Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Executive Summary

Monosodium Phosphate

Direct Use Chemical Precursor Chemical

(liquid or solid)

Source of Raw Material:	^ % of Total Domestic Consumption
Sodium Carbonate Sodium Hydroxide Attributed to Water Sector:

Phosphoric Acid	More than 10%

^ Derivative Water Treatment Chemicals:	dab Understanding Chemical Supply Chains

Sodium Polyphosphates

Map of Suppliers & Manufacturers

gQ Product Family:

CAS No.: 7558-80-7

2 Shelf Life:
24 Months

— RISK OF SUPPLY DISRUPTION (Assessed in 2022)

RISK RATING: Moderate-Low

;(ale-low Moderaf£,


Strong reliance on the inter-
national market for manufac-
turing inputs, primarily
phosphoric acid. Increased
competition and reliance on
imports have challenged
phosphate manufacturers.
Regional phosphoric acid sup-
ply disruptions have occurred
between 2000 and 2022.


Criticality: High. Essential for corrosion
control and production of water treat-
ment chemicals.

Likelihood: Moderate-Low. The water sec-
tor experienced regional supply disrup-
tions between 2000 and 2022.

Vulnerability: Moderate-High. Manufac-
turing and supply is distributed, but sup-
ply is import-dependent with a high tariff
on the most significant source of imports.


Water Treatment Applications

•	Corrosion control

•	Water treatment chemical production

Other Applications

Fertilizer and animal feed amendment
Industrial buffering agent
Cleaning products
Food production


Domestic Production Locations (2015):
21, distributed throughout the U.S.

(^) International Trade (2019)

Primary Trading Partner (Imports): China
Primary Trading Partner (Exports): Mexico

Mono- and Disodium Phosphate
Domestic Consumption (2019):
19 Million kg

Domestic Production (12 M kg)
¦ Imports for Consumption (10 M kg)
Export of Domestic Production (3 M kg)


Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Full Profile

Product Description

Monosodium phosphate (NaH2P04), is a widely used derivative product of phosphoric acid. Monosodium
phosphate is used directly in water treatment on its own for corrosion control or blended with polyphosphates
for corrosion control and scale inhibition, and also as an input in the manufacturing of sodium polyphosphates.
The most common domestic use of monosodium phosphate is in animal feed and fertilizer manufacturing.

Use in Water Treatment

Monosodium phosphate is used directly in corrosion control and blended with polyphosphates for corrosion
control and scale inhibition.

Use as a Precursor to Other Water Treatment Chemicals
Monosodium phosphate is used to manufacture sodium polyphosphates.

Other Applications

Monosodium phosphate is widely used in fertilizer and animal feed as a granulated phosphate component.
Other significant uses include use as a buffering agent in industrial processes, food additive, emulsifier, pH
stabilizer, curing agent; in formulations of cleaning products; and in water treatment (NCBI, 2021).

Primary Industrial Consumers

Significant uses of monosodium phosphate include use in formulations for animal feed and fertilizer, pH
buffering for industrial processes such as textile processing, formulation of cleaning products, and corrosion
control and anti-scaling applications (EPA, 2020).

Manufacturing, Transport, & Storage

Manufacturing Process

The majority of monosodium phosphate produced in the U.S. starts with phosphoric acid and either sodium
hydroxide or sodium carbonate. Wet process phosphoric acid, which has been further concentrated and
processed to produce a high purity product, or thermal phosphoric acid are used. No information was available
regarding the preferential use of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, and they may be interchangeable in
the manufacture of monosodium phosphate.

The most common monosodium phosphate manufacturing process proceeds in several steps, the overall
equation for this process is outlined in Figure 1, noting methods for use of sodium hydroxide and sodium
carbonate. In both methods, phosphoric acid is neutralized with either sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.
Phosphate crystals form and are separated from the solution. Based on the molar ratio of phosphoric acid and
sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, a slurry of monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, or a mixture
of monosodium and disodium phosphates is produced. The hydrated crystals may be dehydrated in a rotary kiln
to obtain anhydrous monosodium phosphate (AWWA, 2018; NCBI, 2021).

EPA 817-F-22-033 | December 2022


Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Full Profile

Method 1

Phosphoric Acid


Sodium Hydroxide —>

Monosodium Phosphate

+ Water



NaOH ->


+ H20

Method 2

Phosphoric Acid


Sodium Carbonate —

> Monosodium Phosphate

+ Carbon Dioxide + Water




-> 2NaH2P04

+ C02 + H20

Figure 1. Chemical Equation for the Reaction to Manufacture Monosodium Phosphate

Product Transport

Monosodium phosphate, primarily supplied as a solution but also available as a solid or powder, is widely
transported in container and bulk by truck, rail, barge, and ship.

Storage and Shelf Life

Monosodium phosphate is stable and generally non-reactive. When stored properly, monosodium phosphate
can have a shelf life of approximately 24 months (ICL Performance Products, 2015; Univar 2015).

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic Production

Production data was collected from the 2020 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Data Reporting
(CDR) for the year 2019, while trade data was collected from the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC)
Dataweb, as shown in Table 1. While production data is specific to monosodium phosphate, trade data are for
the category of monosodium and disodium phosphates.

Table 1. Monosodium Phosphate Production and Trade Data Sources

Production and Trade Data


Data Source



Domestic Production

2020 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting

CAS No.: 7558-80-7

Monosodium Phosphate

Imports and Exports

U.S. International Trade Commission

HS Code: 2835.22

Monosodium and
Disodium Phosphate

Total reported U.S. domestic production of monosodium phosphate for commercial sale was approximately 11.5
million kilograms (M kg) in 2019 (EPA, 2020). The largest reporting domestic producers of monosodium
phosphate in 2019 were Hawkins Chemical Company, Mosaic Company, and the Carus Corporation. Several
significant domestic manufacturers, including ICL Group and Innophos claimed confidential business information
and did not report domestic production volume in 2019. The number of domestic manufacturing locations
shown in Figure 2 represents operating facilities as of 2015 (EPA, 2016). Supply of NSF/ANSI Standard 60
certified monosodium phosphate for use in drinking water treatment is distributed throughout the U.S. (NSF
International, 2021). For a more current listing of manufacturing locations and supplier locations, visit the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Chemical Locator Tool (EPA, 2022a).



Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - hull Profile



-Bp	;


	o -




o -

0 o

o O



1 .

Domestic Supply and Manufacturing of Monosodium Phosphate
O 36 NSF/ANSI Standard 60 Certified Suppliers (NSF International, 2021)
21 Domestic Manufacturing Locations (EPA Chemical Data Reporting, 2016)




Figure 2. Domestic Supply and Manufacturing of Monosodium Phosphate
Domestic Consumption

U.S. consumption of monosodium and disodium phosphate in 2019 is estimated at 19 M kg. This estimate
includes combined production of 12 M kg, import of 10 M kg, minus export of 3 M kg, as shown in Figure 3. Of
this, domestic production of monosodium phosphate (11.5 M kg) represented 96% of all production (EPA, 2020;
USITC 2021).

Domestic Consumption (2019):
19 Million kg

Domestic Production (12 M kg)
» Imports for Consumption (10 M kg)
Export of Domestic Production (3 M kg)

Figure 3. Domestic Production and Consumption of Monosodium and Disodium Phosphate in 2019



Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - hull Profile

Trade &Tariffs
Worldwide Trade

Worldwide import and export data for monosodium phosphate are reported through the World Bank's World
Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS) software, as a category for both monosodium and disodium phosphate. In
2021, the U.S. ranked fifth worldwide in total exports and first in total imports of monosodium and disodium
phosphate. In 2021, China ranked first worldwide in total exports (WITS, 2022) as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. WITS Worldwide Export and Import of Monosodium and Disodium Phosphate in 2021

2021 Worldwide Trade
Monosodium and Disodium Phosphate (HS Code 2835.22)

Top 5 Worldwide Exporters

Top 5 Worldwide Importers


26 M kg

United States

14 M kg


13 M kg


11 M kg


5 M kg


8 M kg


5 M kg


4 M kg

United States

4M kg


4 M kg

Domestic imports and Exports

Domestic import and export data are reported by USiTC in a category which includes both monosodium and
disodium phosphate. Figure 4 summarizes imports for consumption1 and domestic exports2 between 2015 and
2020. During this period, the overall quantity of imports remained relatively steady, with imports consistently
exceeding exports, while the quantity of exports decreased. Over this five-year period, Mexico was the primary
recipient of domestic exports while China was the primary source of imports (USITC, 2021).

Domestic Trade of Mono- and Disodium Phosphate
14	HTS Code 2835.22


— 4



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«/) i/i i/> (/its)	in M ia i/i	into


oo oo oo	oo oo	oo

Q.Q. Q.Q. Q. CL	Q.Q. Q.Q.	Q.Q.

c x cx ex	cx cx	cx

£ UJ — UJ C yj	£- uj u |xl	C UJ

2015 2016 2017	2018 2019	2020

¦	Imports from China	¦ Exports to Mexico

¦	Imports from Germany	¦ Exports to Canada
Imports from Other Countries	Exports to Other Countries

Figure 4. USITC Domestic Import and Export of Monosodium and Disodium Phosphate between 2015 and 2020

1	Imports for consumption are a subset of general imports, representing the total amount cleared through customs and entering
consumption channels, not anticipated to be reshipped to foreign points, but may include some reexports.

2	Domestic exports are a subset of total exports, representing export of domestic merchandise which are produced or manufactured in
the U.S. and commodities of foreign origin which have been changed in the U.S.



Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Full Profile


There is a 1.4% general duty for import of monosodium phosphate and an additional 25% duty on imports from
China (USITC, 2022), as summarized in Table 3. Imports of monosodium and disodium phosphate are primarily
supplied from China and Germany. Though an additional 25% duty was added to imports from China in 2019,
the quantity of imports of monosodium and disodium phosphate from China did not decrease between 2019
and 2021 (USITC, 2021).

Table 3. 2020 Domestic Tariff Schedule for Monosodium and Disodium Phosphate

HS Code

General Duty

Additional Duty - China
(Section 301 Tariff List)

Special Duty




Free (A, AU, BH, CL, CO, D, E, IL, JO, KR, MA, OM, P,
PA, PE, S, SG)3

Market History & Risk Evaluation

History of Shortages

Disruptions to phosphoric acid production and the supply chain for phosphate rock can have a significant impact
on availability of phosphoric acid and phosphates used in corrosion control applications. The increased demand
for phosphoric acid and phosphates for use in fertilizers and animal feed has led to price increases and supply
disruptions. Domestic manufacturers and suppliers of phosphate-based water treatment chemicals oftentimes
rely on the international market for supply of phosphate rock and phosphoric acid and may encounter persistent
challenges in obtaining these raw materials. This has led to repeated shortages of phosphate-based water
treatment chemicals. In 2021, disruptions in international trade caused by the COVID-19 pandemic severely
challenged these manufacturers.

Risk Evaluation

The complete risk assessment methodology is described in Understanding Water Treatment Chemical Supply
Chains and the Risk of Disruptions (EPA, 2022b). The risk rating is calculated as the product of the following three
risk parameters:

Risk = Criticality x Likelihood x Vulnerability
Criticality Measure of the importance of a chemical to the water sector

Likelihood Measure of the probability that the chemical will experience a supply disruption in the
future, which is estimated based on past occurrence of supply disruptions

Vulnerability Measure of the market dynamics that make a chemical market more or less resilient to
supply disruptions

The individual parameter rating is based on evaluation of one or more attributes of the chemical or its supply
chain. The ratings and drivers for these three risk parameters are shown below in Table 4.

3 Symbols used to designate the various preference programs and trade agreements. A full list of special trade agreements and
associated acronyms can be found at US and the General Notes Section of the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule



Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Full Profile

Table 4. Supply Chain Risk Evaluation for Monosodium Phosphate

Risk Parameter Ratings and Drivers


ICriticality High 1

Vulnerability Moderate-High 1

Monosodium phosphate is essential
to the water sector and has
widespread application for corrosion
control. It is a precursor in the
production of sodium

The water sector has experienced
regional monosodium phosphate
supply disruptions in the past.
Concerns are primarily due to
increased competition and reliance on
imports for raw materials and inputs
(phosphate rock and phosphoric acid,

Domestic manufacturing and supply
are distributed. However, there is a
significant reliance on imports for
both inputs and finished product. As
of 2022, there was a high tariff on the
most significant source of imports.

Risk Rating: Moderate-Low








American Water Works Association (AWWA), 2018. B504, Monosodium Phosphate, Anhydrous and Liquid.

Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.

EPA, 2016. 2016 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting, retrieved from

EPA, 2020. 2020 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting, retrieved from

EPA, 2022a. Chemical Suppliers and Manufacturers Locator Tool, retrieved from

EPA, 2022b. Understanding Water Treatment Chemical Supply Chains and the Risk of Disruptions, retrieved

ICL Performance Products, 2015. Shelf life and storage conditions statement, retrieved from Shelf life.pdf

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2021. PubChem Compound Summary for CID
23672064, Monosodium phosphate, retrieved from
NSF International, 2021. Search for NSF Certified Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals, retrieved from

Univar USA Inc., 2014. Safety Data Sheet for Monosodium Phosphate, Anhydrous, retrieved from PHOSPHATE ANHYDROUS.PDF



Monosodium Phosphate Supply Chain - Full Profile

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), 2021. USITC DataWeb, retrieved from

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), 2022. Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) Search, retrieved from
World Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS), 2022. Trade Statistics by Product (HS 6-digit), retrieved from