at Work

Outdoor Water Use

5.1 Landscaping


I feSS*


Best Management Practices for
Commercial and Institutional Facilities




November 2023

WaterSenseฎ is a voluntary partnership program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) that seeks to protect the nation's water supply by transforming
the market for water-efficient products, services, and practices.

WaterSense at Work is a compilation of water efficiency best management practices
intended to help commercial and institutional facility owners and managers from multiple
sectors understand and better manage their water use. It provides guidance to help
establish an effective facility water management program and identify projects and
practices that can reduce facility water use.

An overview of the sections in WaterSense at Work is below. This document, covering
water-efficient landscaping, is part of Section 5: Outdoor Water Use. The complete list
of best management practices is available at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-
management-practices. WaterSense has also developed worksheets to assist with water
management planning and case studies that highlight successful water efficiency efforts
of building owners and facility managers throughout the country, available at

•	Section 1. Getting Started With Water Management

•	Section 2. Water Use Monitoring

•	Section 3. Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment

•	Section 4. Commercial Kitchen Equipment

•	Section 5. Outdoor Water Use

•	Section 6. Mechanical Systems

•	Section 7. Laboratory and Medical Equipment

•	Section 8. Onsite Alternative Water Sources

EPA 832-F-23-003
Office of Water

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
November 2023

This document is one section from WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and
Institutional Facilities (EPA-832-F-23-003). Other sections can be downloaded from

www.epa.gov/watersense/hest-management-practices. Sections will be reviewed and periodically updated
to reflect new information. The work was supported under contract 68HERC20D0026 with Eastern Research
Group, Inc. (ERG).

November 2023

Outdoor Water Use






Water applied to a landscape can account for a significant portion of a commercial or
institutional property's overall water use, particularly for buildings or campuses with large,
manicured landscapes. Typically, a landscape is watered to supplement natural
precipitation based on a plant's water needs. The amount of water theoretically needed to
keep a landscape healthy is equal to the amount of water lost due to evapotranspiration-—
the sum of water lost by evaporation from the soil and transpiration from plants. In some
areas of the United States with more frequent rainfall, precipitation can replace
evapotranspiration, eliminating the need for irrigation. However, in other areas of the
country, such as the arid Southwest, the gap in the evapotranspiration needs of plants and
precipitation can be significant, and irrigation water may need to be applied. Figure 1
shows a map of the United States illustrating the average difference in inches per year of
precipitation and evapotranspiration from 1981 to 2022. Blue areas are areas where
precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. Darker orange and red areas show where
annual evapotranspiration more substantially exceeds precipitation and, therefore,
irrigation maybe needed within landscaped areas.

Figure 1. Average Annual Potential Water Deficit (Precipitation Minus Reference
Evapotranspiration in Inches) in the U.S. from 1981 to 20221

1 Climate Engine. 2023. Desert Research Institute and University of Idaho. Accessed on August 8, 2023.

https://cl.imateengine.org/. version 2.1.

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The difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration is not the only thing that will
impact whether or not a landscape may need irrigation. Landscape design, soil
conditions, plant choice, and maintenance all affect the amount of water a landscape will

A well-designed landscape should be supported by healthy soils with appropriate grading,
mulches, regionally appropriate plant choices, appropriately-sized turf areas, and
hydrozones. Consider the following information for a well-designed landscape:

•	Healthy soils allow water to infiltrate properly and hold onto it longer, allowing the
development of healthy plant root systems. Soil should be viewed as a living part of
the landscape and can be maintained with a combination of aeration and applying
compost or mulch to help the soil retain its nutrients while supporting plant growth.

•	Mulches on landscaped beds and around trees can help keep soils cool and
minimize evaporation. If organic mulches such as wood chips or shredded leaves
are used, they can add nutrients to the soil as they decompose.

•	Appropriately graded sites
with gentle slopes allow
water to infiltrate the soil
where it is applied. Water is
therefore available to the root
zone of the plants, instead of
becoming runoff.

•	Trees and shady areas
incorporated into the
landscape help to dissipate
heat and reduce evaporation.

•	It is possible in many parts of the country to design a landscape that does not
require irrigation. A plant palette consisting of drought-tolerant, native, or
regionally-appropriate species lays a solid foundation for a water-efficient
landscape, reducing water requirements, as well as the time and cost associated
with maintaining the landscape.

•	A smaller turf area can reduce resources and costs associated with watering,
mowing, fertilizing, and removing debris. The use of turfgrass in the landscape
should serve a specific functional purpose, such as recreational spaces.

•	Hydrozoning, or grouping plants according to their water needs, will promote
efficient irrigation in those zones that require supplemental water.

•	If a water feature (e.g., pond or ornamental pool} is included in a landscape, it
should provide a beneficial use, such as a wildlife habitat or stormwater
management. In addition, the feature should recirculate water instead of serving in
a single-pass capacity, which can waste significant amounts of water.

Turf areas replaced with plantings

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WaterSense at Work


• Irrigation system efficiency is another important factor that affects landscape
water use. For information on efficient landscape irrigation systems, refer to
WaterSense at Work Section 5.2: Irrigation at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-

WaterSense offers tips for maintaining an
aesthetically pleasing landscape while
reducing—or eliminating entirely—the need for
irrigation. Where irrigation is still necessary,
WaterSense labels products and professional
certification programs to make it easier to design
and maintain a more efficient system. Learn
more on the WaterSense Outdoors web page at

Many of the actions that can be taken to improve
a landscape's water efficiency can have the co-
benefit of reducing stormwater runoff. EPA's
Green Infrastructure program (found at
www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure) focuses on
solutions to reduce runoff, such as rain gardens
and permeable pavements. Building owners and
facility managers should research local
stormwater programs, as many local water
utilities or municipal governments offer
incentives or other technical assistance related
to green infrastructure practices that reduce
stormwater runoff while also improving
landscape water efficiency.

Additional EPA Resources

In addition to WaterSense, EPA has
other programs that address the
intersection of water management,
efficiency, and landscape design.

EPA's Green Infrastructure program
encourages stormwater management
practices to help improve the quality
and reduce the quantity of stormwater
runoff during rain, snow, and other
precipitation. Learn more on EPA's
Green Infrastructure web page at

EPA's Nonpoint Source Program has
resources to encourage low-impact
development practices that look to
manage stormwater by preserving or
recreating natural landscapes that
better absorb water and reduce runoff
during storms. Learn more at

Because commercial and institutional buildings are also part of a community, owners and
operators should consider how they can develop and maintain sustainable landscapes
that serve to beautify the community and provide other benefits, such as reducing the
urban heat island effect, improving air quality, and providing habitat.

Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

To optimize a landscape's water efficiency, look for a landscape professional who has a
demonstrated knowledge of water-efficient landscape design and maintenance practices.
Be sure to maintain the quality of soil and existing plants, and minimize water used for
other purposes with respect to the overall landscape design.

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Hiring a Landscape Professional

When selecting or employing a landscape professional or firm, consider the following
management strategies:

•	Consider selecting landscape professionals trained and certified in water-efficient
or climate-appropriate landscaping. Existing professionals can attend courses or
seminars to learn water-efficient techniques.

•	Regularly review all landscape service and maintenance agreements to incorporate
requirements, standards, and/or performance targets pertaining to water
efficiency, energy efficiency, and use of fertilizer, herbicides, and pesticides.

•	Encourage landscape professionals to report and/or fix irrigation system problems.
Many landscape professionals not only install and maintain plants in your
landscape, but also install and maintain the irrigation system. These professionals
can identify and report leaks or other inefficiencies over time.

Maintaining Soil Quality

Consider the following maintenance tactics to ensure healthy soil quality:

•	Maintain a sufficient quantity of good topsoil—four to six inches deep—to capture
precipitation as it falls. Healthy soils can hold onto infiltrated water for longer
periods of time, making water more available for plants and reducing irrigation

•	Consider incorporating soil amendments into water-logged or fast-draining soils to
attain proper soil water holding capacity. For soils with poor drainage (i.e., clay
soils) or soils that drain too quickly (i.e., sandy soils), consider incorporating topsoil
or compost to balance soil composition and restore nutrients.

•	For areas that undergo regular foot or vehicular traffic, aerate the soil annually to
alleviate compaction and improve water infiltration rates.

•	Add approximately 3 inches of mulch to plant beds and around trees to cover bare
soil. Mulch helps retain water by minimizing evaporation, reducing weed growth,
moderating soil temperatures, and preventing erosion. Re-mulch areas annually to
maintain soil coverage.

Remember that soil and dirt are not the same thing—soil has organic matter, living
organisms, and nutrients that work together to promote healthy plants. To learn more
about the health of a property's soil, consult with the local U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) or University Cooperative Extension Service, which can recommend soil tests that
analyze pH and nutrient levels and identify the soil texture. Extension services can often

November 2023


WaterSense at Work


recommend strategies to improve the soil's ability to support plants and retain water. The
USDA website can help you find your local cooperative extension office.2

Maintaining Existing Plants

When maintaining existing plants, consider the following water-efficient tips:

•	Keep the irrigated landscape free of weeds so that water is available for the
decorative landscaping. Pull weeds manually instead of using herbicides, which
can contaminate local water sources.

•	Allow grass to grow 2 to 3 inches tall before cutting it. Raise the blade on mowers to
allow grass to grow longer. Longer grass promotes deeper root growth and more
drought-resistant turf.

•	Some species of turfgrass go
dormant during dry periods.

Consider letting the grass turn
brown during these times. It will
recover when rainfall returns.

•	Include shaded areas that dissipate
heat and reduce evaporation.

Consider planting additional trees
and shrubbery to increase the
amount of shaded area in the future

Minimizing Water Used for Other Purposes

To minimize the amount of water used for other outdoor-related purposes, consider the

•	Recirculate water in decorative fountains, ponds, and waterfalls. Shut off these
features when possible to reduce evaporation losses. Check water recirculation
systems annually for leaks and other damage. Consider using non-potable water in
these systems (refer to WaterSense at Work Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water
Sources at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-management-practices for additional

•	Do not use water to clean sidewalks, driveways, parking lots, tennis courts, pool
decks, or other hardscapes. Sweep these areas instead. If sweeping large areas is
impractical, use a water-efficient water broom instead of a traditional hose and

2 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). College Partners Directory, www.nifa.usda.gov/lanri-grant-
colleges-and-universities-partner-website-riirectory?state=AU&fielri man filter value= Extension.

Dormant turfgrass

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WaterSense at Work


nozzle. Select water brooms that use less than or equal to 0.10 gallons per minute
per linear inch of spray area.

Retrofit and Replacement Options

Many of the actions that might be undertaken to retrofit or replace a landscape are similar,
so consider undertaking a transformation project to create a water-efficient and
sustainable landscape. The goals for either retrofitting or replacing landscaping should be
to hold water in the soil rather than allowing it to run offsite and reduce the need for
irrigation while maintaining an aesthetic appearance. Differences in practices and options
are primarily those of scale. Additionally, take into consideration other benefits that the
landscape can provide for your business and community (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Benefits Offered by Water-Efficient, Sustainable Landscapes3

Being in
nature makes
people happy
and reduces
stress levels.

Climate-appropriate plants
and efficient irrigation
save water, energy, and
maintenance time.

Trees provide
shade and cool the
air, reducing urban

Urban green
space improves
and habitat

Rain gardens reduce and

slow storm flows, helping
to prevent flooding and
improve water quality.

Healthy soils
help store water
and nutrients
for later.

Healthy soils help
combat climate change
by sequestering


Because replacing a commercial or institutional landscape can be expensive, it is
important to ensure that the landscape is properly designed from the start. Consider hiring
a licensed landscape architect or a qualified site planner/designer to assist. Local
botanical gardens and cooperative extension offices may also have information on how to
design a landscape that is beautiful, functional, and water-efficient.4 For example, the
Conservation Garden Park developed by the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District in

3	Abraham, Sonali, et a I. August 2020. Sustainable Landscapes in California: A Guidebook for Commercial
and Industrial Site Managers. Prepared for the Pacific Institute. https://pacinst.org/publication/sustainable-

4	USDA, op. cit.

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WaterSense at Work


West Jordan, Utah, has a wealth of Information and virtual tours demonstrating water-
smart landscaping provide trips to residents in the area.5 In fact, many WaterSense
partners offer smart landscape tours or demonstration gardens with water-efficient design
and native plants.6

Because your landscape may have been designed years or even decades in the past,
consider how the local climate and weather patterns may have changed. Is your area
subject to more frequent, long-lasting, and intense periods of heat or drought? Is it subject
to more frequent and intense rain events that create flooding? If so, the landscape may
need to be redesigned to respond to these changes.

•	Some local jurisdictions and states are implementing restrictions on non-
functional turfgrass to manage water demand. But even where there are no local
requirements, it makes sense to use turfgrass only in areas where it serves a
beneficial purpose. Even golf courses are replacing turfgrass with other plantings in
areas that are out of play. To evaluate your property, walk the landscape and
identify areas where it may be best to
replace turfgrass because of
maintenance challenges or issues
ensuring efficient irrigation. For
example, it may be better to avoid
turfgrass in islands within parking lots,
park strips between the road and
sidewalk, and strips alongside

•	In areas where there is risk of wildfire, consider integrating defensible spaces that
will improve resilience to wildfire.7 Defensible space is the area between a building
and the surrounding vegetation.

•	If stormwater or urban runoff is a challenge on the site, consider low-impact
development and green infrastructure options to hold or filter water on the site,
reduce hard surfaces, and minimize stormwater runoff.8

Site Preparation

How the site is prepared has a significant impact on the ability for the landscape to retain
moisture and limit the need for irrigation. Before retrofitting, replacing, or installing a new
landscape, consider the following site preparation tips:

5	Conservation Garden Park. Landscaping Help. https://conservationgardenpark.org/Landscapinghelp.

6	To find a local WaterSense partner that may have water-efficient landscape tours or demonstration
gardens, visit www.epa.gov/watersense/partners-directory.

7	Cal Fire. Prepare for Wildfire, www.readyforwildfire.org/prepare-for-wildfire/get-ready/defensible-space/.

8	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urban Runoff: Low Impact Development.


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WaterSense at Work


•	To the extent feasible, limit the removal of native vegetation and soils.

•	Minimize soil compaction in the construction phase by limiting areas that require
heavy equipment.

•	Install temporary protective fencing around trees to protect their root zones.

•	Reduce runoff from steep slopes in the landscape by either grading appropriately or
terracing. If slopes cannot be avoided in landscape design, install plants with
deeper root zones to provide stabilization and prevent erosion.

•	Before the landscape is installed, ensure that the soil is properly amended, tilled,
and contoured to hold water. Where turfgrass is used, the area should include at
least 6 inches of well-amended soil capable of easily absorbing and holding water
in the root zone.

Plant Selection

Plant selection can make all the difference in a water-efficient landscape. Consider the
following when redesigning a landscape:

•	Evaluate site conditions and plant
appropriately. Areas of the same site
may vary significantly in soil type or
exposure to sun and wind, as well as
evaporation rates and moisture levels.

Be mindful of a site's exposure to the
elements and choose plants that will
thrive in those conditions.

•	When replanting landscaped areas,
select drought-tolerant or regionally
appropriate turfgrass, trees, shrubs, and
ground cover that are adapted to the	Climate appropriate plants
local climate. Information about

climate-appropriate plants may be available through your local cooperative
extension office9 or on the WaterSense website.10'11 To provide multiple benefits,
consider plants that can serve as habitat for pollinators and other wildlife.

•	Incorporate shade trees into your landscape. Shaded areas typically require less
water than areas exposed to direct sun. Additionally, shade trees and other
vegetation placed strategically to shade the south-facing wall of a building can
eventually help to reduce energy costs. When selecting trees, which have a long life

9	USDA, op. cit.

10	EPA's WaterSense program. What to Plant, www.epa.gov/watersense/what-plant.

11	EPA's WaterSense program. Turfgrass and Water Efficiency, www.epa.gov/watersense/turfgrass-and-

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WaterSense at Work


relative to other plants in the landscape, consider how anticipated changes in local
climate may impact the ability of different tree species to thrive. Select species that
can tolerate the expected changes.

•	Consider reducing the area of turfgrass in the landscape, as most turf requires
more water than planted beds. Plant turfgrass where it will be used for activities
such as recreation. Where turfgrass is used, select species that are climate-
appropriate and more resilient to drought.12

•	Use mulch in planted beds to
minimize evaporation and use drip
irrigation as an alternative to spay

•	Consider installing rain gardens
throughout the landscape. These
excavated, shallow depressions
should include native plantings
designed to capture rainwater
runoff from roofs, driveways, and
sidewalks. These gardens can keep
water on the property and reduce
runoff volume by up to 90 percent.

Irrigation System Efficiency

Although it is possible in many parts of the country to design a landscape that can thrive
on rainfall alone, some irrigation may be needed to ensure landscape health. There are
many factors that should be taken into account to ensure that an irrigation system is well
designed, operated, and maintained. More detailed information about irrigation systems is
available in WaterSense at Work Section 5.2: Irrigation at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-
management-practices. but following are a few tips:

•	Consider selecting an irrigation professional certified by a WaterSense labeled
program. These professionals have demonstrated their knowledge of how to
design, install, maintain, repair, and/or audit efficient irrigation systems. To find a
local irrigation professional certified by a WaterSense labeled program, visit the
WaterSense Find a Pro web page at www.epa.gov/watersense/find-pro.

•	Use the technique of hydrozoning to group plants with similar irrigation needs

•	Consider how the interplay between the types of plants and irrigation components
can affect the volume of water needed to sustain the landscape. Drip irrigation
(also known as microirrigation) can be a great way to reduce water use in planted

12 Ibid.

Rain garden

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WaterSense at Work


beds. Review WaterSense's guides on microirrigation at

www.epa.gov/watersense/microirrigation to learn more about this irrigation option.

•	EPA's WaterSense Water Budget Tool found at www.epa.gov/watersense/water-
budget-tool can be used as a guide to see how plant types and irrigation methods
affect the ability of a landscape to meet a water budget based on the local climate.
The Water Budget Tool is not intended to estimate actual savings, but it is a tool to
help evaluate the relative water savings that can be achieved with different plant
palette and technology choices.

•	Consider installing a separate meter to
measure the volume of water applied tc
the landscape. Separately metering
irrigation systems can reduce
wastewater costs in some jurisdictions
and can help to identify leaks more
quickly (see WaterSense at Work
Section 2.1: Metering and Submetering
at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-

•	Install WaterSense labeled irrigation
products, such as spray sprinkler
bodies13 and irrigation controllers.14
These products are independently
certified to be more water-efficient and
perform as well or better than standard

•	Consider where alternative water sources can be used as a substitute for potable
water sources for irrigation. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has
developed tools to evaluate rainwater harvesting potential from rooftops or other
hard surfaces.15 Figure 3 on the next page shows areas with potential to use
rainwater for irrigation. EPA's Green Infrastructure program web page at
www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure and WaterSense at Work Section 8: Onsite
Alternative Water Sources at www.epa.gov/watersense/best-management-
practices have additional information.


Look for WaterSense
Labeled Irrigation Products

look for

When designing a new
irrigation system or making
upgrades to improve water
efficiency and performance,
look for the WaterSense
label. A product that has
earned the label uses at
least 20 percent less water than standard
models and is independently certified for
performance. WaterSense labels irrigation
controllers and spray sprinkler bodies.
Facilities can use WaterSense's Product
Search Tool to find labeled models. Go to

to get started.

13	EPA's WaterSense Program. Spray Sprinkler Bodies. www.epa.gov/watersense/spray-sprinkLer-hodies.

14	EPA's WaterSense Program. WaterSense Labeled Controllers, www.epa.gov/watersense/watersense-

15	U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Water-Efficient
Technology Opportunity: Rainwater Harvesting Systems, www.energy.gov/femp/water-efficient-technology-

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WaterSense at Work


Figure 3. Map From FEMP's Rainwater Harvesting Tool16



Torreon Monterrey


Purple areas show locations where there is the highest potential to collect rainwater for irrigation. Light blue

and white areas show where potential is lowest.

Other Features

When planning hardscape retrofits, consider the following to enhance water efficiency:

•	If replacing sidewalks or parking lot pavement, consider installing permeable
surfaces (e.g., permeable pavement) rather than impermeable hardscape.

•	Use bushes, mulch, rain gardens, permeable hardscape, or curb cuts in parking lot
islands or in the areas between sidewalks and the roadway. These should be at a
lower elevation than surrounding hardscape so that runoff flows into them.

•	While water features are common in many landscapes, consider the annual water
use of the specific feature before installing one. Ideally, these features should
provide a beneficial use, such as a wildlife habitat, stormwater management,
and/or noise reduction. Recirculate water within water features to reduce the
amount of potable water used. Smaller pumps, lower pumping rates, and/or
pressure-reducing valves can help reduce water flow. Where feasible, use
alternative water sources to make up water lost to evaporation, and place the
water feature in a shady location with less breeze to limit evaporation.17

16	DOE, FEMP. Rainwater Harvesting Tool. www.energy.gov/femp/rainwater-harvesting-toQL

17	Oppedahl, Rachel. Water-Wise Water Features. Prepared for Tuolumne County Master Gardeners.

https://uGanr.edu/sites/tuolumne county master gardeners/files/148198.pdf.

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WaterSense at Work	Landscaping

Savings Potential

Landscape water use is largely dependent on climate, landscape size, plant type, and an
irrigation system's efficiency. Soil health, grade, and maintenance also play a role. In
order to evaluate landscape improvements and their associated savings, one must first
know how much water is being applied to the landscape. Dedicated irrigation meters or
meters on water feature make-up lines can be used to track landscape water use and
document savings from various measures.

Case Studies and Webinars Demonstrate
Real-World Savings

Additional case studies from WaterSense on
how commercial and institutional building
owners have effectively reduced outdoor
water use can be found at

WaterSense holds regular webinars for
commercial and institutional building
audiences, including a series that focuses on
outdoor water use. Recordings can be found

Savings for converting high water-using
landscapes to low water-using landscapes
vary by plant type and climate. Keep in
mind that calculations for these landscape
transformation projects are property-
specific. For example, the Southern
Nevada Water Authority estimates that a
business in the Las Vegas area would save
825,000 gallons of water per year by
converting a 15,000-square-foot landscape
to water-smart landscaping.18 As part of a
rebate program, the Municipal Water
District of Orange County (California) found
that large commercial properties reduced
their water use by approximately 31 percent by replacing turf with climate-appropriate
landscapes or permeable surfaces.19 The Village at Stone Oak, a shopping mall in San
Antonio, Texas, reduced their water consumption by approximately 60 percent by
converting turf to xeriscape and modifying their irrigation system.20 A more water-efficient
landscape can also provide ancillary benefits in reducing the need for maintenance,
fertilizer application, and fuel use.21

Additional Resources

Abraham, Sonali, et al. August 2020. Sustainable Landscapes in California: A Guidebook
for Commercial and Industrial Site Managers. Prepared for the Pacific Institute.

18	Southern Nevada Water Authority. Water Smart Landscapes Rebate.

19	MunicipaL Water District of Orange County. March 2015. Cll Performance-Based Water Use Efficiency
Program Final Project Report. www.ushr.gov/Lc/socaL/reports/CIIPerformance-BasedWaterUse.pdf.

20	EPA's WaterSense Program. February 2017. "Texas Shopping MaLL Buys Into Outdoor Water Savings."

21	Rosenberg, David E., et aL. June 2011. Value Landscape Engineering: Identifying Costs, Water Use, Labor,
and Impacts to Support Landscape Choice. JournaL of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA).

November 2023	12

WaterSense at Work


Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). January 2019. Landscape Transformation:
Assessment of Water Utility Programs and Market Readiness Evaluation Executive
Summary, www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/impact/our-work/landscape-

AWE. June 2019. Sustainable Landscapes: A Utility Program Guide.



American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). ANSI/ASABE S623.1
Determining Landscape Plant Water Demands.

American Society of Landscape Architects, www.asla.org/.

American Water Works Association. January 2016. National Survey of Commercial,
Industrial, and Institutional Water Efficiency Programs.


Arizona Municipal Water Users Association. Xeriscaping: Landscaping with Style in the
Arizona Desert, www.amwua.org/landscaping-with-style.

Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. April 2013. How-To
Guide: Promoting Sustainable Campus Landscapes.

www.arbnet.org/sites/arbnet/files/sustainable campus landscape guide.pdf.

California Department of Water Resources. September 2022. Recommendations for
Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Outdoor Irrigation of Landscape Areas with
Dedicated Irrigation Meters Water Use Efficiency Standard. https://water.ca.gov/-
Conservation-Legislation/Performance-Measures/CIIDIMWUS STD -WUES-DWR-2021 -
03 COMPLETE.pdf.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts Water Resources Commission. Industrial, Commercial
& Institutional Water Conservation, www.mass.gov/guides/industrial-commercial-

Cooley, Heather, et al. February 2019. Sustainable Landscapes on Commercial and
Industrial Properties in the Santa Ana Watershed. Pacific Institute, CEO Water Mandate,
and CA Fwd. https://pacinst.org/publication/sustainable-landscapes-santa-ana-river/

Denver Water. Xeriscape Plans, www.denverwater.org/residential/rebates-and-

EPA. Green Infrastructure, www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure.

November 2023


WaterSense at Work	Landscaping

EPA's WaterSense program. Case Studies, www.epa.gov/watersense/oase-studies (select
Focus: Outdoor Water Use).

June 2019. "Taking a Bird's Eye View: La Rinconada Country Club Changes Course
and Uses a Drone to Deliver Water Savings."

February 2017. "Texas Shopping Mall Buys Into Outdoor Water Savings."

July 2014. "Office Complex Reduces Outdoor Water Use."

EPA's WaterSense program. Landscaping Tips, www.epa.gov/watersense/landscaping-

EPA's WaterSense program. Microirrigation. www.epa.gov/watersense/microirrigation.

EPA's WaterSense program. Spray Sprinkler Bodies, www.epa.gov/watersense/spray-

EPA's WaterSense program. Water Budget Tool, www.epa.gov/watersense/water-budget-

EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Controllers.

EPA's WaterSense program. October 2021. Water-Smart Landscapes Start with
WaterSense. www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-01/documents/ws-outdoor-water-

EPA's WaterSense program. March 2020. WaterSense-AWE Webinar Recap: Landscape
Transformation Case Studies. www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2020-Q4/documents/ws-
case-studies-march-2020-webinar-recap.pdf. (Recordings and summaries of all
WaterSense webinars can be found at www.epa.gov/watersense/webinars).

Fairfax Water. June 2019. WaterWise Landscaping and Watering Guide.

Maddaus Water Management, Inc. March 2022. Best Management Practices for Improving
Efficiency in Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Water Use: Key Successes and
Challenges in California. Prepared for the California Department of Water Resources.
https://water.ca. gov/-/media/DWR-Website/Web-Pages/Programs/Water-Use-And-

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WaterSense at Work


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November 2023



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United States Environmental Protection Agency

EPA 832-F-23-003
November 2023
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