Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Executive Summary

Hydrogen Peroxide

Direct Use Chemical precursor Chemical



^ Inputs to Manufacturing Process:
Hydrogen	Anthraquinone

Derivative Water Treatment Chemicals:
Sodium Chlorite

% of Total Domestic Consumption
Attributed to Water Sector:
Approximately 10%

fos Understanding Chemical Supply Chains
Map of Suppliers & Manufacturers

M Product Family
Petroleum Byproducts

CAS No.: 7722-84-1

2 Shelf Life:
12+ Months

— RISK OF SUPPLY DISRUPTION (Assessed in 2022)


xe-Low Moderaf


Use of hydrogen peroxide in
pulp and paper processing ac-
counts for the majority of con-
sumption of domestic produc-
tion. Long-distance transport of
hydrogen peroxide, a hazardous
substance, may be limited. This
can create logistical gaps be-
tween production locations and
point of use.


Criticality: High. Essential for oxi-
dation, dechlorination, and pro-
duction of water treatment chemi-

Likelihood: Low. No history of sup-
ply chain disruptions between
2000 and 2022.

Vulnerability: Low. Distributed
domestic manufacturing and




Hydrogen Peroxide

Water T reatment Applications

•	Oxidation

•	Dechlorination

•	Water treatment chemical production
Other Applications


End Use

•	Pulp and paper processing

•	Chemical manufacturing

•	Textile bleaching

•	Medical uses (sterilization, decontamination)


Domestic Manufacturing Locations (2015):
13, distributed throughout the U.S.

(^) International Trade (2019)

Primary Trading Partner (Imports): Canada
Primary Trading Partner (Exports): Mexico

Domestic Consumption (2019):
336 M kg

Domestic Production (324 M kg)
¦ Imports for Consumption (103 M kg)
I Export of Domestic Production (91 M kg)


Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile

Product Description

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a highly soluble, inorganic oxidant is used as an oxidizing agent. It is a widely used
oxidant and dechlorinating agent in water and wastewater treatment. The majority of hydrogen peroxide
manufactured in the U.S. is used in paper and textile bleaching.

Use in Water Treatment

Hydrogen peroxide is used in water treatment as an oxidizing agent and for dechlorination.

Use as a Precursor to Other Water Treatment Chemicals
Hydrogen peroxide is used to manufacture sodium chlorite.

Other Applications

Hydrogen peroxide has a wide range of applications. The leading uses of hydrogen peroxide are pulp and paper
processing, chemical manufacturing, textile bleaching, medical applications such as sterilization and
decontamination, food processing, medicines and pharmaceuticals, a component of rocket fuel, and agricultural
and livestock applications (FTC, 2019; NCBI, 2021).

Primary Industrial Consumers

Most domestically produced hydrogen peroxide is used for bleaching of paper products, deinking of recycled
paper, and bleaching textiles. Collectively, these activities account for approximately 65% of domestic
consumption. Approximately 10% of domestic consumption is used in water treatment (FTC, 2019; NCBI 2021).

Manufacturing, Transport, & Storage

Manufacturing Process

The most common raw materials for the production of hydrogen peroxide are a source of hydrogen and
anthraquinone, which is a polyacrylic aromatic hydrocarbon derived from coal tar or combustion of oil or gas.

In the U.S., hydrogen peroxide is most commonly produced in an autoxidation process in proximity to a source
of hydrogen, historically from coal, oil or natural gas. The process is energy intensive. The reactions for this
process are shown in Figure 1. In this process, anthraquinone reacts with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst
to form anthrahydroquinone. The subsequent step removes the hydrogen from the anthrahydroquinone
through oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide, which is extracted with water. The
crude hydrogen peroxide is diluted, filtered, and stabilized.

Anthraquinone + Hydrogen —>


Q + H2 ->


Anthrahydroquinone + Oxygen -

-> Anthraquinone +

Hydrogen Peroxide

h2q + o2

-> Q +


Figure 1. Chemical Equation for the Reaction to Manufacture Hydrogen Peroxide

EPA 817-F-22-030 | December 2022


Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile

Product Transport

Hydrogen peroxide is considered a hazardous material when the solution concentration is greater than 8% by
weight. While transport across the U.S. may be primarily by rail or truck, hydrogen peroxide can be transported
in bulk or smaller containers by other means including barge or ship. Bulk quantity consumers may rely
exclusively on regional production to avoid high transportation costs and risk of interruptions to supply (FTC,
2019; Solvay, 1998).

Storage and Shelf Life

Hydrogen peroxide is stable under recommended storage conditions, but degrades when exposed to direct sun
and heat. When stored properly, hydrogen peroxide can have a shelf life greater than twelve months, though
stability may depend upon many factors (Solvay, 2020).

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic Production

Production data was collected from 2020 EPA Chemical Data Reporting (CDR), while trade data was collected
from the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) Dataweb, as shown in Table 1. Both production and trade
data are specific to hydrogen peroxide.

Table 1. Hydrogen Peroxide Production and Trade Data Sources

Production and Trade Data


Data Source



Domestic Production

2020 EPA Chemical Data Reporting

CAS No.: 7722-84-1

Hydrogen Peroxide

Imports and Exports

U.S. International Trade Commission

HS Code: 2847.00

Hydrogen Peroxide

Total U.S. domestic production of hydrogen peroxide was approximately 324 million kilograms (M kg) in 2019
(EPA, 2020). The primary domestic manufactures include Evonik, MGC Pure Chemicals, and Solvay. Solvay
indicates they are one of the largest worldwide hydrogen peroxide manufacturers (Solvay, 2022). The number of
domestic manufacturing locations shown in Figure 2 represents operating facilities as of 2015 (EPA, 2016).

Supply of NSF/ANSI Standard 60 certified hydrogen peroxide for use in drinking water treatment is widely
distributed throughout the U.S. (NSF International, 2021). For a more current listing of manufacturing locations
and supplier locations, visit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Chemical Locator Tool (EPA,



Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile









oo -

- o

° o

•	 o —

J r:-^'

Domestic Supply and Manufacturing of Hydrogen Peroxide
O 48 NSF/ANSI Standard 60 Certified Suppliers (NSF International, 2020)

13 Domestic Manufacturing Locations (EPA Chemical Data Reporting, 2016)

Figure 2. Domestic Supply and Manufacturing of Hydrogen Peroxide
Domestic Consumption

U.S. consumption of hydrogen peroxide in 2019 is estimated at 336 M kg. This estimate includes production of
324 M kg, import of 103 M kg, minus export of 91 M kg (EPA, 2020; USITC, 2021), as shown in Figure 3.

Domestic Consumption (2019):
336 M kg

¦	Domestic Production (324 M kg)

¦	Imports for Consumption (103 M kg)

¦	Export of Domestic Production (91 M kg)

Figure 3. Domestic Production and Consumption of Hydrogen Peroxide in 2019

Trade & Tariffs

Worldwide Trade

Worldwide import and export data for hydrogen peroxide are reported through the World Bank's World
Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS) software, as a category specific to hydrogen peroxide. Export and import
quantities were not reported to WITS for numerous countries including China, Japan, and India. In 2021, the U.S.



Hydrogen Peroxide Supply

ranked eighth worldwide in total exports and second in total imports of hydrogen peroxide. In
ranked first worldwide in total exports and Italy ranked first worldwide in total imports (WITS,
in Table 2.

Table 2. WITS Worldwide Export and Import of Hydrogen Peroxide in 2021

2021 Worldwide Trade
Hydrogen Peroxide (HS Code 2847.00)

Top 5 Worldwide Exporters

Top 5 Worldwide Importers


148 M kg


97 M kg


144 M kg

United States

90 M kg


144 M kg


68 M kg


139 M kg


59 M kg


103 M kg


56 M kg

Domestic Imports and Exports

Domestic imports and export data are reported by USITC in categories specific to hydrogen peroxide. Figure 4
summarizes imports for consumption1 and domestic exports2 of hydrogen peroxide between 2015 and 2020.
During this period, the overall quantity of exports and imports remained relatively steady, with imports for
consumption exceeding domestic exports in all years between 2015 and 2020 apart from 2018. Over this five-
year period, Mexico was the primary recipient of domestic exports and Canada the primary source of imports
(USITC, 2021).


to	i/>


Q_	Q_




Figure 4. USITC Domestic Import and Export of Hydrogen Peroxide between 2015 and 2020

1	Imports for consumption are a subset of general imports, representing the total amount cleared through customs and entering
consumption channels, not anticipated to be reshipped to foreign points, but may include some reexports.

2	Domestic exports are a subset of total exports, representing export of domestic merchandise which are produced or manufactured in
the U.S. and commodities of foreign origin which have been changed in the U.S.

Chain - Full Profile

2021, Brazil
2022), as shown

Domestic Trade of Hydrogen Peroxide
120	HTS Code 2847.00

ji? 40


.2 20

2015 2016 2017	2018 2019

¦	Imports from Canada	¦ Exports to Mexico

¦	Imports from Japan	¦ Exports to Canada

I Imports from Other Countries	Exports to Other Countries



Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile


There is a 3.7% general duty, and 25% additional duty on imports from China (USITC, 2022), as summarized in
Table 3.

Table 3. 2020 Domestic Tariff Schedule for Hydrogen Peroxide

HS Code

General Duty

Additional Duty - China
(Section 301 Tariff List)

Special Duty




Free (A, AU, BH, CL, CO, D, E, IL, JO, KR, MA,
OM, P, PA, PE, S, SG)3

Market History & Risk Evaluation

History of Shortages

There were no identified hydrogen peroxide supply chain disruptions between 2000 and 2022.

Risk Evaluation

The complete risk evaluation methodology is described in Understanding Water Treatment Chemical Supply
Chains and the Risk of Disruptions (EPA, 2022b). The risk rating is calculated as the product of the following three
risk parameters:

Risk = Criticality x Likelihood x Vulnerability
Criticality	Measure of the importance of a chemical to the water sector

Likelihood Measure of the probability that the chemical will experience a supply disruption in the
future, which is estimated based on past occurrence of supply disruptions

Vulnerability Measure of the market dynamics that make a chemical market more or less resilient to
supply disruptions

The individual parameter rating is based on evaluation of one or more attributes of the chemical or its supply
chain. The ratings and drivers for these three risk parameters are shown below in Table 4.

3 Symbols used to designate the various preference programs and trade agreements. A full list of special trade agreements and
associated acronyms can be found at https://help.cbp.eov/s/article/Article-310?laneuaee=en US and the General Notes Section of the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule https://hts.usitc.eov/current



Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile

Table 4. Supply Chain Risk Evaluation for Hydrogen Peroxide

Risk Parameter Ratings and Drivers

ICriticality High 1

1 Likelihood Low 1

(Vulnerability Low 1

Hydrogen peroxide has widespread
application for as an oxidizing agent
and as a dechlorinating agent. It is a
precursor in the production of sodium

The water sector has not experienced
hydrogen peroxide supply chain
disruptions between 2000 and 2022.

Strong domestic manufacturing
capabilities and a distributed
manufacturing base provide some
resilience to supply disruptions.

Risk Rating: Low


¦ e^e-Low Moderate








EPA, 2016. 2016 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting, retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-

EPA, 2020. 2020 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting, retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-

EPA, 2022a. Chemical Suppliers and Manufacturers Locator Tool, retrieved from


EPA, 2022b. Understanding Water Treatment Chemical Supply Chains and the Risk of Disruptions, retrieved
from https://www.epa.gov/waterutilityresponse/risk-disruptions-supplv-water-treatment-chemicals

NSF International, 2021. Search for NSF Certified Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals, retrieved from

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2021. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 784,
Hydrogen Peroxide, retrieved from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Hvdrogen-peroxide

Solvay, 1998. Hydrogen Peroxide Handling and Storage, Solvay S.A., retrieved from http://mae-

nas.eng.usu.edu/Peroxide Web Page/documents/H202 Handling%20and%20Storage-191789.pdf

Solvay, 2020. Interox® Hydrogen Peroxide Batch Numbering and Shelf Life Statement, retrieved from

10/INTEROX%C2%AE%20Hvdrogen%20Peroxide%20%28H2Q2%29%20Shelf%20Life%20Statement EN.p

Solvay, 2022. 2021 Annual Integrated Report, retrieved from https://www.solvav.com/en/investors/annual-

U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 2019. Administrative Part 3 Complaint In the Matter of

Evonik/PeroxyChem, retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov/legal-library/browse/cases-proceedings/191-



Hydrogen Peroxide Supply Chain - Full Profile

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), 2021. USITC DataWeb, retrieved from

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), 2022. Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) Search, retrieved from

World Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS), 2022. Trade Statistics by Product (HS 6-digit), retrieved from