EPA MRID 44433303], Meo, N., et al (1997) monitored 16
applications by commercial pet groomers to 8 dogs for approximately 14-32 minutes using a
ready-to-use (RTU), disposable, snap-top, plastic-backed pipette. This was the only available
monitoring study for this exposure scenario.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary: Inhalation exposure data during application of spot-on
treatments is unavailable, however is considered negligible.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-130


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Spot-on

Lognormal Probability Plots

Legend: ฆ = Meo, N. et al (1997)

400-

j

350-
300-
250-

QKE5 .50

.75

.90



.95

CO

^ 200-
E:

LLI

2 150-

CB

E

q 100-

50-

Z

~r

4

t

6

I-

10

—r~

12

~I

14

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-131


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Available Handler Exposure Studies

Equipment/Application Method: Spot-on

1 ahle (-IX"7: l.\|)(isuiv Sludj 1 (IonI(ion Information

Citation

Meo, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Belcher, T. (1997) Dermal Exposure of Commercial Pet
Groomers During Application of Frontline Top Spot: Final Report: Lab Project
Number: MERIAL 445 SAFXT047: SAFXT047: EC 97 390. Unpublished study
prepared by ABC Labs., California and Animal Appeal Grooming Shop & Case
Veterinary Hospital. 925 p.

EPA MRID

44433303

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

DER by W. Britton (EPA); no barcode

Contractor review (Versar, Inc.) 9/9/08

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Sixteen different commercial pet groomers were monitored while treating
dogs with ftpronil, an active ingredient used to control fleas and ticks, using a ready-to-use
(RTU), disposable, snap-top, plastic-backed pipette. Each application consisted of applying 2 or
3 pre-measured unit doses with a pipette to the neck area of each of 8 dogs with some groomers
rubbing the material into the dogs' fur. Application times ranged from 14 to 32 minutes and the
amount of ftpronil applied ranged from approximately 0.001 to 0.004 lbs. Dermal exposure was
measured using inner whole body dosimetry (underneath pants, a short-sleeved shirt and a
smock) and cotton gloves underneath household latex gloves. Inhalation exposure was not
measured. Data generated in the frozen stability phase of the study indicated that ftpronil was
stable in two dermal matrices after mean recoveries from field fortification samples which fell
between 79% and 103% of theoretical concentration.

Table C-IXX: MRU) 44433303- Checklist iiiid I so Recommendation

Smd\ ( iilciia

1 Aposiiic (onipoiiciit

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

No

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure was not measured. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets
should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -IX'); MRU) 44433303 - Data Siimman

IVrsmi ID

\aill
(Ills)

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 ApoMirc (mu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-132


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Spot-on

1 "sihie ( -IS'); MKII) 44433303 - l);il;i Siimniiin

IVrsun II)

Villi

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 ml 1 ApuMirc i iiiu lb an



(Ills)

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

1

0.00236

0.033

—

13.93

--

2

0.00207

0.032

—

15.59

--

3

0.00251

0.727

—

289.35

--

4

0.00162

0.090

—

55.40

--

5

0.00325

0.031

—

9.67

--

6

0.00162

0.037

—

23.03

--

7

0.00399

0.004

—

1.12

--

8

0.00177

0.252

—

142.25

--

9

0.00251

0.013

—

5.20

--

10

0.00148

0.084

—

56.94

--

11

0.00207

0.767

—

370.84

--

12

0.00192

0.024

—

12.56

--

13

0.00192

0.009

—

4.82

--

14

0.00266

0.337

—

126.71

--

15

0.00251

0.031

—

12.50

--

16

0.00266

0.603

—

226.66

--

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
spot-on pet treatments, the following limitations are noted:

•	The study monitored professional/commercial pet groomers and may not be
representative of the exposure an individual at home would experience while treating
their pets.

•	The individuals monitored wore long pants, long-sleeve shirts, a smock and chemical-
resistant gloves. Therefore, back-calculations using standard penetration factors to
represent exposure to people wearing shorts, a short-sleeve shirt and no chemical-
resistant gloves were necessary.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-133


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Scenario Summary

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

1 "sihie C-I'NI: Seen;irio Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle l-'\|>ซisnre Studios

Formulation

Ready-to-use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method

Aerosol can

Application Site(s)

outdoors (gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic areas),
indoors (general broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and crevices),
pets/animals

Available Exposure Studies

PHED 521

PHED 456

Selim, S. (2002); MRID 46188618

T;ihle (-I'JI: I nil r.xposures img/lh ;ii) - RTl Aerosol e.in Applications

Statistic

(Jntdooi's Indoors

IVls \ninials

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

50th percentile

330

2.3

Studies measuring exposure while treating
pets or animals using an aerosol can are
unavailable. Therefore, the exposure
studies recommended for use for treating
pets or animals using RTU trigger-pump
sprayers should be used as a surrogate.

75 th percentile

450

3.7

95th percentile

720

7.4

99th percentile

990

11

99.9th percentile

1400

20

AM(SD)

370 (180)

3.0 (2.4)

GM (GSD)

330 (1.6)

2.3 (2.0)

Range

140 - 1000

0.38-4.9

N

15

15

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary

Outdoor and Indoor Environments: The recommended dermal unit exposures for aerosol
can applications to outdoor and indoor environments is based on a lognormal distribution
fit with exposure monitoring data from PHED 521. PHED 521 monitored 15 applications
to cracks, crevices, baseboards, under sinks, and behind appliances in 15 separate houses
using an entire 16 oz. aerosol can. Though another study was available this study best
represented the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator would wear (i.e.,
shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves).

Pets and Animals: Dermal exposure monitoring data for aerosol can applications to pets
and animals are unavailable; dermal unit exposures for trigger-sprayers applications to
pets and animals are recommended as surrogate data.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary

Outdoor and Indoor Environments: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
aerosol can applications to outdoor and indoor environments is based on a lognormal
distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from PHED 456. PHED 456 monitored 15
applications to cracks, crevices, baseboards, under sinks, and behind appliances in 15
separate houses using an entire 16 oz. aerosol can. This study was selected for use for

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-134


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

inhalation exposure estimates due to its lack of non-detect samples compared with
another available study.

Pets and Animals: Inhalation exposure monitoring data for aerosol can applications to
pets and animals is unavailable; inhalation unit exposures for trigger-sprayers
applications to pets and animals is recommended as surrogate data.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-135


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

Lognormal Probability Plots

Outdoor/Indoor Environments Legend: ฆ = PHED 521

1100

1000

900

800

.Q

700

o) 600

LU

ro
E

(D

Q

500

400

300

200

100

Log Normal Quantile

Outdoor/Indoor Environments Legend: ฆ = PHED 456

1.5	2.0	2.5

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-136


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)
Available Handler Exposure Studies

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

Table ( -l'>2: A\ailahle1"\posnro Siudj Idenliricalion 1 nlVinn;ilion

Citation

PHED 521

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Five different individuals were monitored on 3 consecutive days while
spraying an entire 16 oz. aerosol can (1% active ingredient) to cracks, crevices, baseboards,
under sinks, and behind appliances in 15 separate houses. Dermal exposure was measured using
gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work clothing) and hand rinses (without chemical-
resistant gloves). Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per
minute), cassettes, and tubing. Thirteen of 15 inhalation samples were non-detects (limit of
detection = 1 |~ig per sample). Recoveries from field fortifications of exposure sampling matrices
were generally above 90%.

Table C-I'JJ: Plll-ll) 521 - ( hccklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Siud> ( lilciia

1 ApoMII'C ( 'limpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only dermal exposure data are presented as inhalation
exposure data from this study is not recommended for the purposes of residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

Table C-I'J4: Plll.l) 521 - Data Sum man

IVrsoii ID

Vnll

(Ills)

1 AposlllV (nim

1 mi 1 Aposiiiv i mu Ih ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

u.ul

4.25

--

425

—

A

0.01

2.99

--

299

—

A

0.01

2.88

--

288

—

B

0.01

2.61

--

261

—

B

0.01

4.43

--

443

—

B

0.01

1.42

--

142

—

C

0.01

5.77

--

577

--

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-137


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

Tiihlet -I'M: PIII D52I - l);ii;i Siimmsin

IVrson ID

\aill

(Ills)

1 Aposiiiv (mm

1 mi 1 Aposiiiv i iiiu Ih ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

liilialalkin

C

u.ul

4.01

--

401

—

C

0.01

10.02

--

1002

—

D

0.01

4.24

--

424

—

D

0.01

2.47

--

247

—

D

0.01

2.48

--

248

—

E

0.01

3.47

--

347

—

E

0.01

2.29

--

229

—

E

0.01

2.01

--

201

—

1 Amount of active ingredient Handled.







Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant

gloves.











Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.







Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
applications using aerosol cans, the following limitations are noted:

• The study monitored individuals during applications to indoor locations which introduces
uncertainty when using the data to assess applications outdoors.

1 iihlc (-l*>5: l.\|)osiirc Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

PHED 456

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three different individuals were monitored during 5 applications while
spraying an entire 16 oz. aerosol can (1% active ingredient) to cracks, crevices, baseboards,
under sinks, and behind appliances in homes. Each application lasted approximately 30 minutes.
Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work
clothing) and hand rinses (underneath chemical-resistant gloves). Inhalation exposure was
measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. The average
laboratory recovery values are as follows, 101% with a standard deviation of 3.1% for air filters,
98.8% with a standard deviation of 3.5% for gauze pads, 103% with a standard deviation of 0.9%
for hand washes (200 |ig) and 101% with a standard deviation of 3.5% for hand washes (1000
|ig). Field recoveries of the technical active ingredient are reported for two separate sets of
gauze pads in another propoxur exposure study for method validation. In that study, gauze pads
were spiked with the technical active ingredient at a fortification level of 1.0 |ig. The spiked
pads were exposed to unspecified field conditions for 5 hours. The results of these field
recoveries are as follows: the average recovery for the first set of gauze pads is 101% with a
standard deviation of 3.5%, while for the second set of gauze pads is 84.5% with a standard
deviation of 3.6%.

1 iihlc C-l%: PI 1II) 45(> — ( hocklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Siuds ( riieria

1 \poMirc ('onipoiiciii

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-138


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can



Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only inhalation exposure data are presented as dermal
exposure data from this study is not recommended for the purposes of residential handler
exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should
be reviewed for further information.

1 ahlc ('-I')"7: PI III) 45(i - Dala Siimman

IVi'son II)

Villi
dbsi

1 Apiisiiic (mm

1 ml 1 ApuMirc ( iiiu lb an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.0094

--

0.042

--

4.52

A

0.0094

--

0.031

--

3.31

A

0.0094

--

0.040

--

4.24

A

0.0094

--

0.027

--

2.88

A

0.0094

--

0.003

--

0.37

B

0.0094

--

0.040

--

4.27

B

0.0094

--

0.034

--

3.67

B

0.0094

--

0.029

--

3.05

B

0.0094

--

0.046

--

4.89

B

0.0094

--

0.021

--

2.29

C

0.0094

--

0.014

--

1.46

C

0.0094

--

0.019

--

2.06

C

0.0094

--

0.022

--

2.34

C

0.0094

--

0.009

--

0.99

C

0.0094

--

0.013

--

1.33

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
applications using aerosol cans, the following limitations are noted:

• The study monitored individuals during applications to indoor locations which introduces
uncertainty when using the data to assess applications outdoors.

I al)le (-I'JX: I.\|)osuit SUi(l> ItlonIil'ic;ilion Iiil'orni;ilion

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-139


-------
Formulation: Ready-to-Use (RTU)

Equipment/Application Method: Aerosol can

Citation

Selim, S. (2002) Measurement of Air Concentration, Dermal Exposure, and
Deposition of Pyrethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide Following the Use of an Aerosol
Spray

EPA MRID

46188618

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: One individual performed a total of 4 applications (2 per day) using an
aerosol can to treat a 16 ft. x 16 ft. x 8 ft. room. Each application consisted of holding the can
upright and spraying for approximately 10 seconds in a sweeping motion. It was unclear from
the study report the amount of active ingredient handled per application. Dermal exposure was
measured for hands only, using cotton gloves. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard
pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. The overall average recoveries ฑ
standard deviation of laboratory fortified controls for air sampling tubes were 83.5 ฑ 11.8% and
93.5 ฑ 12.1 % for PYI (pyrethrin) and PBO (piperonyl butoxide) respectively. The overall
average recoveries ฑ standard deviation of laboratory fortified controls for cotton gloves were
83.0 ฑ 12.1% and 87.3 ฑ 9.52% for PYI (pyrethrin) and PBO (piperonyl butoxide) respectively.
The overall average recoveries ฑ standard deviation of field fortified controls for air sampling
tubes were 84.9 ฑ 8.87% for PYI (pyrethrin) and 93.6 ฑ 6.04% for PBO (piperonyl butoxide),
and 79.6 ฑ 3.07% for PYI (pyrethrin) and 83.3 ฑ 6.64% for PBO (piperonyl butoxide) for cotton
gloves.

1 "sihie ( -IV); MRU) 4(>IX(>(>IX - ( heeklisl iiiid I se KecommeiithiIicm

Smd\ ( 1'ilci'ia

1 Apiisuiv ('iimpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

1 )oes the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

No

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

No

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

No

No

Data Summary: A summary of the data from this study is not provided since it is not
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself
should be reviewed for further information.

Limitations: Any data limitations associated with the exposure data in this study are not
provided since it is not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself should be reviewed for further information.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-140


-------
Formulation: Wettable Powder (WP)	Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Scenario Summary

1 "sihie ( -200: Seeiiiiriu Description ;iihI A\;iil;ihle l-'\|>ซisnre Studios

Formulation

Wettable Powder (WP)

Equipment/Application Method

Manually-pressurized handwand (also: pump sprayer)

Application Site(s)

outdoors (lawns, gardens, trees/bushes, perimeter, mounds/nests, aquatic
areas), indoors (general broadcast treatments, baseboards, cracks and
crevices)

Available Exposure Studies

Merricks, L. (1987); MRID 40504823

PHED 458

PHED 416

Tsihle C-201: I nil l-Annsures (inป/lh ;ii) - \\ P M ;iiin;ill\-nressn ri/etl M;iii(I\\;iihI Annliciiliuns

Siaiisiic

Dermal

liihalalkin

50th percentile

34

0.63

75 th percentile

76

1.3

95th percentile

240

3.7

99th percentile

540

7.7

99.9th percentile

1300

18

AM(SD)

69 (120)

1.1 (1.67)

GM (GSD)

34 (3.30)

0.63 (2.9)

Range

2-320

0.17-5.1

N

33

16

Dermal Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended dermal unit exposures for applications of
wettable powder pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand to outdoor and
indoor environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure monitoring data from
Merricks, L. (1987) [EPAMRID 40504823] and PHED 458. Merricks, L. (1987) monitored 18
applications of a wettable powder formulation in homes and commercial buildings with 2, 1-
gallon "B&G stainless steel PCO sprayers" (i.e., a manually-pressurized handwand). PHED 458
monitored 16 applications of a wettable powder formulation in homes for approximately 1-2.5
hours using a 1-gallon hand compression sprayer. Both available studies were considered
reasonable representations of residential applications for this scenario and the exposure
monitoring allowed for representation of the type of clothing a homeowner or amateur applicator
would wear (i.e., shorts, short-sleeve shirt, no chemical-resistant gloves). As the exposure
results were generally of the same magnitude, the studies were combined as one dataset.

Inhalation Unit Exposure Summary: The recommended inhalation unit exposures for
applications of wettable powder pesticide formulations using a manually-pressurized handwand
to outdoor and indoor environments is based on a lognormal distribution fit with exposure
monitoring data from PHED 458. PHED 458 monitored 16 applications of a wettable powder
formulation in homes for approximately 1-2.5 hours using a 1-gallon hand compression sprayer.
Another available study consisted of non-detect samples, so PHED 458 was selected for use.

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-141


-------
Formulation: Wettable Powder (WP)	Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Lognormal Probability Plot

Legend: O = PHED 458; X = Merricks. L. (1987)

Log Normal Quantile

Legend: ฆ = PHED 458

Log Normal Quantile

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-142


-------
Formulation: Wettable Powder (WP)	Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

Available Handler Exposure Studies

1 "sihie ( -202: llxposure Siudj 1 dentil'ic;ilion 1 iiltiriiiiilion

Citation

Merricks, L. (1987). Potential Exposure to Acephate During and After Application of
Orthene PCO Spray Concentrate by Commercial Pest Control Operators

EPA MRID

40504823

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

D270363

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Nine different individuals were monitored each at a home and in a
commercial building (for a total of 18 application events) while mixing and applying a liquid
solution (mixed from an acephate wettable powder formulation) using a "B&G stainless steel
PCO sprayer" (i.e., a manually-pressurized handwand). Each applicator mixed 2, 1-gallon
solutions and applied 1 quart to baseboards and cracks and crevices, handling approximately 80
gms of acephate (0.176 lbs). Dermal exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside
and outside normal work clothing) and cotton gloves for hand exposure. Inhalation exposure
was measured using standard pumps (set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. All but one
inhalation exposure sample was non-detect. The overall acephate recovery from control samples
fortified in the laboratory and analyzed with field samples was 103% for alpha-cellulose, 101%
for gloves, and 96% for polyurethane foam plugs. Overall recovery from laboratory fortified
samples was 107% for gloves, 103% for alpha-cellulose, and 83% for polyurethane foam plugs.

l iihle ( -203: MKII) 40504X23 - Checklist ;iihI I se Recommendation

Smd\ ( iilcria

1 ApoMiic (timpiiiiciil

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

Yes

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

Yes

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

No

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Note that only the dermal exposure data are presented as the inhalation
exposure data are not recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The
submitted study itself or corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further
information.

Tahlc( -204: MKII) 40504S23 - l)ala Siimman

IVrsoii II)

Villi

( Ills)

1 ApoMII'C ( IIIUI

1 nil 1 Aposiiiv i mu Ih ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.176

4.88

--

27.7

--

B

0.176

0.39

--

2.2

--

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-143


-------
Formulation: Wettable Powder (WP)

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

I ;il)k'( -2II4: MKII) 40504X23 - l);ii;i Siimniiin

IVrsoii II)

\aill

( Ills)

1 Apiisiiiv (mm

1 nil 1 Aposiiiv i iiiu lb ai i

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

C

U.17t>

2.15

--

12.2

--

D

0.176

3.37

--

19.1

--

E

0.176

2.10

--

12.0

--

F

0.176

15.87

--

90.2

--

G

0.176

16.00

--

90.9

--

H

0.176

3.47

--

19.7

--

I

0.176

3.83

--

21.7

--

A

0.176

55.91

--

317.7

--

B

0.176

0.80

--

4.6

--

C

0.176

3.97

--

22.6

--

D

0.176

4.42

--

25.1

--

E

0.176

1.06

--

6.0

--

F

0.176

6.28

--

35.7

--

G

0.176

3.99

--

22.6

--

H

0.176

2.45

--

13.9

--

I

0.176

4.00

--

22.7

--

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individuals wearing a short-sleeve shirt, shorts, shoes, socks and no chemical-resistant
gloves.

3	Inhalation exposure (mg) = mg collected/pump flow rate (Lpm) * Breathing Rate (16.7 Lpm).

4	Unit Exposure = Expo sure/AaiH.

Limitations: Though the above referenced study is useful for assessment of exposure during
applications using a manually-pressurized handwand to mix, load, and apply wettable powder
formulations, the following limitations are noted:

•	The study monitored individuals during applications to indoor locations which introduces
uncertainty when using the data to assess applications outdoors.

•	An estimated 90% of (non-hand) dermal exposure measurements were non-detects (1/2
the limit of detection, 0.01 |Lxg per sample was used).

Table (-205: l \|)(isuic Sluilj 1 (IonI(ion liifoniiiilion

Citation

PHED 458

EPA MRID

NA

ORETF Code

NA

EPA Review

none

MRID = Master Record Identification

ORETF = Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

Study Description: Three separate individuals were monitored in multiple houses for a total of
16 application events while mixing, loading, and applying a wettable powder formulation (70%
active ingredient) in homes using a 1-gallon hand compression sprayer. Each application ranged
from 1 to 2.5 hours and the applicators handled from 0.1 to 0.25 lbs of active ingredient. Dermal
exposure was measured using gauze patches (both inside and outside normal work clothing) and
hand rinses to measure hand exposure. Inhalation exposure was measured using standard pumps
(set at 1 liter per minute), cassettes, and tubing. Average laboratory recovery values for air
filters were 92.5% with a 5.4% standard deviation, for gauze pads 108% with a 3.6% standard

U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - Standard Operating Procedures for Assessing Residential Pesticide Exposure

C-144


-------
Formulation: Wettable Powder (WP)

Equipment/Application Method: Manually-pressurized handwand

deviation, for hand washes (200 |ig) 99.2% with a 0.5% standard deviation, and for hand washes
(1,000 |ig) 97.3%) with a 0.8%> standard deviation. Field recovery experiments were not
performed for this specific study. The registrant assumed that the indoor laboratory conditions
were similar to the indoor environmental conditions of the study houses. However, temperature
and humidity were not reported for the laboratory or the study houses to allow comparison of the
indoor environments. Furthermore, the study report does not specify the length of time the gauze
pads and hand rinse solutions were exposed to the laboratory conditions.

Table ( -20(i: I'lll.l) 45S — ( hocklisl ;iihI I so Kecom iiioikI;i I ion

Siinl\ ( rilciia

1 ApoMII'C ( 'limpiillCMl

Dermal

Inhalation

Does the study provide detailed characteristics on the activity, equipment type,
and amount of active ingredient handled?

Yes

Does dermal exposure monitoring allow for construction of an exposure
estimate for individuals wearing short-sleeve shirts, shorts, shoes, socks?

Yes

NA

Was exposure to the hands representative of bare hands?

No

NA

Was the study intended to simulate "residential" exposure via the scripted
activity, amount of active ingredient handled, volunteers used, or the setting?

No

Is the data of reasonable quality (i.e., are field fortification and laboratory
recovery samples adequate)?

No

Yes

Should this study be recommended for use in residential handler exposure
assessments?

Yes

Yes

Data Summary: The following table summarizes pertinent exposure information from the
above referenced study. Both dermal and inhalation exposure are included since both are
recommended for use in residential handler exposure assessment. The submitted study itself or
corresponding analytical spreadsheets should be reviewed for further information.

Table ( -207; |>|11 1) 45S - Dala Siimman

IVi'son II)

Vnll
(Ills)

1 Aposniv (mm

1 ml 1 ApoMiiv i iiiu Ih an

Dermal

Inhalation

Dermal

Inhalation

A

0.09

17.78

0.296

198

3.29

A

0.08

23.82

0.413

298

5.16

A

0.13

31.63

0.306

243

2.35

A

0.09

17.75

0.035

197

0.39

B

0.16

14.09

0.251

88

1.57

B

0.09

5.17

0.132

57

1.47

B

0.22

5.94

0.083

27

0.38

B

0.22

9.49

0.071

43

0.32

B

0.24

26.21

0.095

109

0.40

B

0.13

8.52

0.135

66

1.04

C

0.11

1.94

0.022

18

0.20

C

0.09

2.39

0.038

27

0.42

C

0.13

3.48

0.032

27

0.25

C

0.11

2.02

0.022

18

0.20

C

0.13

2.35

0.023

18

0.18

1	Amount of active ingredient Handled.

2	Representative of individual